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Environment management Tools : EIA & Environmetal Audit


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Deals with the imp. envt. management tools like EIA and Environmental Audit history, objectives, steps and importance.

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Environment management Tools : EIA & Environmetal Audit

  1. 1. Envt. Management Tools: EIA & Envt. Audit Kantharajan G Ph.D Scholar, AEHM Division ICAR - CIFE
  2. 2. Environment  Development  Primitive humans used natural resources to satisfy their basic needs  Resources were readily available in the biosphere, and the residues produced were easily assimilated by the environment  Development - associated with more and more exploitation of various natural resources  Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
  3. 3. Environmental Management Tools  Assist decision makers to improve the environmental outcomes of their management decisions.  Helps to control human impact on and interaction with the environment  EIA, Environmental Audit, Life Cycle Analysis, Environmental Economics etc.  Ensuring optimal use of natural resources for sustainable development
  4. 4. EIA – an Introduction Management tool to minimize adverse impacts of developmental projects on the environment and to achieve sustainable development through timely, adequate, corrective and protective mitigation measures Exercise to be carried out before any project is undertaken & any major activity or plan is executed UNEP defines EIA as ‘a tool used to identify the environmental, social and economic impacts of a project prior to decision-making’.
  5. 5. EIA - timeline  EIA or EIS – term origin in USA after passing the National Environmental Policy Act in 1970  In India, 1978-79 - initially for river valley project  Now mandatory for 30 categories of developmental activities  EPA, 1986 – Landmark legislation for EIA  MoEF&CC, GoI vide its notification of 27th January 1994 - list of developmental activities which will need EIA clearance  EIA notification on 1997, made public hearing mandatory  Amendments in the EIA Notification, 2006 dated 01.07.2006 related to environmental clearance for minor minerals & environment clearance for leases in cluster
  6. 6. Objectives of EIA • To predict environmental impacts at an early stage in project planning and design • To find ways and means to reduce adverse impacts • Shape projects to suit the local environment and present the predictions and options to decision-makers. • Ensuring optimal use of natural resources for sustainable development • Improve decision on development by increasing the quality & Scope of information
  7. 7. Purposes of EIA  To inform a consenting or licensing decision  To identify mitigation measures which will minimize any possible environmental impacts ‘’Decisions are actually shaped not taken’’  To helps in achieving economic benefits: reduced cost and time of project implementation and design, avoided treatment/clean-up costs
  8. 8. LIST OF PROJECTS REQUIRING ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCE 1. Nuclear Power & related projects such as Heavy Water Plants, nuclear fuel complex, Rare Earths. 2. River Valley projects including hydel power, major Irrigation & their combination including flood control. 3. Ports, Harbours, Airports (except minor ports and harbours) 4. Petroleum Refineries including crude and product pipelines. 5. Chemical Fertilizers (Nitrogenous and Phosphatic other than single superphosphate). 6. Pesticides (Technical). 7. Petrochemical complexes 8. Bulk drugs and pharmaceuticals. 9. Exploration for oil and gas and their production, transportation and storage. 10. Synthetic Rubber. 11. Asbestos and Asbestos products. 12. Hydrocyanic acid and its derivatives. 13. (a)Primary metallurgical industries (such as production of Iron and Steel, Aluminium, Copper, Zinc, Lead and Ferro Alloys). (b)Electric arc furnaces (Mini Steel Plants). 14. Chlor alkali industry. 15. Integrated paint complex including manufacture of resins and basic raw materials required in the manufacture of paints.
  9. 9. 16. Viscose Staple fibre and filament yarn 17. Storage batteries integrated with manufacture of oxides of lead and lead antimony alloys. 18. All tourism projects between 200m�500 metres of High Water Line and at locations with an elevation of more than 1000 metres with investment of more than Rs.5 crores. 19. Thermal Power Plants. 20. Mining projects *(major minerals)* with leases more than 5 hectares. 21. Highway Projects 22. Tarred Roads in the Himalayas and or Forest areas. 23. Distilleries. 24. Raw Skins and Hides 25. Pulp, paper and newsprint. 26. Dyes. 27. Cement. 28. Foundries (individual) 29. Electroplating 30. Meta amino phenol Contd… SOURCE: MoEF, NOTIFICATION, New Delhi, the 27th January, 1994 (As amended on 04/05/1994, 10/04/1997, 27/1/2000 and 13/12/2000)
  10. 10. Types of EC based on Project category Category ‘A’ Activities shall require prior environmental clearance from the Central Government in the MoEF&CC Category ‘B’ Require EC from State level the State Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA) - based on the spatial extent of potential impacts and potential impacts on human health and natural and man made resources. TYPES/CATEGORY TYPE A TYPE B River Valley projects > 50 MW hydroelectric power generation < 50 MW hydroelectric power generation Atomic NPP const. All projects WWTP const. All projects
  11. 11. General conditions in Project categorization Any project or activity specified in Category ‘B’ will be treated as Category A, if located in whole or in part within 10 km from the boundary of: (i) Protected Areas notified under the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972, (ii) Critically Polluted areas as notified by the CPCB from time to time, (iii) Notified Eco-sensitive areas, (iv) inter-State boundaries and international boundaries. Project management authority should get EC, before starting of any construction work, or preparation of land
  12. 12. IAA, New Delhi  For implementation of EIA notification at Central level  6 regional offices - Shillong, Bhubaneshwar, Chandigarh, Bangalore, Lucknow & Bhopal. A view of online portal
  13. 13. A view of online portal of SEIAA, Govt. of Maharashtra
  14. 14. Time frame of EIA • IAA team does a technical assessment and gives its recommendations within 90 days. • Regulatory authority shall consider the recommendations and convey its decision to the applicant within 45 days.
