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Agricultural Extension and Communication


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Xavier University College of Agriculture

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Agricultural Extension and Communication

  1. 1. T U E S D A Y , J U N E 1 7 , 2 0 0 8 Unit 1 notes and assignment I. UNIT 1 NOTES UNDERSTANDING AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT: THE CONTEXT OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION UNDERSTANDING AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT DEFINING DEVELOPMENT • going beyond criteria based on indices of per capita income (statistical forms as well as those which concentrate on the study of gross income are misleading). Basic criterion is whether or not the society is a “being for itself”, i.e., its political, economic and cultural decision‐making power is located within.” ‐Paulo Freire • need oriented, geared to meeting both material and non material human needs; endogenous, stemming from the heart of each society; self‐reliant; ecologically sound, utilizing rationally the resources of the biosphere; and based on structural transformation as an integrated whole. • (60s) most accurate measure of development was gross national product ‐ total money value of goods and services produced by a country in a given year. (70s) development does not only mean GNP but also on the improvement of the quality of life of the individual; person has become the yardstick. • Should be defined to include both growth and distribution under periods of both stability and change in institutional arrangements (Havens, 1972) • Normative concept, almost synonymous with improvement, growth, advancement, progress • Creating the conditions for the realization of human personality (Seers, 1972) • no universal, fixed definition ‐ it is relative, multi‐dimensional, and process oriented. AIM OF DEVELOPMENT B L O G A R C H I V E ▼  2008 (7) ▼  September (1) last chapters ►  August (1) ►  July (1) ►  June (4) A B O U T M E ESTRELLA E TACO BORJA I am generally pleasant but when challenged my mood swings from an ordinarily insignificant behavior towards people or things to one that is highly emotionally charged. I have a soft spot for those who are powerless, marginalized and discriminated non‐conformists. VIEW MY COMPLETE PROFILE 0   Higit Pa    Susunod na Blog» Bumuo ng Blog   Mag­sign in A G R I C U L T U R A L E X T E N S I O N 0 8
  2. 2. • to help people become more productive • to improve quality of life for individuals, families, communities and countries as a whole • As people become more productive, country is in better position to trade with others • more trade means more goods and services to continue improving living conditions ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT 1. Economically ‐ accumulation of human capital and its effective investment in the dev’t of economy 2. Politically ‐ process which prepares people for participation in political affairs, especially as citizens of a democratic country 3. Socially and Culturally ‐ helps people lead fuller, richer lives less bound by traditions 4. Ethically ‐ entails improvement in the quality as well as quantity of life SOME DEVELOPMENT THEORIES 1. Growth Theories a) Balanced Growth Theory‐ agriculture and industry sectors receive equal shares of investment b) Lewis Dual Theory It tries to prove that modern industrial sector will attract workers from the rural areas. But the theory is not all that perfect, it has its lapses. it may have helped the farmers to work better and easier, but the theory can't stand on its own two feet. The Lewis model explains how labor transfers in a dual economy. For Lewis, growth of industrial sector drives economic growth. The Model argues that economic growth requires structural change in the economy whereby surplus labor in agricultural sector with low or zero marginal products, migrate to the modern industrial sector where high rising marginal product is available. b) c) Unbalanced Growth Theory ‐ includes the following theories: b.1 Deliberate unbalancing theory ‐ involves the prioritization of two sectors (agriculture and industry). One sector receives greater portion of investments. As this sector develops, the effects spill out to other sectors, thus development still
  3. 3. occurs b.2 Capital accumulation theory involves the utilization of the unlimited supplies of labor found in agriculture sector. The assumption here is that once the unlimited supplies of labor are used, development occurs. However, this theory occurs only in the capitalist (industrial sector of society) b.3 Growth through savings and investment theory‐states that every economy must save a certain proportion of its national income if only to replace wornout capital goods. The latter includes buildings, equipment and materials. However, to grow, a country needs new investments representing net additions to the capital stock 2. Structural Theories a) Dependency theory (Rostow)‐ views developing countries as being beset by institutional and structural rigidities and caught up in a dependent and dominant relationship with rich nations. The development of a dependent country is conditioned by the powerful country with which the former is attached. First World nations actively, but not necessarily consciously, perpetuate a state of dependency through various policies and initiatives. This state of dependency is multifaceted, involving economics, media control, politics, banking and finance, education, sports and all aspects of human resource development. b) Developmentalism theory‐it is basically welfare‐oriented. It believes that the major goal of development is human welfare. It opts for structural reforms that are equity‐ oriented or redistributive 3. STAGE THEORY Rostow’s Linear Theory is a good way of transforming an underemployed rural society to a productive urban– industrial society. The transformation or the development is on a stage‐by‐stage basis, no shortcuts. Though not a fast transformation, but still sustainable if properly practiced. Savings and capital formation (accumulation) are
  4. 4. central to the process of growth. The key to development is to mobilize savings to generate the investment to set in motion self generating economic growth. Development requires substantial investment in capital equipment; to foster growth in developing nations the right conditions for such investment would have to be created. That is, in order to achieve modernization and sustain the economic development, proper and right practice especially with regards to savings and investments should be done. 3. Liberation Theory It focuses on the poor and the oppressed. Gustavo Gutiérrez is known as the father of liberation theology. The causes of social issues such as Christian poverty, female criminality, differences in class, in social and economic power, in educational opportunity and achievement, in health and physical well‐being, are the expressions and result of institutionalized inequalities in opportunity. Liberation is possible to recover the buried memories of our socialization, to share our stories and heal the hurts imposed by the conditioning, to act in the present in a humane and caring manner, to rebuild our human connections and to change our world. Gutiérrez has emphasized a commitment of solidarity with the poor, with those who suffer misery and injustice. KARL MARX THEORY For Karl Marx, the basic determining factor of human history is economics. According to him, humans even from their earliest beginnings are not motivated by grand ideas but instead by material concerns, like the need to eat and survive. This is the basic premise of a materialist view of history. At the beginning, people worked together in unity and it wasn’t so bad. But eventually, humans developed agriculture and the concept of private property. These two facts created a division of labor and a separation of classes based upon power and wealth. This, in turn, created the social conflict which drive society. Societal power relationships are dialectical All of this is made worse by capitalism which only increases the disparity between the wealthy classes and the labor classes. Confrontation between them is unavoidable because those classes are driven by historical forces beyond anyone’s control. That power relationships in the modern society are based on economic relationships. The economic factors are the key to social changes. Labor has become the means of creating wealth of a society. The society is the product of its people's actions. The society reflects what kind of people it has. 4. Advantage Theory The principle of comparative advantage is clearly counter‐intuitive. Many results from the formal model are contrary to simple logic.
  5. 5. Secondly, the theory is easy to confuse with another notion about advantageous trade, known in trade theory as the theory of absolute advantage. The logic behind absolute advantage is quite intuitive. This confusion between these two concepts leads many people to think that they understand comparative advantage when in fact, what they understand, is absolute advantage. The model assumes only two countries producing two goods using just one factor of production. There is no capital or land or other resources needed for production. The real world, on the other hand, consists of many countries producing many goods using many factors of production. Each market is assumed to be perfectly competitive, when in reality there are many industries in which firms have market power. Labor productivity is assumed fixed, when in actuality it changes over time, perhaps based on past production levels. Full employment is assumed, when clearly workers cannot be immediately and costlessly moved to other industries. Also, all workers are assumed identical. This means that when a worker is moved from one industry to another, he or she is immediately as productive as every other worker who was previously employed there. 5. Staple Theory Staple theory says: extensive growth for primary export leads to diversification and industrialization if the country exports the "right staple". Staple theory was developed with Canada in mind, and has been the most widely accepted explanation for Canada's economic development. Canada's economic development is thus seen as having depended on the early development of the wheat economy. APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT 1. Welfare – spontaneous response to manifestation of poverty usually done by the rich; commonly referred to as “dole‐out” by solving the problem and by filling the gap. basic needs are minimum requirements essential for decent human existence, 2. Modernization (project) – introduces all resources lacking in the community (e.g. capital, technology, infrastructure, etc.) 3. Ethical – treats a person as the end of the development process and not the means to the end it is also known as “humanism approach” that aims to provide all men the opportunity to live full human lives
