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NPM THE GUIDE

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In NPM THE GUIDE you will learn how to use npm to install packages and update them. Delve deeper into more command line commands to help speed up workflow and finally use npm in your scripts to utilise npm’s additional features.

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NPM THE GUIDE

  1. 1. NPM THE GUIDE By Kameron Tanseli @kamerontanseli 1
  2. 2. Who is this book for? This book accommodates for beginners however the ideal reader is one who has a working knowledge of the command line and JavaScript as well as Node.js installed. Don’t be put off however if you do not have that much experience as most of the examples in the book are not that hard to follow. 2
  3. 3. Contents 1. Book cover 2. Who is this book for? 3. Contents 4. Npmjs.org description 5. Statistic of how many downloads 6. Installing npm 7. Chapter One 8. Pablo Picasso quote 9. How to install a package 10. How to globally install a package 11. How to uninstall a package 12. Creating package.json and saving packages to it 13. Structure of package.json 14. Install all listed packages 15. How to require packages 16. Chapter two 17. How to update packages 18. Choosing which version 19. Checking what to update 20. Chapter Three 21. Jquery.extend 22. Underscore 23. CoffeeScript 24. Colors 25. Chapter Four 26. Registering up 27. Using npm config ls 28. How to structure a custom package 29. Publishing a package 30. The process of creating 31. Updating custom packages 32. Chapter Five 33. List of all npm commands 34. Useful npm commands - P1 35. Useful npm commands - P2 36. Npm explore 37. Chapter Five 38. Npm.load() 39. Npm.commands 40. Using packages with npm 41. Image of finished script 42. Chapter Seven 43. Statistics of npm 44. What you have learnt 45. Credits 3
  4. 4. “npm makes it easy for JavaScript developers to share and reuse code, and it makes it easy to update the code that you're sharing” - npmjs.org 4
  5. 5. 1,908,826,857 Total number of installs last month at the time of writing this. 5
  6. 6. Installing and updating npm Npm comes with the installation of Node.js. To update npm simple type 6
  7. 7. 1. Using npm ● npm install ● --save ● require( ); 7
  8. 8. “ Good artists copy; great artists steal - Pablo Picasso. 8
  9. 9. npm install Here are 3 easy steps to installing a package: 1. Go to npmjs.org, 2. Search for the package name you want, for e.g: “underscore”. 3. Then simply type on the command line: 9
  10. 10. What if i need it installed everywhere? Add -g to then end of your npm install to make the package globally available! 10
  11. 11. npm uninstall Just use npm uninstall just like npm install to remove a package. To remove a global package just add -g the end of npm uninstall. 11
  12. 12. npm init This command creates a file called ‘package.json’ this holds a list of all your packages installed. npm install --save <p_name> This parameter added to the end of a npm install adds the package name to the package.json. You will need to run npm init before using --save. npm init and --save npm uninstall --save <p_name> This removes the package from the ‘package.json’. 12
  13. 13. package.json Where our packages are installed What version of the package do we need 13
  14. 14. Manually added packages to package.json? Just use npm install without specifying a package name to install all of them! 14
  15. 15. Where to use it? Require is placed inside files that are to be run by Node.js and that “require” a package to work. Require is strictly for the server side code unless you are using Browserify! require( ); How to use it? First we store our required modules in a variable, then we call the require function with the name of our package in the brackets. 15
  16. 16. 2. Updating and checking ● npm update ● npm outdated 16
  17. 17. npm update If you want to update all the packages in package.json simply type npm update. However you can also just add a package name to update a single package. For global packages you just have to reinstall the package globally. 17
  18. 18. Stable This is the safest option as this has no further changes Legacy You might want this if you need to support older libraries Edge This is the latest version and the most unstable as it is new and still being developed. What kind of version of a package do you need? 18
  19. 19. npm outdated Use npm outdated to check whether any packages need to be updated. 19
  20. 20. 3. Libraries to check out ● jQuery.extend ● Underscore ● CoffeeScript ● Colors 20
  21. 21. jQuery.extend Although you may not be able to select DOM elements, jQuery’s useful $. extend() method can easily help to simplify inheritance on the server side. npm install jquery.extend Extending objects for inheritance. It only offers one method. 21
  22. 22. Underscore The npm package explains this perfectly. Underscore.js is a utility-belt library for JavaScript that provides support for the usual functional suspects (each, map, reduce, filter...) without extending any core JavaScript objects. npm install underscore Offers a full library of useful functions. Do you really need all of them? 22
  23. 23. CoffeeScript CoffeeScript is a language that compiles into JavaScript, it’s syntax follows that of a mix of Ruby and Python. CoffeeScript is an attempt to expose the good parts of JavaScript in a simple way. Example: npm install coffee-script More readable and cleaner than JS. Debugging is a pain. 23
