Primitive humans used natural resources to satisfy their basic needs of air, water, food and shelter. residues produced by the use of these resources were generally compatible with or easily assimilated by the environment.
Primitive humans used natural resources to satisfy
their basic needs
Resources were readily available in the biosphere, and
the residues produced were easily assimilated by the
Development - associated with more and more
exploitation of various natural resources
Sustainable development is development that meets
the needs of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Environmental Management Tools
Assist decision makers to improve the environmental
outcomes of their management decisions.
Helps to control human impact on and interaction with
EIA, Environmental Audit, Life Cycle Analysis,
Environmental Economics etc.
Ensuring optimal use of natural resources for
EIA – an Introduction
Management tool to minimize adverse impacts of
developmental projects on the environment and to
achieve sustainable development through timely,
adequate, corrective and protective mitigation measures
Exercise to be carried out before any project is
undertaken & any major activity or plan is executed
UNEP defines EIA as ‘a tool used to identify the
environmental, social and economic impacts of a project
prior to decision-making’.
EIA - timeline
EIA or EIS – term origin in USA after passing the National
Environmental Policy Act in 1970
In India, 1978-79 - initially for river valley project
Now mandatory for 30 categories of developmental activities
EPA, 1986 – Landmark legislation for EIA
MoEF&CC, GoI vide its notification of 27th January 1994 - list
of developmental activities which will need EIA clearance
EIA notification on 1997, made public hearing mandatory
Amendments in the EIA Notification, 2006 dated 01.07.2006
related to environmental clearance for minor minerals &
environment clearance for leases in cluster
Objectives of EIA
• To predict environmental impacts at an early stage in project
planning and design
• To find ways and means to reduce adverse impacts
• Shape projects to suit the local environment and present the
predictions and options to decision-makers.
• Ensuring optimal use of natural resources for sustainable
• Improve decision on development by increasing the quality &
Scope of information
Purposes of EIA
To inform a consenting or licensing decision
To identify mitigation measures which will minimize any
possible environmental impacts
‘’Decisions are actually shaped not taken’’
To helps in achieving economic benefits: reduced cost and
time of project implementation and design, avoided
LIST OF PROJECTS REQUIRING ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE
1. Nuclear Power & related projects such as Heavy Water Plants, nuclear fuel complex, Rare
2. River Valley projects including hydel power, major Irrigation & their combination including
3. Ports, Harbours, Airports (except minor ports and harbours)
4. Petroleum Refineries including crude and product pipelines.
5. Chemical Fertilizers (Nitrogenous and Phosphatic other than single superphosphate).
6. Pesticides (Technical).
7. Petrochemical complexes
8. Bulk drugs and pharmaceuticals.
9. Exploration for oil and gas and their production, transportation and storage.
10. Synthetic Rubber.
11. Asbestos and Asbestos products.
12. Hydrocyanic acid and its derivatives.
13. (a)Primary metallurgical industries (such as production of Iron and Steel, Aluminium,
Copper, Zinc, Lead and Ferro Alloys). (b)Electric arc furnaces (Mini Steel Plants).
14. Chlor alkali industry.
15. Integrated paint complex including manufacture of resins and basic raw materials
required in the manufacture of paints.
16. Viscose Staple fibre and filament yarn
17. Storage batteries integrated with manufacture of oxides of lead and lead antimony
18. All tourism projects between 200m�500 metres of High Water Line and at locations
with an elevation of more than 1000 metres with investment of more than Rs.5 crores.
19. Thermal Power Plants.
20. Mining projects *(major minerals)* with leases more than 5 hectares.
21. Highway Projects
22. Tarred Roads in the Himalayas and or Forest areas.
24. Raw Skins and Hides
25. Pulp, paper and newsprint.
28. Foundries (individual)
30. Meta amino phenol
SOURCE: MoEF, NOTIFICATION, New Delhi, the 27th January, 1994
(As amended on 04/05/1994, 10/04/1997, 27/1/2000 and 13/12/2000)
Types of EC based on Project category
Activities shall require prior environmental clearance from the Central Government in the
Require EC from State level the State Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA)
- based on the spatial extent of potential impacts and
potential impacts on human health and natural and man made resources.