  6. 6. 4. Liberationist – empowering the poor and the marginalized to break away from unjust structure/system so that they can pursue their interests. It is also known as “conscientization” which is the state of the problems affecting oneself and the society (reflection) and working towards solving such problems collectively with others (action) In 1973, the Development Academy of the Philippines listed the following development indeces, each is measurable and quantitative: 1. health and nutrition 2. education and skills 3. income and consumption 4. employment 5. capital and non‐human resources 6. housing, utilities and environment 7. public safety and justice 8. social mobility 9. political values AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT What is Agricultural development? The process of making fuller and more rational use of agricultural resources of a country (or of an area) with special reference to improving the efficiency of agriculture and level of the agricultural population An intentional change of an agricultural system, which is considered desirable by people. This could be affected by: Change in access to productive resources Change in technology Change in interrelationships between persons and institutions Change in environment such as demand for a certain commodity produced in the area and the price relations Active intervention by an agency from outside Among the changes in agriculture are the evolving technologies of modern agriculture and sustainable agriculture Features of Modern Agriculture: 1. Dynamic society that welcomes innovation and change 2. Highly productive and competitive because it uses modern production and management technology 3. Manned by an enterprising tiller who exercises hi or her right to choose what
  7. 7. technology to apply, what crops to raise and when, and to whom to sell his or her product to get the highest returns. COMPONENTS OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT Component Elements Essentials Accelerators PRODUCTION Farm Farmer Farm business Production incentives Constantly changing Technologies Production Credit MARKETING Demands for products Market system Confidence in the market systems Market performance Transportation SUPPLY Quality Availability and accessibility Technical effectiveness Production incentives Production credit Education for development GOVERNANCE Quality control Law and order Activity regulation Production incentives Group actions by farmers Improving and expanding agricultural lands National planning for agricultural dev’t. RESEARCH Identification & location of researchers to undertake Location, organization and administration of research stations Availability of supplies and equipment Constantly changing technology Personal Competence National planning for regional development EDUCATION EXTENSION Demand for extension science, training, and skills Constantly changing Technologies National Planning for agricultural dev’t Education for development
  8. 8. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE Framework And Dimensions 1. Ecologically and Environmentally Sound ‐biodiversity (where a diverse host of creatures live with other species promotion to multiple varieties/cropping, crop rotation, integration, genetic conservation, alternative/ecological pest management, use of natural pesticides/biological control/ water management/multiple cropping/locally adapted seeds, diversifies integrated farming systems) 2. Economically Viable (hidden costs on health, soil, water, environment) 3. Socially Just and Humane ‐ respects human dignity ‐ equitable ‐ land to till ‐ access to services ‐ intergenerational equity ‐ consumers’ rights on toxic free products ‐ fair trading ‐ farmers’ control on production inputs 4. Culturally Sensitive and Appropriate ‐ respects traditions, values, beliefs and culture of people ‐ indigenous knowledge ‐ local knowledge ‐ sharing of resources/knowledge ‐ local communication systems (participatory extension) 5. Appropriate Technology ‐ location specific (crop, climate, soils, management, market, pests/diseases, etc.) ‐ participatory research ‐ affordability 6. Grounded in Holistic Science ‐ integrative of local/indigenous knowledge, non‐reductionist ‐ values in farming ‐ respect on the integrity of creation ‐ spiritual dimension 7. Total Human Development
  9. 9. ‐ capacity ‐ confidence ‐ analytical ability ‐ head, mind, heart and body Sustainability Concerns and Issue: • SURVIVAL ‐ Main requirement is sufficient food and the means to achieve this is Agriculture • ECOLOGICALLY ACCEPTABLE PRODUCTION ‐ Where everything removed is replaced so as not to harm ecological system • THRIVING ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL ORDER ‐ With production structures and relationships which ensure a fair distribution of income, power, and opportunities, providing basis for social peace • LONG‐TERM CARRYING CAPACITY OF REGIONS – Where there is no negative impact on the environment. COUNTRY EXPERIENCES Summary Of Agriculture Descriptions/ Considerations First Second Third Industrial Revolution Green Revolution “Undervalued Resource” Main Locations Industrialized Countries Irrigated and high rainfall, high potential areas in the Third World Rained tropics, hinterlands, most of sub‐Saharan Africa, etc. Description of Farming System (relatively…) Simple Simple Complex Description of Environmental Diversity (relatively…) Uniform Diverse Diverse Use of External Inputs Very High High Low Agricultural Research and Development Approach On station research and transfer of Technology (actual) Farmers’ Field (desirable) (generating…) Package of Practices Basket of choices Condition Overdeveloped Developed Underdeveloped Current Production as Percentage of Sustainable Production Far Too High Often Near the Limit Low Priority Reduce Production Maintain Production Raise Production AGRICULTURE LAWS Republic Act 3639 ‐ The Bureau of Plant Industry (BPI) was created to take over the tasks on plant research on crop production. Strengthened by Act No. 4007
  10. 10. also known as Reorganization Law of 1932 Executive Order 216 ‐ Farm Operation division was created to plan and program research utilization and assignment of arm machinery, to introduce effective farm crop practices and to provide assistance inefficient management to the bureau’s farm EO 116 ‐ Placing BPI as staff bureau under the production Group Presidential Decree 1433 ‐ The plant Quarantine Law ‐ Plant Quarantine being an activity necessary in crop protection specifically mandates BPI to “prevent the introduction of exotic pests in the country and prevent further spread of plant pests already existing from infested to pest‐free areas and to enforce phytosanitary measures for the export of plants, plant product and related articles. RA 7308 ‐ The National Seed Industry development Act ‐ Cognizant of the BPI roles in the development of the seen industry and it inherent function for seed and plant material certification, the Act strengthens the Seed Quality Control Section to become the National Seed Quality Control Service and given control supervision over existing field inspections and control services and seed testing laboratories and those which shall have to be established RA 6657 ‐ Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law of 1988 ‐ (An act to promote a more equitable distribution and ownership of land with due regard to the rights of landowners to just compensation and to the ecological needs of the nation) RA 7900 ‐ High Value Crops Development Act of 1995 ‐ (An act to promote the production, processing, marketing and distribution of high‐ valued crops) RA 8435 ‐ Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act of 1997 ‐(An act prescribing urgent related measures to modernize the agriculture and fisheries sectors of the country to enhance profitability and prepare said sectors for the challenges of globalization)
  11. 11. RA 7394 ‐ Consumer Act of 1992 ‐This act reiterates BPI functions by specifically mandating BPI to ensure safe supply of fresh agricultural crops, and improve the quality of local fresh agricultural crops and promotes its export RA 7607 ‐ Magna Carta for Small Farmers ‐ Recognizing BPI expertise and inherent functions pesticides residue analysis and pesticide formulation, seed production and certification, research, technology transfer and crop protection MO No. 12 (03 March 2006) Temporary Ban on the Importation of FMD‐Susceptible Animals, their Products and By‐Products Originating from Argentina AO No. 5 (07 March 2006) Delineation in the Registration of Animal Feeds and Veterinary Drugs and Products AO 06 (18 April 2006) Guidelines on the Production, Regulation, Promotion, Procurement and Distribution of Seeds and Planting Materials Department Order No. 03 series of 2007 designates the Agricultural Training Institute as lead agency for the provision of e‐Extension services in collaboration with the various agencies, bureaus and organizational units of the DA. This is to integrate and harmonize ICT‐based extension delivery system for agriculture and fisheries. The electronic delivery of extension service is a network of institutions that provide a more efficient alternative to a traditional extension system for agriculture, fisheries and natural resources sectors. It maximizes the use of information and communication technology to attain a modernized agriculture and fisheries sector. It focuses on creating an electronic and interactive bridge where farmers, fishers and other stakeholders meet and transact to enhance productivity, profitability and global competitiveness II. ASSIGNMENT 1. Encode your answers to the following questions: 1.1 What development approach would be appropriate for the Philippine condition given our present state? Why?