  24. 24. Colors Add coloured text to your Node.js console. npm install colors YOU GET COLOURS! Nothing colours rule. 24
  25. 25. 4. Publishing your own package ● npm adduser ● npm publish ● npm unpublish 25
  26. 26. npm adduser To add a package we need to create an account. We can do this easily with npm adduser. You should see the fields outputted when ran: ■ Username ■ email ■ password Fill out the fields and continue, you should now be registered. 26
  27. 27. use npm config ls to check whether your credentials are saved on your system. 27
  28. 28. Simple package - Default file name “index.js” Requiring it after publishing 28
  29. 29. Publishing npm init Run npm init to create a package.json file, remember to add any dependencies you installed as you made the package. Publishing After setting up the package. json simply type npm publish ./ this will publish the package in the current directory to npmjs.org. 29
  30. 30. npm adduser npm init npm publish The process is simple 30
  31. 31. Updating the package Version npm will reject an update with the same version code as the published package, so remember to change the version code. npm publish again As your credentials are saved on your system you do not need to relogin, so to publish the update simply run the npm publish command. 31
  32. 32. 5. Extra npm commands ● npm view ● npm root ● npm search ● npm help-search ● ... 32
  33. 33. List of all npm commands ● access ● adduser ● bin ● bugs ● build ● bundle ● cache ● completion ● config ● dedupe ● deprecate ● dist-tag ● docs ● edit ● explore ● help ● help-search ● init ● install ● link ● logout ● ls ● npm ● outdated ● owner ● pack ● ping ● prefix ● prune ● publish ● rebuild ● repo ● restart ● rm ● root ● run-script ● search ● shrinkwrap ● star ● stars ● start ● stop ● tag ● test ● uninstall ● unpublish ● update ● version ● view ● whoami Dont panic you don’t need to use around 70%! 33
  34. 34. Helpful npm commands npm view This command shows data about a package and prints it to the console. npm search Search npm to check whether a package exists. npm root Displays the path in the directory to the node_modules folder. ● npm view <p_name> ● npm search <p_name> ● npm root 34
  35. 35. Helpful npm commands - part 2 npm edit This opens the selected package in your default editor, after saving npm rebuilds the package. npm docs This command tries to guess at the likely location of a package's documentation URL, and then tries to open it in the browser. npm ls Prints out all the packages installed as well as their dependencies in a tree like structure. ● npm edit <p_name> ● npm docs ● npm ls 35
  36. 36. npm explore <p_name> This command will open a subdirectory in the command line to the package in the node_modules folder. Super useful! 36
  37. 37. 6. Programming with npm ● npm.commands ● npm.load 37
  38. 38. Setting up our script We will call our file “test.js”, then require the “npm” module. First we must load our environment, we can do this via npm.load(). The method takes 2 parameters a configuration object and a callback when npm is ready. 38
  39. 39. Calling commands Inside npm.load’s callback we can use npm. commands to execute some command line methods. For example we will use the npm ls method to list out all our packages. 39
  40. 40. Using other packages in conjunction We will use the prompt package to allow user input. To install it run npm install prompt, then require it in our test.js. We use prompt.start() to start prompting, then we run prompt.get() and pass in an array with our field names (the use of “_” will result in a space in the command line) and a callback with the parameters err and result. Our results are stored in the result object, to access them use the same name in your array as a property. For e.g: [“package_name”] will equal results.package_name .Then we substitute our field (“package_name”) into npm.commands.explore. Full size image next page. 40
  41. 41. test.js with the prompt package integrated (top), program running in cmd (bottom). 41
  42. 42. 7. END ● Credits 42
  43. 43. 170, 699 That’s a lot of packages 100% Guaranteed to speed up your workflow Around 30k installs a day And a lot of updates 43
  44. 44. Let’s review what you learnt Install and uninstall You learnt how to use npm install, npm uninstall, the --save and -g param and the structure of package.json. Updating and checking You learnt how to update packages locally and globally as well as how to update all packages. You also learnt how to check if updates are needed using npm outdated. Some libraries You learnt about the positives and negatives of using certain packages and how to install them. Publishing your own package You learnt how to write a basic package and how to upload it to the npm registry. You also learnt how to update the package and what requirements must be met before updating. Extra npm commands You learnt some useful npm commands to help speed up your workflow. Programming with npm You learnt how to require npm and use it in an example project to explore files. 44
  45. 45. Credits Special thanks to all the people who made and released these awesome resources for free: ■ Design by SlidesCarnival 45
  46. 46. Blurb Learn how to use npm to install packages and update them. Delve deeper into more command line commands to help speed up workflow and finally use npm in your scripts to utilise npm’s additional features. 46

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