  15. 15. Environmental Appraisal Committees Expert Committees have been constituted for the following sectors: 1. Mining Projects 2. Industrial Projects 3. Thermal Power Projects 4. River Valley, Multipurpose, Irrigation & H.E. Projects 5. Infrastructure Development & Miscellaneous Projects 6. Nuclear Power Projects
  16. 16. Environmental Appraisal Committee • i. Eco-system Management • ii. Air/Water Pollution Control • iii. Water Resource Management • iv. Flora/Fauna conservation and management • v. Land Use Planning • vi. Social Sciences/Rehabilitation • vii. Project Appraisal • viii. Ecology ix. Environmental Health • x. Subject Area Specialists • xi. Representatives of NGOs/persons concerned with • environmental issues. The Membership of a Committee shall not exceed 15. The Committees will consist of experts in the following disciplines:
  17. 17. 1. Screening Category ‘B’ projects Scrutiny by SEAC based on the nature and location specificity of the project Category ‘B1’ Category ‘B2’ (Requiring an Environmental Impact Assessment report) (Not required)  Scoping is a stage, usually involving the public and other interested parties, that identifies the key environmental issues that should be addressed in an EIA.  Preparing the Terms of Reference: Project description, Boundary for impact assessment, budget etc… 2. Scoping
  18. 18. 3. Public Consultation  Refers to the process by which the concerns of local affected persons and others who have probable stake in the environmental impacts of the project or activity are consulted  Two components comprising of:- (a) a public hearing at the site or in its close proximity (b) obtain responses in writing from other concerned persons
  19. 19. 4. Impact analysis  Rapid EIA – using the readily available data  Comprehensive EIA - also uses inputs from the rapid EIA. Other steps involved are: identification, prediction, evaluation of the possible environmental impacts. 5. Mitigative Measures  It comprises of a strategy devised to prevent, reduce and compensate the impacts of the project. For example, The predicted impact of highways construction in the particular area nearby schools and hospitals can be mitigated by the development of Vegetative noise barriers.
  20. 20. 6. Appraisal  Appraisal means the detailed scrutiny of the Final EIA report, outcome of the public consultations including public hearing proceedings, submitted by the applicant to the regulatory authority concerned for grant of environmental clearance by the EAC.  The decision may be accompanied by certain conditions that must be fulfilled, such as posting a reclamation bond or filing an Environmental Management Plan Environmental Management Plan (EMP) This contains details of the management measures to be adopted. It narrates the key agencies/persons which would be responsible for the implementation of the plan. It also includes Disaster Management Plan.
  21. 21. 8. Monitoring  Monitoring is an important part of project implementation.  Monitoring serves three purposes: (1) ensuring that required mitigation measures are being implemented; (2) evaluating whether mitigation measures are working effectively; and (3) validating the accuracy of models or projections that were used during the impact assessment process. 7. Project Implementation Provided all regulatory requirements are met and permits are obtained
  22. 22. EIA in Indian Aquaculture  Coastal aquaculture units above 40 ha size – from planning stage onwards  For 10 ha and above a statement will be required to be given in the detailed plans.  The District/ State Level Committees set up by the CAA should ensure that such an EIA has been carried out by the aquaculture units before their proposal is recommended for approval. Source:
  23. 23. monitoring and Environment management plans  Impact on the water courses in the vicinity;  Impact on ground water quality;  Impact on drinking water sources;  Impact on agricultural activity;  Impact on soil and soil salinisation;  Waste water treatment;  Green belt development (as per specifications of the local authorities) and  All farms of 10 ha and more but less than 40 ha shall furnish detailed information on  the aforesaid aspects. The shrimp culture units with a net water area of 40 ha or more shall incorporate an EMMP covering,
  24. 24. BENEFITS OF EIA  Helps in planning the efficient use of human and natural resources (mass and material)  Reduce costs and time taken to reach a decision by ensuring that subjectivity and duplication of efforts are minimized  Identifies the primary and secondary consequences, which might require the introduction of expensive pollution control measures  If a forecast of likely impacts is available, allowances can be made to minimize the negative impacts.  Identify the areas most susceptible to adverse impacts and so guide site selection.  EIA can aid the most suitable site in terms of benefit maximization and reduction of harmful effects.