  12. 12. 1.2 During Pres Fidel Ramos' time, he envisioned the Philippines to be a "newly industrialized country" or NIC by 2000. Was it realized? If yes, what is your basis? If no, why did it fail? 2. Submit your assignment on Thursday, 19 July 3. REminder: Submit the signed/approved technology by your department/unit head on Thursday Good luck! POSTED BY ESTRELLA E TACO BORJA AT 5:33 AM NO COMMENTS: M O N D A Y , J U N E 1 6 , 2 0 0 8 Course Outline AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND COMMUNICATION (AgExt 51) Estrella E. Taco ‐ Borja Development Communication Department Xavier University College of Agriculture April 2006 Course Description: This course is designed for all plain BS Agriculture students as well as those enrolled in the BS Food Technology and BS Agricultural Engineering departments. Entry Competency: Since this course is offered in the third year or fourth year curricula of the various departments, it is expected that the students who would enroll in this course have had basic knowledge on basic agriculture concepts and certain agriculture technology. Their basic knowledge would be used as points of entry and as specific examples as regards the application of various extension and communication methods and techniques. General Objectives: A. Cognitive • Discuss the principles and practices of agricultural extension and communication and their relevance to sustainable agriculture and development • Identify various extension and communication methods and approaches B Affective
  13. 13. • Appreciate the nuances in handling and communicating with various audiences • Show concern to issues related to agriculture and the development of the farming workforce/sector Psychomotor • Demonstrate selected extension methods through classroom or field activities References: Adhikarya, Romy. 1994. Strategic Extension Campaign: A Participatory‐Oriented Method of Agricultural Extension. FAO of the UN, Rome Battad, Teodora, et. al. 2003. Agricultural Extension. Grandwater Publications, Makati City, Phils. Cernea, Michael, et. al. (eds.). 1983. Agricultural Extension by Training and Visit: The Asian Experience. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Bank, Washington Chambers, Robert. 1983. Rural Development: Putting the Last First. Butler and Tanner, Ltd., London. Ettington, Julius. 1989. The Winning Trainer (2nd ed.) Gull Publishing House, Texas Kwiatskowsky, Lynn. 1999. Struggling with Development: The Politics of Hunger, Ateneo de Manila Press, Q.C. Mosher, A.T. 1978. An Introduction to Agricultural Extension. Singapore University Press for Agric. Dev’t Council Ongkoko, Ila and Alexander Flor. 2003. Introduction to Development Communication. SEAMEO SEARCA and the UP Open University, College, Los Baños, Laguna Swanson, Burton, et.a. (eds.). 1997. Improving Agricultural Extension: A Reference Manual. FAO of the UN, Rome Van den Ban, A.W. and H.S. Hawkins. 1996. Agricultural Extension (2nd ed). Blackwell Science Lts., Great Britain COURSE OUTLINE: UNIT 1 : THE CONTEXT OF EXTENSION Specific Objectives: At the end of the unit, the students are able 1. To contextualize discussions on agricultural extension through an analysis of local, national and agricultural situation; 2. To present basic development theories and approaches; 3. To explain basic concepts in agriculture and agricultural development; 4. To trace the development of agriculture over the years, with focus on the Philippines; and,
  14. 14. 5. To identify basic agricultural laws Coverage: A Phil. Population and Agricultural Production B Development Theories, Approaches C Agriculture Modernization and Development D Sustainable Agriculture and Development E Agricultural Laws; DA EOs/Memos UNIT 2 : AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION: AN INTERVENTION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Specific Objectives: At the end of the unit, the students are able 1. To trace the history of agricultural extension; and, 2. To explain the basic concepts of extension: definition, philosophy, goals, objectives and types of extension. Coverage: A Historical Antecedents of Agricultural Extension a.1 Extension in Europe and in the USA a.2 Extension in the Philippine Setting B Extension Defined b.1 Philosophy 1 educational process 2 democratic process 3 indigenous knowledge 4 continuous process b.2 Goals and Objectives 1 intermediation/mediation 2 teach people 3 research & mobilization 4 local leadership identification 5 establishment of structure/institutions b.3 Types of Extension 1. Informative extension 2. Emancipatory extension 3 Formative extension 4 Persuasive extension b.4 Modern and Future of Agricultural Extension b.5 Formal Extension and Extension Education UNIT 3 : PRACTICE OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION Specific Objectives: At the end of the unit, the students are able 1. To identify the roles and functions of the extension worker; 2. To enumerate the principles and approaches of extension;
  15. 15. 3. To identify the various extension teaching methods, techniques and approaches; 4. To appreciate the indispensable role of communication in extension; 5. To explain the process of diffusion and adoption, teaching adults; 6. To illustrate the cycle of a development program; and, 7. To discuss and reflect on the extension experiences of the country. Coverage: A Present and future Roles and Functions of Extension Worker B Principles b1 Communication and education b2 Accountability to client b3 Works with rural people b4 Two‐way process linkage b5 Cooperates with other agencies b6 Different target groups b7 Developing rural leadership C Changes and Challenges in Extension Changes: c1 client‐orientation c2 electronic information c3 participation c4 unified extension service Challenges: c1 status of extension c2 pre‐service education c3 extension policy c4 extension after decentralization c5 impact assessment c6 globalization c7 linkages c8 techno transfer focus c9 info techno in extension c10 participation and pluralism D The Extension Delivery System
  16. 16. e1 research e2 change e3 client E Extension Approach UNIT 4 : COMMUNICATION IN EXTENSION Specific Objectives: At the end of the session, the students are able 1. To explain the basic concepts in communication; 2. To appreciate the indispensable role of communication in extension; 3. To explain the process of diffusion and adoption; and, 4. To distinguish adult learning from conventional classroom/academic learning. Coverage: A Basic Concepts a1 Communication Process a2 Forms of Communication a3 Barriers of Communication B Audio‐Visual Aids in Extension C Teaching Methods and Classification D Ways of Reaching Extension Audience C Adult Learning and Adult Teaching a. Principles of Adult teaching and learning b. Characteristics of adults c. Knowledge and learning d. Teaching‐Learning models MID‐TERM EXAMINATION UNIT 5 : DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION Specific Objectives: At the end of the session, the students are able 1. To explain the basic concepts of innovation and how to diffuse it 2. To identify the appropriate extension and communication techniques according to given types of adopters and phases of adoption 3. To appreciate the significance of the various extension and communication tools in influencing target groups and individuals to adopt a certain innovation
  17. 17. Coverage: A Basic Concepts B Stages in the Adoption‐Rejection Process a. Awareness b. Interest c. Evaluation d. Trial e. Adoption‐Rejection B Adopter categories a. Innovators b. Early adopters c. Early majority d. Late majority e. Laggards C Problems and issues in adoption a. Attributes of technology a.1 Relative advantage a.2 Complexity a.3 Compatibility a.4 Trialability a.5 Observability b. Technology development process c. Technology dissemination D Models of Technology Transfer d1 top‐down d2 feedback technology transfer d3 modified FTT d4 farmer‐back‐to‐farmer d5 farmer first d6 beyond the farmer first break for: PREPARATIONS FOR AND ACTUAL DEMONSTRATION DAY UNIT 5 : PROGRAM PLANNING, MONITORING & EVALUATION Specific Objectives: At the end of the session, the students are able 1. To illustrate the cycle of a development program; and, 2. To appreciate the value of program planning, monitoring, and
  18. 18. evaluation Coverage: A Definition E Typology of Participation B Features of Sound Planning F Participatory Methods C Planning Process D M&E in Extension UNIT 6 : COMMUNITY ORGANIZATION Specific Objectives: At the end of the session, the students are able 1. Describe the concept and process of community organization; 2. Appreciate the contribution of CO as a tool in Agri Extension and Development A. Definition B. Stages and Process C. Principles D. Practical Tips FINAL EXAMINATION LEARNING METHODOLOGIES: During the semester, students shall be exposed to various learning methodologies, such as: 1. lecture‐discussion 2. e‐based interaction through the blog 3. on‐site lectures (possibly in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture and NGOs) 4. field demonstration (Demo Day during Manresa Days) 5. library work and web‐based materials 6. field/office interviews GRADING SYSTEM/REQUIREMENTS: 1. Term examinations ‐ Mid‐term and final examinations (100 points each) = 200 points 2. Quizzes – announced or unannounced (total of 50 points) = 50 4. Participation in demonstration day (from preparation to dry run to final presentation) =200 5. Assignments – 5 assignments with a total of 50 points = 50 Total =500 points Computation shall be based on the total points earned by a student (maximum of 500 points), no percent conversion needed, with a 60% passing score, students should be able to compute the letter grade equivalent.
  19. 19. References: Adhikarya, Romy. 1994. Strategic Extension Campaign: A Participatory‐Oriented Method of Agricultural Extension. FAO of the UN, Rome Battad, Teodora, et. al. 2003. Agricultural Extension. Grandwater Publications, Makati City, Phils. Cernea, Michael, et. al. (eds.). 1983. Agricultural Extension by Training and Visit: The Asian Experience. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Bank, Washington Chambers, Robert. 1983. Rural Development: Putting the Last First. Butler and Tanner, Ltd., London. Ettington, Julius. 1989. The Winning Trainer (2nd ed.) Gull Publishing House, Texas Kwiatskowsky, Lynn. 1999. Struggling with Development: The Politics of Hunger, Ateneo de Manila Press, Q.C. Mosher, A.T. 1978. An Introduction to Agricultural Extension. Singapore University Press for Agric. Dev’t Council Ongkoko, Ila and Alexander Flor. 2003. Introduction to Development Communication. SEAMEO SEARCA and the UP Open University, College, Los Baños, Laguna Swanson, Burton, et.a. (eds.). 1997. Improving Agricultural Extension: A Reference Manual. FAO of the UN, Rome Van den Ban, A.W. and H.S. Hawkins. 1996. Agricultural Extension (2nd ed). Blackwell Science Lts., Great Britain and web‐based materials –;; others to be announced CLASSROOM POLICIES 1. The demonstration day participation is a must. No student passes the course without having participated in such major activity. 2. Each students must have a notebook – for note‐taking and for journals.