TYPES/CATEGORY TYPE A TYPE B
River Valley projects > 50 MW hydroelectric
< 50 MW hydroelectric
Atomic NPP const. All projects
WWTP const. All projects
General conditions in Project categorization
Any project or activity specified in Category ‘B’ will be treated as Category A, if
located in whole or in part within 10 km from the boundary of:
(i) Protected Areas notified under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972,
(ii) Critically Polluted areas as notified by the CPCB from time to time,
(iii) Notified Eco-sensitive areas,
(iv) inter-State boundaries and international boundaries.
Project management authority should get EC, before starting of any construction
work, or preparation of land
IAA, New Delhi
For implementation of EIA notification at Central level
6 regional offices - Shillong, Bhubaneshwar, Chandigarh,
Bangalore, Lucknow & Bhopal.
A view of online portal
A view of online portal of
SEIAA, Govt. of Maharashtra
Time frame of EIA
• IAA team does a technical assessment and gives its
recommendations within 90 days.
• Regulatory authority shall consider the
recommendations and convey its decision to the
applicant within 45 days.
Expert Committees have been
constituted for the following sectors:
1. Mining Projects
2. Industrial Projects
3. Thermal Power Projects
4. River Valley, Multipurpose,
Irrigation & H.E. Projects
5. Infrastructure Development
& Miscellaneous Projects
6. Nuclear Power Projects
• i. Eco-system Management
• ii. Air/Water Pollution Control
• iii. Water Resource Management
• iv. Flora/Fauna conservation and management
• v. Land Use Planning
• vi. Social Sciences/Rehabilitation
• vii. Project Appraisal
• viii. Ecology ix. Environmental Health
• x. Subject Area Specialists
• xi. Representatives of NGOs/persons concerned with
• environmental issues.
The Membership of a Committee shall not exceed 15.
The Committees will consist of experts in the following disciplines:
Category ‘B’ projects
Scrutiny by SEAC based on the nature
and location specificity of the project
Category ‘B1’ Category ‘B2’
(Requiring an Environmental Impact
Scoping is a stage, usually involving the public and other interested parties, that
identifies the key environmental issues that should be addressed in an EIA.
Preparing the Terms of Reference: Project description, Boundary for impact
assessment, budget etc…
3. Public Consultation
Refers to the process by which the concerns of local affected
persons and others who have probable stake in the environmental
impacts of the project or activity are consulted
Two components comprising of:-
(a) a public hearing at the site or in its close proximity
(b) obtain responses in writing from other concerned persons
4. Impact analysis
Rapid EIA – using the readily available data
Comprehensive EIA - also uses inputs from the rapid
EIA. Other steps involved are: identification,
prediction, evaluation of the possible environmental
5. Mitigative Measures
It comprises of a strategy devised to prevent, reduce and
compensate the impacts of the project.
The predicted impact of highways construction in the particular area
nearby schools and hospitals can be mitigated by the development of
Vegetative noise barriers.
Appraisal means the detailed scrutiny of the Final EIA
report, outcome of the public consultations including public
hearing proceedings, submitted by the applicant to the
regulatory authority concerned for grant of environmental
clearance by the EAC.
The decision may be accompanied by certain conditions that
must be fulfilled, such as posting a reclamation bond or filing
an Environmental Management Plan
Environmental Management Plan (EMP)
This contains details of the management measures to be adopted.
It narrates the key agencies/persons which would be responsible for the
implementation of the plan. It also includes Disaster Management Plan.
Monitoring is an important part of project implementation.
Monitoring serves three purposes:
(1) ensuring that required mitigation measures are being
(2) evaluating whether mitigation measures are working
(3) validating the accuracy of models or projections that were
used during the impact assessment process.
7. Project Implementation
Provided all regulatory requirements are met and permits are obtained
EIA in Indian Aquaculture
Coastal aquaculture units above 40 ha size – from planning
For 10 ha and above a statement will be required to be given in
the detailed plans.
The District/ State Level Committees set up by the CAA should
ensure that such an EIA has been carried out by the
aquaculture units before their proposal is recommended for
monitoring and Environment
Impact on the water courses in the vicinity;
Impact on ground water quality;
Impact on drinking water sources;
Impact on agricultural activity;
Impact on soil and soil salinisation;
Waste water treatment;
Green belt development (as per specifications of the local authorities) and
All farms of 10 ha and more but less than 40 ha shall furnish detailed
the aforesaid aspects.