  25. 25. LIMITATIONS OF EIA  Poor availability and reliability of data  Insufficient training/education in EIA methodologies and in the establishment of appropriate legal and regulatory frameworks and institutional arrangement  Negligence of beneficial effects in EIA reports  Lack of consideration of alternative sites, technologies, designs and strategies  Insufficient involvement and participation of all interested and affected parties  Insufficient emphasis on required cost effectiveness of EIA  Lack of follow up monitoring and evaluation  Inappropriate recommendations – mitigation/adaptation measures which are not affordable or feasible in terms of maintenance.  Poor presentation of EIA results
  26. 26. Environmental Auditing ‘’A Management tool for evaluation of the performance of organization, management systems etc.’’  Conducted in a systematic ,documented, periodic & in a objective evaluation manner.  Used to determine past, present, and future environmental impacts of a site.  Assessing an organization's activities and services .
  27. 27. History of EA  Origin in US (1970)  Introduced to UK later.  Developed for industries.  Extended to commercial establishments, office complexes etc.  The concept of environmental auditing in industrial units in India was formally introduced in March 1992
  28. 28. Objectives  Overall objective is to minimize the consumption of resources and  promoting use of clean technologies in industrial production to minimize generation of wastes  Identify site contamination  Reduce potential environmental liability  Basis for further investigation  Initial step to site remediation  Meet regulatory requirements
  29. 29. Forms of Auditing INTERNAL AUDITING- company or firm Policy impact assessment. Management audit. EXTERNAL AUDITING External auditing agency Environment report
  30. 30. Types of EA 1. Compliance audit envt laws, stds & guidelines 2. Envt. mgt. audits internal mgt systems,corporate policies, & risks 3. Supplier audits Performance of partners 4. Procurement audits Raw material procurements etc. 5. Waste Minimization audit 6. Energy/Water conservation audit
  31. 31. Phases of Environmental Audit  Pre audit activities Develop an audit plan Make necessary preparations & arrangements  On site activities Achieve the audit objectives.  Post audit activities 1. Produce audit report with findings & recommendations. 2. Contribute towards formulations of an action plan for performance improvements.
  32. 32. Step 1: Schedule the Audit  An Environmental Management Representative (EMR) should schedule audits at an appropriate risk-based frequency.  Environmental managers can determine how frequently the audit should be performed through consultation with relevant Government Agencies and/or a review of specific project requirements.  When scheduling the audit, EMRs should coordinate the timing to minimize disruptions to project operations.  They also need to record the audit in each Environmental Management Plan (EMP) using the appropriate template from their Environmental Management Systems (EMS) manual.
  33. 33. Step 2: Plan the Audit • To plan the audit, the EMR needs to establish and document the Area/Contractor to be audited, the reason and scope of the audit, and the contact names for the Area/Contractor. • The EMR must also appoint and notify a qualified Lead Auditor or audit members, if required. If warranted, the EMR can appoint his or herself as the Lead Auditor.
  34. 34. Step 3: Conduct the Audit  All relevant personnel in the Audit Team should meet to discuss the scope of the audit, the proposed audit agenda, the audit objectives, any project personnel that need to be contacted or interviewed, and a tentative time to hold the exit meeting.
  35. 35. Step 4: Follw-up • The audit team needs to prepare a report based on all the objective evidence that was collected during the audit. • This report must be forwarded to the Contractor within 2 days of completion of the audit. The final report must be distributed to the Auditor, Contractor, Independent Reviewer and Environmental Auditor, the State, and all other relevant personnel. Step 4: Develop an Audit Report/Action Plan
  36. 36. Benefits of EA I. Development of EMS II. Improvement of environmental performance III. Increase management & employee awareness of envt. issues. IV. Increases sharing of information V. Cost saving & improved efficiency
  37. 37. Demerits I. Disrupts operations of company II. Negative consequences for company’s corporate image. III. Cost involved beared by company or shareholders ???....
  38. 38. THANK YOU