  20. 20. 3. Students must come to class on time. 4. No assignments are accepted after the agreed deadline; it’s either on time or nothing. 5. Students are encouraged to participate in class discussion; they must use the medium of instruction which is English. There will be sessions where the Vernacular shall be used as an application for extension in the real work. 6. Notes may be posted on the instructor’s blog site:; students are encouraged to visit the site and post comments as necessary CLASS SCHEDULE Room SC II: 7:05 – 8:20 TTh CONSULTATION HOURS 1. office at A 202; Consultation Hours: MWF: 5:00 – 6:00; TTh: 5:00 – 7:00; Sat: 9:00 – 10:00 Prepared by: Approved By: ESTRELLA E . TACO – BORJA MA THERESA M RIVERA Instructor Department Chair Sem 1, SY 08‐08 POSTED BY ESTRELLA E TACO BORJA AT 8:31 PM NO COMMENTS: Ag Extension SY 08‐09, COURSE OUTLINE Dear students, Welcome to Agricultural Extension and Communication class! The course outline that I have included here will give you the detailed description as well as the specific topics that we will take up during the whole semester. I wish you good luck and please do your role as a responsible student. I welcome comments and suggestions. I encourage you to speak up and express your thoughts and feelings on the course, on classroom policies and management, learning techniques/style, etc. Cheers, Trel b POSTED BY ESTRELLA E TACO BORJA AT 6:22 PM NO COMMENTS:
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  22. 22. S A T U R D A Y , A U G U S T 2 3 , 2 0 0 8 Units 5&6, case Dear all, Please check this out as well as the case material that is at the end of this unit notes. For the references of these units, please refer to the course outline. We shall have a short evaluation next week. I will include a few bonus questions from the talk of Cebu Mayor Tommy Osmena this afternoon. Keep well Trel b ========================================================== ================ UNIT 5 THE ADOPTION PROCESS I. DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION Definitions: Diffusion – The process of spreading technology/ information from one group/agency/person to another Innovation – An idea, practice, or object perceived as new by an Individual Technology ‐ science applied to practical purposes; means and methods employed in production or manufacture of output; innovation; generated by research, inventive farmers and others; symbol of modernization Innovation‐decision process ‐ mental process through which individual passes from first knowledge of innovation to decision to adopt or reject Innovation‐decision period ‐ length of time required to pass through innovation‐decision process. Adoption of innovation is primarily an outcome of a learning and decision‐making process Diffusion effect ‐ the cumulatively increasing degree of influence upon an individual within a social system to adopt or reject an B L O G A R C H I V E ▼  2008 (7) ▼  September (1) last chapters ►  August (1) ►  July (1) ►  June (4) A B O U T M E ESTRELLA E TACO BORJA I am generally pleasant but when challenged my mood swings from an ordinarily insignificant behavior towards people or things to one that is highly emotionally charged. I have a soft spot for those who are powerless, marginalized and discriminated non‐conformists. VIEW MY COMPLETE PROFILE 0   Higit Pa    Susunod na Blog» Bumuo ng Blog   Mag­sign in A G R I C U L T U R A L E X T E N S I O N 0 8
  23. 23. innovation Over adoption ‐ adoption of innovation when experts feel he/she should reject Symbolic adoption ‐ mental acceptance of innovation without necessarily “putting it into practice” Sequential adoption ‐ adoption of part of package of technology initially and subsequently adds components over time Innovation dissonance ‐ discrepancy between individual’s attitude toward innovation and ones decision to adopt or reject an innovation Discontinuance ‐ decision to cease use of an innovation after previously adopting it, with 2 types: a) Replacement discontinuance –innovation is rejected because a better idea supersedes it b) Disenchantment discontinuance –innovation is rejected as a result of dissatisfaction with its performance The rate of awareness‐knowledge for an innovation is more rapid than its rate of adoption. Earlier adopters have shorter innovation‐decision period than later adopters. II. STAGES IN THE ADOPTION PROCESS: (Five distinct stages in the adoption process and sample extension methods) 1. Awareness – different mass media could be used to provide the individual with knowledge of the innovation and create awareness (e.g. mass media, popular theater). It is at this stage that the innovation’s complexity and compatibility should be most important 2. Interest – whatever is the desired method to be used it should include information strengthening and attitude building (e.g. group meetings/discussions, radio forum, farm visit, etc.). It is at this stage that the innovation’s relative advantage and observability should be most important 3. Evaluation – the most critical stage in the adoption process because the outcome generally determines whether or not the individual proceeds to the trial and adoption stages (e.g. result demonstration, farmer exchange, etc.). It is at this stage that the innovation’s trialability should be most important. 4. Trial – methods for reinforcing the farmers’ interest should be used (individual visit, farmer exchange, demonstration, on‐farm visit, etc.) 5. Adoption or Rejection – the acceptance or rejection of an idea or
  24. 24. product (e.g. recognition program, competition, etc.) III. ADOPTER CATEGORIES The extension method chosen will depend on the following: goal, resources, relationship with clients, skills of the extension agent on the one hand, and the size and educational level of the target group on the other. Types of Adopters 1. Innovators (Venturesome) – the first to adopt; they introduce the idea; they are few; the daring and the risky but willing to accept occasional setbacks. 2. Early adopters or influentials (Respectable) – the second group to adopt and the most important; they are quick to see the value of a new practice; these are also the opinion leaders who are respected by their peers. The fact that they adopted the new idea makes it acceptable for the others to do so. If the influentials are not receptive to the idea, the adoption process will have difficulty to continue. They are more integrated in local social system. 3. Early majority (Deliberate) – they get their social cues from the influentials; adopt a practice only after they are convinced of its value. They adopt new ideas just before the average member of a social system; rarely hold leadership positions; deliberate before completely adopting a new idea. They do not want to be the last to lay the old aside, nor the first one to try what is new. 1. Late majority – large blocks of less wealthy; they get their cues either from the influentials or from the early majority; adopt a practice only when it is generally acceptable by the community 2. Late adopters/ Laggards (Traditional) – they have three sources for reference and the last to adopt; very slow in making a decision whether or not to adopt an innovation and are left behind in the process; reference is the past; frankly suspicious; no opinion leadership 3. Die‐hards – never adopt to the new idea The Adoption Curve IV. TYPES OF TECHNOLOGY
  25. 25. 1. product – physical goods 2. process – non‐tangibles; may be “system” for doing things (e.g. models, strategies, etc.) 3. service –complementary activities/services to enhance existing programs/ policies of govt 4. information – simply information or significant findings Technology Development Process 1. generation – scientific and experimental stage 2. verification – met the following criteria: • conducted in farmers ‘ fields • tested for 2 seasons in TG trials • showed economic, technical feasibility 3. adaptation – met the following criteria: • only component of techno conducted in farmers’ field or station • tested for TG • good potential for economic feasibility/acceptance by farmers & commercial producers 4. dissemination – met the following criteria: • general adaptability • economic profitability • social acceptability • potential availability of support services 5. commercialization –successfully passed piloting stage CRITERIA FOR SELECTING TECHNOLOGIES 1. Technical feasibility/General Adaptability 4. Environmental Soundness 2. Economic Viability 5. Potential Availability of Support Services 3. Social Acceptability TECHNOLOGY Definition A Science applied to practical purposes; means and methods employed in the production or manufacture of an output; innovations (science is an objective, accurate, systematic analysis of a determine body of empirical data to discover recurring relationships between phenomena) Categories of Technology
  26. 26. 1. component technology – refers to specific cultural techniques in the management/production of crops, livestock, fishery, etc. 2. package of technology (POT) – refers to the combination of all necessary component technologies for production or postproduction activities Types of Technology 1. product – some technologies take the form of physical goods 1. process– non‐tangibles; may refer to a “system” for doing things (e.g., models, strategies, etc.) 2. service– provide complementary activities/services to enhance existing programs/policies of govt 3. information – simply information or significant findings Technology Transfer • Until the end of eighteenth century, farming techniques developed gradually and steadily over centuries • Colonialism and imperial expansion introduced innovations (eg., maize, tobacco, potatoes); experimentation and dissemination of knowledge were basically at the local farm level • The rise of agricultural sciences has induced dramatic changes • New technology has been increasingly created by public sector research organizations outside the actual farming sector • Private firms in industrialized economies find agricultural technology research and development highly profitable • Research‐extension‐farmer linkage in developing countries was based on a simple model of transferring modern research results to the "traditional" farmer through extension • The general faith in science and the commitment to modernization led to discrediting indigenous knowledge but is now put in question • Farming systems research and the "rediscovery" of farmers' knowledge; "improved technology is a package of inputs and practices that usually comes from many sources, including those of the farmers (UNDP, 1991) V. ATTRIBUTES OF TECHNOLOGY Attributes of Innovation/Technology: There are variables that also influence the attributes of people and determine the adoption or rejection of an innovation as perceived by the receiver of the technology or innovation: 1. relative advantage – the degree to which an innovation is superior
  27. 27. to one it is intended to replace considering the following: degree of economic profitability, initial cost, perceived risk, discomfort, time/effort/resources saved, immediacy of reward. The perceived relative advantage is positively related to its rate of adoption, meaning, the more advantageous it is, the greater is the rate of adoption. 2. compatibility – the extent to which an innovation fits into farmer’s views about what ought to be. What he or she does in the farm, and how he or she does it, whether or not it is consistent with existing values, experiences and needs. The perceived compatibility of a new idea is positively related to its rate of adoption, meaning, the more compatible the technology is, the greater is the rate of adoption. 3. complexity ‐ some innovations are simply more complicated than others or perceived as relatively difficult to understand while some are clear to potential adopters. The perceived complexity of an innovation is negatively related to its rate of adoption, meaning, the more complex the innovation, the lesser is the rate of adoption. 4. trialability ‐ quality of an innovation that allows trying or experimentation a little at a time. The perceived trialability of an innovation is positively related to its adoption, meaning, the greater would be the chance of adopting the innovation if it could be tried or experimented 5. observability – the extent to which an innovation or its results can be observed or visible to others. The perceived observability of an innovation is positively related to its adoption, meaning, the more observable it is the greater is the rate of adoption UNIT 6 EXTENSION TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES Methods ‐ the ways or techniques use by an extension system and influence its target groups, i.e., to bring the target groups in interaction with the context of extension Strategy ‐ the operational design by which a national government implements its extension policies TEACHING METHODS Extension‐teaching methods. The extension‐teaching methods are the tools & techniques used to create situations in which communication can take place between the rural people & the extension workers. They are the methods of extending new knowledge & skills to the rural people by drawing their attention towards them, arousing their interest & helping them to have a sucessful experience of the new