The shrimp culture units with a net water area of 40 ha or more shall incorporate an
BENEFITS OF EIA
Helps in planning the efficient use of human and
natural resources (mass and material)
Reduce costs and time taken to reach a decision by
ensuring that subjectivity and duplication of efforts are
Identifies the primary and secondary consequences,
which might require the introduction of expensive
pollution control measures
If a forecast of likely impacts is available, allowances
can be made to minimize the negative impacts.
Identify the areas most susceptible to adverse impacts
and so guide site selection.
EIA can aid the most suitable site in terms of benefit
maximization and reduction of harmful effects.
LIMITATIONS OF EIA
Poor availability and reliability of data
Insufficient training/education in EIA methodologies and in
the establishment of appropriate legal and regulatory
frameworks and institutional arrangement
Negligence of beneficial effects in EIA reports
Lack of consideration of alternative sites, technologies,
designs and strategies
Insufficient involvement and participation of all interested
and affected parties
Insufficient emphasis on required cost effectiveness of EIA
Lack of follow up monitoring and evaluation
Inappropriate recommendations – mitigation/adaptation
measures which are not affordable or feasible in terms of
Poor presentation of EIA results
‘’A Management tool for evaluation of the performance of
organization, management systems etc.’’
Conducted in a systematic ,documented, periodic & in a
objective evaluation manner.
Used to determine past, present, and future environmental
impacts of a site.
Assessing an organization's activities and services .
History of EA
Origin in US (1970)
Introduced to UK later.
Developed for industries.
Extended to commercial establishments, office complexes etc.
The concept of environmental auditing in industrial units in India was
formally introduced in March 1992
Overall objective is to minimize the consumption of resources and
promoting use of clean technologies in industrial production to
minimize generation of wastes
Identify site contamination
Reduce potential environmental liability
Basis for further investigation
Initial step to site remediation
Meet regulatory requirements
Forms of Auditing
INTERNAL AUDITING- company or firm
Policy impact assessment.
External auditing agency
Types of EA
1. Compliance audit
envt laws, stds & guidelines
2. Envt. mgt. audits
internal mgt systems,corporate policies, & risks
3. Supplier audits
Performance of partners
4. Procurement audits
Raw material procurements etc.
5. Waste Minimization audit
6. Energy/Water conservation audit
Phases of Environmental Audit
Pre audit activities
Develop an audit plan
Make necessary preparations & arrangements
On site activities
Achieve the audit objectives.
Post audit activities
1. Produce audit report with findings & recommendations.
2. Contribute towards formulations of an action plan for
Step 1: Schedule the Audit
An Environmental Management Representative (EMR) should
schedule audits at an appropriate risk-based frequency.
Environmental managers can determine how frequently the
audit should be performed through consultation with relevant
Government Agencies and/or a review of specific project
When scheduling the audit, EMRs should coordinate the timing
to minimize disruptions to project operations.
They also need to record the audit in each Environmental
Management Plan (EMP) using the appropriate template from
their Environmental Management Systems (EMS) manual.
Step 2: Plan the Audit
• To plan the audit, the EMR needs to establish and
document the Area/Contractor to be audited, the
reason and scope of the audit, and the contact
names for the Area/Contractor.
• The EMR must also appoint and notify a qualified
Lead Auditor or audit members, if required. If
warranted, the EMR can appoint his or herself as
the Lead Auditor.
Step 3: Conduct the Audit
All relevant personnel in the Audit Team should
meet to discuss the scope of the audit, the
proposed audit agenda, the audit objectives, any
project personnel that need to be contacted or
interviewed, and a tentative time to hold the exit
Step 4: Follw-up
• The audit team needs to prepare a report based on all
the objective evidence that was collected during the
• This report must be forwarded to the Contractor
within 2 days of completion of the audit. The final
report must be distributed to the Auditor, Contractor,
Independent Reviewer and Environmental Auditor,
the State, and all other relevant personnel.
Step 4: Develop an Audit
Benefits of EA
I. Development of EMS
II. Improvement of environmental performance
III. Increase management & employee awareness
of envt. issues.
IV. Increases sharing of information
V. Cost saving & improved efficiency
I. Disrupts operations of company
II. Negative consequences for company’s
III. Cost involved beared by company or