  28. 28. practice. A proper understanding of these methods & their selection for a particular type of work are necessary. Classification of extension teaching methods. (A)ACCORDING TO USE. One way of classifying the extension methods is according to their use & nature of contact. In other words, whether they are used for contacting people individually, in groups or in masses. Based upon the nature of contact, they are divided into individual, group & mass‐ contact methods. Individual‐contact methods. Extension methods under this category provide opportunities for face‐to‐face or person‐to‐person contact between the rural people & the extension workers. These methods are very effective in teaching new skills & creating goodwill between farmers & the extension workers. Group‐contact methods. Under this category, the rural people or farmers are contacted in a group which usually consists of 20 to 25 persons. These groups are usually formed around a common interest. These methods also involve a face‐to‐face contact with the people & provide an opportunity for the exchange of ideas, for discussions on problems & technical recommendations & finally for deciding the future course of action. Mass or community‐contact methods. An extension worker has to approach a large number of people for disseminating a new informaton & helping them to use it. this can be done through mass‐ contact methods conveniently. These methods are more useful for making people aware of the new agricultural technology quickly. Important extension‐teaching methods under these 3 categories are listed in the following chart. Chart 1. Classification of extension‐teaching methods according to their use Individual contacts Group contacts Mass contacts Farm & home visits Method demonstration & result demonstration Bulletins Office calls National demonstration leader‐training meetings Leaflets Telephone calls Conferences & discussion meetings & workshops Circular letters & radio Personal letters Field trips Television,exhibitions,fairs,posters (B)ACCORDING TO FORM. Extension‐teaching methods are also classified according to their forms, such as written, spoken & audio‐ visual. Some of the important methods under each of these 3 categories are given in Chart 2. Chart 2. Classification of extension‐teaching methods according to their form Written Spoken Objective or visual Bulletins General & special meetings Result demonstration
  29. 29. Leaflets,folders,News articles Farm & home visits Demonstration posters Personal letters Official calls Motion‐picture or movies, charts Circular letters Telephone calls, radio Slides & film‐ strips,models,exhibits A brief description of some of the extension methods which are commonly used by extension workers is given below. Farm & home visits. Farm & home visits constitute the direct or face‐ to‐face contact by an extension worker with the farmer or the members of his family. During these visits, information is exchanged or discussed. The visits may be to get acquainted with the problems of the farmers, or to organisational purposes. Such visits provide an opportunity for a two‐way communication. Result demonstration. Result demonstration is an educational test to prove the advantages of recommended practices & to demonstrate their applicability to the local condition. It is conducted by a farmer under the direct supervision of an extension worker. It is designed to teach others, in addition to the person who conducts the demonstration. It helps the farmers to learn by seeing & doing. This method can be used to show the supoeriority of practices, such as the use of fertilisers, insecticides & pesticides & high yielding varieties of seeds. Method demonstration. It is used to show the technique of doing things or carrying out new practices, e.g. preparing a nursery‐bed, treating seed with insecticides & fungicides, line‐sowing, taking a soil sample, grafting fruit trees, etc. This method is usually used for groups of people. National demonstrations. National demonstrations are the "first‐line demonstrations," conducted by researchers on the farmers' fields to show how production can be increased per unit of area & per unit of time. These demonstrations usually include the system of multiple cropping & the use of high‐yielding varieties, along with the best package of practices. They were first initiated on a modest scale in 1965 & have now become a part of the agricultural production programme in the country. Group discussions. all the farmers cannot be contacted by extension workers individually because of their large number. It is convenient & feasible to contact them in groups. This method is commonly known as group discussion. It is used to encourage & stimulate the people to learn more about the problems that concern the community through discussion. It is a good method of involving the local people in developing local leadership & in deciding on a plan of action in a
  30. 30. democratic way. Exhibitions. An exhibition is a systematic display of information, actual specimens, models, posters, photographs, and charts, etc in a logical sequence. It is organised for arousing the interest of the visitors in the things displayed. It is one of the best media for reaching a large number of people, especially illiterate & semi‐ illiterate people. Exhibitions are used for a wide range of topics, such as planning a model village, demonstrating improved irrigation practices, soil conservation methods, showing high‐yielding varieties of seeds & plants, new agricultural implements & the best products of vilage industries. General meetings. These are usually held for passing on certain information to the people for future action. Extension workers give lectures to the people on certain pre‐selected items of work, such as the celebration of Van mahotsav, a national festival. Campaigns. Campaigns are used to focus the attention of the people on a particular problem, e.g. rat control, village sanitation & plant protection, the production of rabi crops & family planning. Through this method, the maximum number of farmers can be reached in the shortest possible time. It builds up community confidence & involves the people emotionally in a programme. Tours & field days. Conducted tours for farmers are used to convince them & to provide them with an opportunity of seeing the results of new practices, demonstration skills, new implements etc. & to give them an idea regarding the suitability & application of these things in their own area. Such tours may also be arranged to enable the rural people to visit places & institutions connected with the problems of rural life, such as research institutions, training institutions, agricultural universities, model vilages, areas of advanced developments, leading private farms, exhibitions, & agricultural & cattle fairs. Printed matter(literature). Newspapers, magazines, bulletins,leaflets, folders, pamphlets & wall news‐sheets are another set of mass media for communicating information to a large number of literate people. They are used for communicating general & specific information on a programme of technology or a practice.Small folders, leaflets & pamphlets are used to give specific recommendations about a practice, such as the use of fertilisers, vegetable cultivation, green‐manuring & the growing of individual crops, e.g. wheat, barley, gram & sugarcane. Radio. It is a mass medium of communication & can reach a large number of people at any given time involving the least expense. Extension workers use the radio for communicating information on new methods & techniques, giving timely information about the control of croppests & diseases, weather, market news, etc. For this
  31. 31. purpose, talks, group discussions, folk‐songs, dialogues & dramas are usually organised. There are 38 stations of All‐India Radio broadcasting regular rural programmes. Television It is one of the most powerful media of communication. It has come into vogue only in the recent years. It combines both audio & visual impact & is very suitable for the dissemination of agricultural information. It is more useful in teaching how to do a specific job. A beginning has ben made in India for using this medium for development programmes since 1967, & it is expected that its use will become more extensive in the coming years. Motion‐pictures(movies). Movies are an effective tool for arousing interest among the people, because they involve seeing, hearing, & action. They are the most suitable medium for drawing bigger audience. a film show can be followed by a discussion with the villagers. Group Methods 1. Farmer’s classes/Seminars (farmers attend classes or learning sessions in non‐formal setting also termed as farmer field school) Key Principles of Farmer Field School: a) What is relevant and meaningful is decided and must be discovered by learner b) Learning is a consequence of experience c) Cooperative approaches are enabling d) Learning is an evolutionary process characterized by free and open communication, confrontation, acceptance, respect and the right to make mistakes e) Each person’s experience of reality is unique 2. Lecture/Discussions (a formal verbal presentation with specific learning objectives delivered by a qualified speaker to a group of listeners and facilitating discussion among the listeners) 3. Role Play (farmers act out certain situations to anticipate their future actions should the situation happens; a problem‐solving technique where farmers act out the problem and the response; could also be used to act out experiences to show what they learned) 4. Farm Demonstrations (an invaluable method in extension where farmers see new idea works and what effect it can have on increasing their crop production). Types of Demonstrations:
  32. 32. a) Method Demonstration – shows farmers how something is done step‐by‐step for the purpose of teaching new techniques b) Result Demonstration – shows local farmers why a particular new recommendation/ practice should be adopted by comparing new practice with a commonly used local practice (“seeing is believing”). 5. Demonstration Plot: demo farm, demo field 6. Field Days (organized demons, displays, etc. of specified subjects, practices or processes combining info, instruction and promotion; a day or days on which an area containing successful farming or other practices is open tfor people to visits; it permits farmers to observe personally and ask about successful farming practice; it creates a situation in which information contacts and learning can take place.) 2. Campaign (intensive activity in coordinated way to achieve objective such s control, sanitation, etc). 3. Tours/Excursions/Field Trips (farmers witness together an improved performance or result of specific practice in actual setting; a group of farmers travel to another location to observe practices, projects, demonstrations not available locally.) 4. Exhibits/Displays (the use of posters, pictures, photos, models, etc. to share new info and create interest 5. Popular/Theater (following media: drama, singing, dancing, using local language to deal with local problems, etc.) 6. Puppetry (use of dolls, small figures, images so as not only to entertain but also to educate) 7. Group Discussion (a group of farmers organized for the purpose of sharing information about a specific topic, and analyzing and evaluating that information to get some general conclusions or agreement) 8. Group Meetings (calling members of a local community together for a meeting) Types of Meetings According to Purpose: a) Information Meetings – to communicate a specific piece of information which the extension agent feels will benefit the community
  33. 33. b) Planning Meetings – to review a particular problem, suggest a number of solutions and decide upon a course of action. c) Special Interest Meetings – topics of specific interest to a particular group of people are presented and discussed in detail at a level relevant to those who are participating d) General Community Meetings – the community is invited to attend in order to discuss issues of general community interest. It is important to hold such general meetings occasionally so as to avoid any community group feeling that is excluded extension activities. Mass Media Methods Campaigns Print Media (leaflets, bulletins, newspaper, etc); Publications and circulars (journals, daily press, posters) Broadcast‐based Indigenous Folk Media Modern Information Technology ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF EACH METHOD: Individual Methods Advantages: • Good way of giving information to solve unique problem that involves major decision of farmer • Possible to integrate information from with information from extension agent • Extension agent can help farmers clarify their feelings and choose between conflicting goals • Extension agent can increase farmer’s trust by showing interest in farmer as person, his or her situations and ideas Disadvantages: • Cost are high in terms of extension agent time and travel • Extension agent usually reaches only a small portion of target group • Extension can give incorrect information • Method is based on high level of trust between farmer and extension agent
  34. 34. Group methods Advantages: • Coverage‐ possibility of greater extension coverage; more cost effective • Learning Environment‐ more reflective learning environment in which farmer can listen, discuss and decide upon involvement in extension activity • Action‐ group creates supportive atmosphere, and individual farmers gain more self‐ confidence by joining others to discuss new ideas and move them into concerted action Important Issues: • Purpose‐ how to develop group, to encourage members to continue to meet and establish group on a more permanent basis. ‐ how to transmit new ideas, information, knowledge that will assist the farmers in their farm activity. • Size‐ ideal size for groups in extension is 20‐ 40; one major determinant is geographical location. • Membership‐ farmer members should share common interest and problems • Agent’s Relationship with Group‐ agent should establish structure based on social and culture context of community groups he or she serves, and ensures it will function with minimum extension support. Types Of Farmers’ Organization 1. community‐ based and resource‐ oriented organization (e.g. village level coops‐ these organizations are generally small and more concerned about inputs, etc. 2. commodity‐ based and market‐ oriented organization – specialize in single commodity and opt for value‐ added products which have expanded markets Mass Media Methods Important distinguishing characteristics of interpersonal and mass media channel of communication.
  35. 35. Factors in the choice of a method a. Goal, learning objectives and subject matter b. Philosophy of learning and learners c. Competence and skills of the extension agent and on the one hand and on the size and education level of the target group on the other of extension worker d. Learning environment e. Resources f. Relationship with clients Or consider the following: Factors to Consider in the Choice of Extension Teaching With changing educational goals, the choice of extension teaching becomes important. How is an extension worker to decide what extension method he is to use? The following factors help determine this: 1. Rural People are not all alike a. People differ in nationality, culture background, schooling, occupation, religion, income, organization membership, size family, attachment to local community, in size of farms they operate and type of agriculture b. These affect their attitudes, habits, and actions and responses. 2. People do not live alone a. People satisfy desire for group association in a number of ways. b. People associate with their own and just naturally from groups. c. Extension can serve people along group organization lines. 3. Tremendous power in Group a. People are likely to act when in a group. 4. Local community is the Main Group a. Most human relations are carried on within a fairly small area, in nearby places, i.e. churches, schools, community centers etc. b. A local unit of Extension organization is necessary to reach a majority of people. c. Extension teaching must be based on group life below the province level, (generally at the barrio level.) 5. People want Security, Recognition and Response a. Psychological security is needed in addition to economic security. b. Extension teaching must be based on group life below the province level. 6. People have objectives, hopes, standards and values
  36. 36. a. Social objectives are necessary together with economic objectives. b. People differ in their goals and standards, depending upon age levels, nationality, education and religious values, etc. 7. Goals and Standards are determined by Family and Community a. Objectives of farmers and housewives are mostly geared to needs of family. b. Motivation should be made on the basis of family‐community circumstances. 8. Principles of Involvement a. Effective teaching and responses are attained when people are concerned and involved in the planning process. 9. People like to do things for themselves, and they do not like to be over urged a. People respond better when the approach is made on self‐analysis basis; made to feel that the program is theirs and not that of the Extension worker. 10. People learn from others, but not just from anybody a. The power of influence of the informal leader is grate and should be used. b. Leaders must be accepted leaders with large following. c. Extension workers must learn to identify these leaders. Ways of Reaching Your Extension Audience 1. Through the Family Case Method (also known as Farm or Home Visit) Extension information is provided on a family or individual case basis. This is the simplest way of doing extension work, for no majors’ organization is involved. Advantage: Program can be adjusted to fit the individual case. Personal attention can be given to the individual’s educational problem. Disadvantage: Requires too much time; no opportunities for group participation, leadership development, group learning, and group action. 2. Through the Key Family Case Method Individual casework is purposely done with key families who have influence over others. It is simple form of teaching people. Advantage: Serves more families with less time than family case. Disadvantage: Requires skill and time to locate and develop key families. 3. Through the Project Leader Idea Certain persons are selected as project leaders or teaching leaders, who serves as local point of contact. Project leader is trained in a subject, then in turn trains others.
  37. 37. Advantage: Helps to multiply the hands of the extension agent, and at the same time promote leadership development. Disadvantage: Program limited to specialties in subject matter; other areas of problems of subject matter may be neglected. 4. Through the Country Planning or Advisory Council Provides a way of finding felt needs and interest of the people, and discovering real problems. This leads towards good program development and also contributes towards leadership development Advantage: Involvement of people. Development of leaders Disadvantage: As the leaders are hand picked, and not democratically selected, they may not truly represent the people and council may be misused. 5. Through the Inside‐Extension Club This is common in home demonstration or home economics work where groups are organized by extension and regularly for extension lessons. Advantage: Groups help to keep extension more clearly before the people, promote unity of feeling and purpose, develop personality and leadership, provide social function for members, and can multiply the hand of the agent. Disadvantage: Members of such a group easily becomes close friends and use the club as their social outlet exclusively. It then may become limited to a certain group of people in the community and the educational purpose may become lost. 6. Through Direct‐Purpose‐Sponsor Organization Similar to #5, except that some organizes the local club allied sponsoring organization, such as Farm Bureau. Home Bureau etc., rather than organized by extension. Advantage: Extension has the advantage of a ready‐made organization without differ from doing organizing. Disadvantage: The sponsoring organization may have goals or objectives, which differ from those extensions. 7. Through Miscellaneous‐Regular Local Organizations Well suited to communities where people belong to one or more well‐ organized groups, such as PTA, Church and others Advantage: Same advantages as found in #6 Disadvantage: Same advantages found as #6. In addition, many people may not belong to such organizations. 8. Through Farmer’s Commodity Organization Common areas where agriculture us highly specialized. Provides an excellent means of reaching people in the community.
  38. 38. Advantage: Working with organizations, which belong to the people, and with farmers which all have become commodity problems. Disadvantage: Agents often have to serve as officers in the organization, and many farmers, may not belong to the organization. 9. Through a Whole Community Organization Plan Whole Community functions as one large group representing the people. Various functional committees are set up to handle phases, including farming, home making, etc. Advantage: Same as #5 provisions for unity in the community. Makes it easy to reach many people and puts community influences back of recommended practices. Develops interest and leadership and provides means of achieving farm, home and community development programs. Disadvantages: may not work where the community already has several strong organizations. ......END OF CHS 5&6.... ‐================================================ CASE: submit on Tuesday your answer on a half‐sheet of yellow paper. good luck Mr San Diego has been farming for more than ten years already. On a ten‐hectare area, he grows rice on irrigated section, sweet corn and vegetables on flat, non‐irrigated lands. With five farm workers, he is able to optimize farm development by employing farm mechanization technique. He has a tractor and post‐harvest facilities such as thresher, corn sheller and solar dryer. He adopts modern farming methods and applies chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides to increase production. When he bought the land from a tenant‐turned owner, some five years back, he found out that the soil was no longer fertile. He tried to rehabilitate the condition by employing certain modern farming techniques. It took him about three years before he was able to see the good results of his intervention. Here comes… YOU, the extension agent. Having learned about sustainable agriculture in college and having learned its values and principles, you convinced him to shift to SA.
  39. 39. Tell me how you will do it –describe certain procedures and protocols POSTED BY ESTRELLA E TACO BORJA AT 2:10 AM NO COMMENTS: W E D N E S D A Y , J U L Y 1 6 , 2 0 0 8 Units 3&4 Hi guys, I'm very sorry for not being able to hold our class yesterday. I heard that some were frustrated (not because you missed seeing me but for the reason that you came to XU just for the agext class ‐ mea culpa!)while there were also others who were very happy with my absence, ha, ha. Anyway, I've attached the next two units to makeup for the missed session. By the way, I expect your draft brochure tomorrow. Please start prearing your materials now. The techno demo is already soon. Please be disturbed and prepare for the big day!!! I will see you in our new room ‐ 2nd floor agriculture building (the room at the end) REgards Trel b ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ UNIT 3 THE PRACTICE OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE EXTENSION WORKER 1. Enabler – provides farmers with resources, authority, opportunities to be able to do something; capacitates people 2. Educator – facilitates learning for people to deal with their needs 3. Mediator – works with both sides/involved parties to try to help the parties involved in conflict or misunderstanding reach an agreement 4. Farmer aid – or technician roles wherein the extension agent provides technical expertise for people’s technical problems 5. Facilitator – in the dialect, this means “tigpahapsay” o ‘tigpasayon’; mobilizes people into organized action for a purpose SOME PRINCIPLES OF EXTENSION [Principle is defined as a basic assumption; standard of moral or ethical decision‐making (Encarta Encyclopedia, 2004)]
  40. 40. 1. Communication and Education ‐ Extension agent’s role: communication and education; . It is an informal educational process, which aims through making wise use of natural resources for the benefit of the individual, the family, the community and the nation. ‐ Communication: pass on useful information and technology to people who need them ‐ Education: help rural people acquire the knowledge, skills and attitude that will help them effectively utilize the information or technology 2. Works with Rural People ‐ For impact and sustainability, work with the not for the people ‐ People must participate and make decisions that will benefit them; extension agents must assist them by providing all the information needed and possible alternative solutions to clientele problems 3. Accountability to the clientele ‐ Extension agent must justify to the organization whatever action he/she takes and be accountable and responsible to the clientele on whatever advice or information given to them. ‐ The clientele is the one to pass judgment on the success or failure of the extension 4. Two‐way Process Linkage ‐ Disseminate information and technology to and receive feedback from clientele so that their needs can be better fulfilled ‐ Learn from the clientele the wealth of their experiences 5. Cooperates with other agencies ‐ Extension is only one aspect of many economic, social, cultural and political activities that hope to produce for the betterment of the rural masses ‐ Extension should therefore cooperate and collaborate with both GOs and NGOs to accomplish the above ‐ Extension cant be effective on its own as its activities must be interdependent on other related activities 6. Different Target Groups ‐ Extension clientele is made up of various target groups with different needs, social status, cultural and economic background ‐ Extension therefore cannot offer a package of technology for all its clientele due to this heterogeneity ‐ There must therefore be targeting extension, meaning different programs and technology packages for different target groups. 7. Economic necessity – Extension serves the economic objectives of the nation through the productive use of the
  41. 41. country’s natural resources. (From Battad’s: Principles of Extension include the following:) 1. cultural difference (same as no. 6 above) 2. cultural change (same as no 6. above) 3. interests and needs (same as no. 6 above) 4. grassroots approach (same as no. 2 above) 5. cooperation (same as no. 5) 6. participation (same as no. 2) 7. use of extension teaching methods (same as no. 1) 8. leadership (same as no. 3) 9. voluntary education (same as no. 1) 10. satisfaction 11. trained specialists 12. whole family approach The following principles may also be considered: 1. Extension is not a form of charity and the extension worker must never be guilty of ‘giving something for nothing’ 2. Extension work must never be forced on people for them themselves. Must learn to feel the need and ask for help in reaching a solution for their problems, or better still, for the people to solve their problems 3. People must take part in every stage of extension work 4. Extension worker must be content with steady progress and avoid attempting to do “to much to fast” 5. progress extension largely depends on training and effectiveness of local leaders MAJOR CHANGES IN EXTENSION TODAY Over the years, extension has become more participatory. This means that there is a growing recognition of the importance of the involvement of the local people as active participants in the entire process of research and extension. EXTENSION MODELS Transfer of Techno IPM, FFS Mini‐enterprise dev Natural resource mgt ================== ======== =================== ==================== Practice Innovations Managing farm Organize for Collective action as ecosystems marketing
  42. 42. Learning Adoption Complex learning Becoming an Social learning process entrepreneur Facilitation Transfer Farmer Field Sch Consultancy Mediation Institnl Linear Configurn Informal Network Universities Civil society support Research decentraliz'n NGOs Extension collaboration Extension Policy Investment in Removal of Investment Environmental Research subsidies, policy and Extension training Over the years, extension has become more participatory. This means that there is a growing recognition of the importance of the involvement of the local people as active participants in the entire process of research and extension. GLOBAL TRENDS (Qamar, FAO) 1. client‐orientation 2. application of electronic information technology 3. participatory extension ‐participatory farmer group ‐client‐oriented ‐gender‐sensitive ‐research‐extension‐farmer linkages ‐development tools (PRA, Knowledge/Attitude/Practice survey) ‐empowerment 4. unified extension service THE EXTENSION DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN ESSENTIAL INGREDIENT FOR CHANGE The Extension Delivery System ‐ ‐ the organized mechanism to bring the required knowledge, skills, and when necessary, material resources that farmer and his or her family need in their quest for an improved quality of life. Agricultural Knowledge Information System (AKIS): An Agricultural Information System – The whole process of generating information, transforming transferring and consolidating the same and finally fed back to ensure utilization of knowledge by agricultural
  43. 43. producers An Agricultural Knowledge System ‐ A system of beliefs, cognitions, models, theories, concepts in which the experience of a person on agricultural production is accumulated. Components of an Extension Delivery System • Research System • Change System • Client System The Research System ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ ‐ composed of researchers and scientists from international and national research centers and from research institutions such as universities and research stations. ‐ Main function of this system is to generate technological innovations that will usher in the needed changes in line with a country’s development efforts. The Change System ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ ‐ assumes the task of disseminating information and other goods and services designed to bring about changes in client behavior. The following factors affect the functions of the change system: Doctrine – an expression of what the organization stands for, what it is striving to achieve, and what approaches or methods it intends to use to attain these objectives. (Arndt and Ruttan, 1977) Organizational Structure – the organizational structure sets the formal framework for the ways in which tasks are carried out ( Kast and Rosenzweig, 1977). Corollary to structure are the resources the organization in line with its designated functions. It is what the organization performs for and on behalf of its clientele (Axinn and Thorat, 1972). The Change Agent – success in producing the desired changes in clients depends to a great extent on the extension worker, since he deals directly with clients. The Client System ‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ ‐efforts are enhanced by an accurate and thorough assessment of the needs and resources, both material and human, of the rural social systems served; as well as a working knowledge of the principles of effective communication and adult learning.
  44. 44. An extension delivery system is essentially a mechanism for technological innovations requires coordination and cooperation among all components of the system. MODELS OF TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER: 1. Top‐down Technology Transfer Model ‐one‐way process ‐lacks farmer involvement ‐applicable in a relatively uniform and predictable environment ‐works well in activities focused on single commodity ‐clients/receivers’ roles are fixed; little flexibility for the human element 2. Feedback Technology Transfer (FTT) Model –feedback remains exclusively with the extension service 3. Modified FTT Model –scientist is isolated from farmer; depends on raw/incomplete information available ‐fixed roles of receiver 4. Farmer‐Back‐To‐Farmer Model –research begins and ends with farmers –extensionist is active participant (in community diagnosis, designing, etc.) ‐farmer is involved in all stages of the communication process – basically dynamic model 5. Farmer First Model – aimed at generating choices to enable farmers to experiment, adapt and innovate; considers the primacy of farmers agenda & knowledge; provides approaches for mainstreaming farmers in research; and a new view on the “outsiders” roles. 6. Beyond the “Farmer First”? – Answering to the weaknesses of the farmer first model, perspective is shifting to “beyond the farmers first” by providing analytical depth and presenting more radical programs that incorporate a socio‐politically differentiated view of development where factors such as age, gender, ethnicity class and religion are related. UNIT 4 COMMUNICATION IN EXTENSION
  45. 45. COMMUNICATION ‐Comes from the Latin word “communis” which means “to make common.” ‐Process of sharing, relationship of participants in the process (Kincaid and Schramm) Various Definitions of Communication Aristotle – all available means of persuasion Laswell – describes it as who says what in which channel, to whom and with what effect (SMCRE). Berlo – a process by which a source sends message to some channels to a receiver to effect behavior (SMCREF model; began with SMCR only, later +E then finally +F – the most cited model)). Schramm – the sharing of meaning between two individuals who have similar experiences and similar meaning. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION PROCESS: Source – initiator of the communication activity (person or group of persons or any of the media). Receiver – the person to whom the message is directed. Message – the physical product of the source transmitted to the receiver; set of symbols. Channel – medium utilized to convey a message; effective links. Effect – the result; response, reactions of the impact of the message to the receiver regardless of whether or not the message belongs to the source. Feedback – response of the receiver that is communicated to the source. FACTORS AFFECTING THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS: SOURCE‐RECEIVER FACTORS: 1. Communication skills – there are five verbal communication skills: For encoding – writing and speaking For decoding – listening For both – thought or reason
  46. 46. 2. Attitudes – bias or predisposition towards something or someone. 3. Knowledge level – this includes knowledge level about the subject matter, ones own attitudes, characteristics and source‐receiver, ways in which the source‐receiver can treat messages and communication channels from which the source‐receiver can choose. 4. Social system – refers to the group of which a person belongs, his or her perceptions of his or her place in the world, position in own social class, rank and similar aspects, which affect communication behavior. 5. Cultural system – refers to the person’s beliefs, values, ways of making things and ways of behaving. Other Concepts Concerning Source: 1. Credibility • Set of perceptions about sources held by receivers • Credibility factors: competence or expertise, safety or trustworthiness and dynamism plus smooth interpersonal relationship 2. Status Differential • Each occupies a number of role positions • Each role demands a particular behavior • Each role has a status that goes with it 3. Homophily • Similarity of source to receiver (attributes such as beliefs, values, education, etc.) • It determines level of acceptance of message by receiver • Also affects attitude of source to receiver and vise‐versa 4. Heterophily • Degree to which source is different from receiver affecting source‐ receiver attitudes and acceptance of message 5. Opinion Leader • Anyone approached by others for advice • Perceived by followers as credible, influential and authoritative 6. Charisma • Possession of certain characteristics (cannot be easily explained/defined) Other Concepts Concerning Receiver: 1. Obstinate Audience • People select from messages • What they remember depends on the use they expect to have 2. Psychological Orientation • Psychological factors salient to receiver’s action towards a message:
  47. 47. a. Processes of selective attention, perception and retention b. Information processing capacity c. Perception as influenced by past experiences, needs and motivations, mental set, interests 3. Social‐Psychological Orientation • Receiver’s response to a message is influenced by open‐mindedness, self‐esteem, beliefs and values, achievement motivation and risk orientation 4. Sociological Orientation a. Sociological factors that influence receiver’s persuasibility: b. Group membership c. Roles and functions in membership groups d. Reference groups e. Norms and rules of membership groups f. Customs and traditions MESSAGE FACTORS Message – the actual product of the source‐encoder and consists of symbols and stimuli which have meanings for people, and which can elicit particular responses from them. Components: The components of a message are code, content and treatment. Code is a group of symbols or a set of rules for combining the symbols, while content is the material in the message that was selected by the source to express his or her purpose. Meanwhile, the decision which the source makes in selecting and arranging both codes and content in the treatment. The meaning of a message is not in the elements of a message, it is in the experience of the source‐receiver. There are four types of meaning: denotative, connotative, structural and contextual. Other Concepts Concerning Message: 1. Kinesics – Body communication Types: • Emblems (gestures translated into verbal code system) • Illustrations (body movements that accompany speech) • Affect display (body motions which indicate state of emotions) • Regulators (gestures and facial movements which help control flow of communication) • Adaptory (more personal idiosyncratic movement and individual
  48. 48. develops) 2. Entropy • Tendency of mass to break into parts • Measure of capacity of system to undergo spontaneous charge 3. Meaning • Thought, idea or information received and expressed by language • Inherent in definition of language; end result of language 4. Semantic deferential • Research scale employed to ascertain meaning people ascribe to certain kinds of social object and relationships 5. Semantics • Study between words and things described • Two theoretical approaches: a) meaning – what information/ideas are expressed; b) reference – what is the true meaning of words 6. Proxemics • How one unconsciously structures space to convey meaning • Dimensions are: a. Postural – sex identifiers (posture and sex of source and receiver) b. Sociofugal – societal orientation (physical directness of communication; specifies relationship of person’s shoulders to another) c. Kinesthetic factor (closeness of two persons involved in communication and potentials of holding, grasping, touching each other) d. Touch (amount and type of physical contact between parties) e. Vision (visual contact between persons) f. Thermal (amount of body heat of one perceived by the other) g. Loudness (vocal volume) h. Smell (detection of odor) 7. Paralanguage • Non‐verbal cues which surround verbal system • Vocal but non‐verbal dimension of speech • Focus on manner it was said than what was said 8. Territoriality • Person lays claim on particular space/territory and resets invasion 9. Proxemic Distance • Four kinds: intimate, personal, social and public • Indicates relationship between source and receiver 10. Common Field of Experience • When person enters into communication situation, he/she assumes something in common with the other to begin with (e.g. common language or symbols whose meaning they share) 11. Referent • Meaning anyone is able to read into signs depends on experience with them and referent
  49. 49. 12. Presentation • Manner of presentation of message (e.g. one‐sided vs. two‐sided, etc.) CHANNEL FACTORS The channel is the medium used to transmit a message. It is the effective link interconnecting the source‐receiver codes in a communication structure through which messages flow. 1. Hypodermic Needle • Audience is atomized mass of disconnected individuals • Direct and immediate stimulus‐response relationship between source and receiver of message • Receivers are inactive, passive 2. Two‐step Flow • Ideas often flow from mass media to opinion leaders and from them to less active sections of population • Opinion leader is one who tries to convince others of his or her opinions or is sought out by others for opinions 3. Gatekeeper • One who controls strategic position of channel • May or may not transmit information within group and may not be influential 4. Multiple Channels • Use of many senses as possible 5. Noise • Fidelity of message depends on quality of noise present during transmission of message EFFECTS FACTORS The effect can be immediate or delayed. It is immediate when it occurs as soon as the receiver accepts the message, when it is delayed when the impact of the accepted message is felt after a length of time. If the effect elicited by the message is not equal to or more than the purpose of communication, then, the communication has not been effective. Effects can also be either observable or non‐observable. Observable effects are those immediately detectable through the senses of an onlooker to the situation. Non‐observable or covert effects are those
  50. 50. not immediately detectable by the observer. Communication can change five aspects and these can overlap. These effects are change in attitude, opinion, perception, action and emotion. Changes in opinion, perception and action are observable, while changes in attitude are not, some emotional changes are observable, others are not. Other Concepts Concerning Effects: a) Learning • Process by which some aspects of human behavior is acquired or changed through individual’s encounter with events in the environment • Responses: a. Differential – difference in individual’s ability to respond, readiness to respond, motivation to respond b. Frames of references – principles are reinforcement (helpful in establishing response), active participation (better than passive), meaningful responses c. Habitual – as rewarded responses increase, probability that response be made increases ‐keep short interval between responses and reward for effective building of habit patterns d. Consequences – individuals tend to generalize responses they made b) Balance • Involves two persons, one as focus of analysis; a third element is present which is an impersonal entity (e.g. physical object, idea, event, etc.) • The structure of focus of analysis representing relations among him or her, the other person and the third entity is either balanced or unbalanced c) Interaction a. Definition‐physical – when people are communicating, they rely on physical existence of the other for production or reception of messages; interdependent b. Action‐reaction – action of source affects action of receiver and vice‐versa c. Interdependence of expectations – ability to project ourselves into other people’s responsibilities ‐process through which we arrive at expectations, anticipations of internal psychological states of persons d. Interaction – two individuals make interferences about own roles and take role of the other at the same time ‐six types: cooperation, competition, conflict, accommodation, loving
  51. 51. and trusting ‐variables: attractiveness, proximity, reinforcement, similarity, and complementarily d) Feedback • Information that comes back to sender • Must be immediate, honest, clear and informative e) Cognitive‐Dissonance • Lack of harmony between what one knows and what one does or has done f) Cybernetics • Correcting its course when it encounters cross‐currents g) Functionalism • Consequences that enhance or maintain health or integral organization of referent individual, group or society h) Homeostasis • System has the tendency to retain its state or characteristics i) Sleeper Effect • Information originally rejected by receiver as coming from “untrustworthy” source will later be accepted as receiver forgets about the source j) Hawthorne Effect • The environment, source, message and channel or communication situation may have no effect on individual who is the subject of study k) Determinants of Effect • Depends on characteristics of source, message, channel and receiver and the resources available to receiver FORMS OF COMMUNICATION 1. Intrapersonal ‐ A communication transaction that takes place within individual 2. Interpersonal ‐ Communication between two or more people who are conscious of each other’s presence. The physical proximity allows them to interact on face‐to‐face basis to generate immediate feedback; direct exchange between individuals who can be designated into roles as source and audience Types of interpersonal communication: A. Face‐to‐Face. This occurs between two persons, or within a group, as long as the communicators are able to see and interact with each other as individuals. Examples of this are teacher‐student consultations, group or community meetings, or discussions, and class lectures.
  52. 52. B. Mediated. This occurs when a device such as a telephone or computer is placed in between the source and audience. Examples of this are telephone conversation, e‐mail, online chat, and letter writing. Interpersonal Communication In this situation, the source and the receiver can: • see each other • Talk back and forth • Interrupt each other • Make responses that both can readily or immediately receive Interpersonal channels of communication are those means of transmitting or getting a message from one person to another, which involves a face‐to‐face exchange. Comparatively, mass media channels are those means of transmitting messages from one person to another involving the use of mass media such as newspapers, radio, television, etc. 3. Mass. Mass communication is a process directed toward relatively large, heterogeneous and audiences who are known. Messages are transmitted publicly to reach most number of audiences simultaneously. Media and new technology – new term for mass communication • directed to general public and, therefore, highly impersonal; allows large‐scale dissemination of messages to audiences who are dispersed over wide geographical area. • most common forms of mass media are • print, i.e., newspapers and magazines • broadcast, i.e., radio and television • film • Apart from these easily recognizable media, other forms are: • music recordings • advertising, and other strategies for product marketing and publicity 4. Group and Team communication – transforms collection of individuals into cohesive group
  53. 53. • Group and organizational communication happens within and between groups, organizations and institutions, also in face‐to‐face or mediated situations: • Face‐to‐Face. Group meetings, discussions, lectures, messages with or without use of microphones • Mediated. Some forms of media or communications technologies used to disseminate messages. Depending on who are addressed by message, can be internal or external. • Internal. Communication is limited to the members of the group or the organization. This happens when the members are provided with information through standard memos and organizational newsletters. • External. Communication is directed to non‐members – other groups, organizations or general public. For example, media announcements and press releases. 5. Public communication – public speaking 6. Organizational Communication ‐ Communication that happens in professional settings 7. Intercultural communication ‐ communication among societies of different cultures 8. Transpersonal communication – communicating with the personal being How Do We Communicate? We communicate through symbols and non‐verbal language. A symbol is any object, mode of conduct, or word, which a person acts as if it were something else. Anything that has a meaning is a symbol. A symbol is used to represent something. Non‐verbal language includes kinesics, physical characteristics, touching behavior, paralanguage, proxemics, artifacts and environment factors. Kinesics are motions of the body including the face. These may include gait; movement of hands, arms and legs; gestures; facial expressions, etc. these body motions provide extensive cues about a
  54. 54. person’s mood, intent and openness to interaction. Physical characteristics may include body type, height, weight, color of based largely on one’s stereotypes about any of those physical characteristics. In most cultures, physical attractiveness facilitates the building of self‐esteem and interpersonal relationships. Touching is one of the five senses. Touching and being touched are considered essential to healthy psychological growth. Touching is very powerful means of expressing emotion, affection and reassurance. Unfortunately, our culture does not encourage touching behaviors except between intimate individuals. Puerto Ricans perform 180 touches per hour, France – 110 touches per hour, USA – 2 touches per hour and England – 0. Paralanguage refers to sounds that are not words and vocal qualities such as pitch and rate. It deals with how things are said. It often indicates a speaker’s mood. Our interpretation of messages depends largely on cues of tone, infliction, rhythm, articulation and resonance. Proxemics is the distance we place in reference to other and how we use and structure space. It provides cues to personal and cultural preferences for interaction and privacy. The human use and perceptions space vary among cultures. We may sit opposite others (indicating hostility), beside them (indicating quality), or at an angle to them (indicating cooperation. Territoriality refers to the tendency of animals and humans to stake out personal territories. Artifacts are personal objects that influence self‐presentation and interaction. These may include jewelry, clothes, glasses, other personal effects, etc. people express much of themselves through the artifacts they select and the ways in which they manipulate them. The environmental factors which we may or may not be able to control include those elements in the setting that influence our definitions or situations. These may include furniture, decorations, sounds, movements, temperature, weather, etc. What is communication and what it is not: ‐Not all communication has to be human communication ‐Not all participants in a communication process have to be presented at the same time ‐It can take place over large distances of space and time ‐Not all communication takes place in words
  55. 55. ‐It does not always require two or more participants ‐Thinking is a form of communication Therefore, Communication is a Process, meaning: ‐On‐going ‐No beginning, no end ‐Ever changing ‐Interdependent ‐Inter‐related ‐Cyclic BARRIERS TO EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION 1. technical ‐ how accurate can message be transmitted 2. effectiveness – how effective does message affect behavior 3. physical – environmental, channel noise 4. psychological‐cultural – semantic factors within source/receiver (emotional blocks, stereotyping, charisma, etc) a) channel noise ‐ static, wrong spelling b) environmental factors/conditions c) semantic ‐ how precise the meaning is conveyed; different meanings, double meanings Semantic noise includes: • Distraction • Differences in the use of the language code • Emphasizing the wrong part of the message • Attitude towards the sender • Attitude towards the message 5. social ‐others that arise from communicators’ role and stature 6. others ‐ ethnocentrism, experiences AUDIO‐VISUAL AIDS IN EXTENSION Visual aids are devices used by extension agents to help to get their message across to rural audience since among the five senses, the most important in learning are sight and hearing; devices which utilize the sense of sight to improve communication (Forms, representatives or reproduction of concepts or things are termed as Primary Visuals) Kinds of Visual Aids: 1. Non‐projected visuals • Chalkboards