Building services & Standards For Institutional Building
BUILDING SERVICES ARETHE SYSTEMS INSTALLED IN
BUILDINGSTO MAKETHEM :-
C O N T E N T S
• LIGHTNING & NATURAL VENTILATION
• AIR CONDITIONING, HEATING & MECHANICAL VENTILATION
• ACOUSTICS, SOUND INSULATION & NOISE CONTROL
• ELECTRICAL & ALLIED INSTRUMENTS
• INSTALLATION OF LIFTS, ESCALATORS & MOVING WALK
• FIRE SAFETY
• WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION
LIGHTING OR ILLUMINATION ISTHE DELIBERATE USE OF LIGHTTO ACHIEVE A
PRACTICAL OR AESTHETIC EFFECT. LIGHTING INCLUDESTHE USE OF BOTH ARTIFICIAL
LIGHT SOURCES LIKE LAMPSAND LIGHT FIXTURES,ASWELL AS NATURAL
ILLUMINATION BY CAPTURING DAYLIGHT.
VENTILATION ISTHE INTENTIONAL INTRODUCTIONOF AMBIENTAIR INTO A SPACE
AND IS MAINLY USEDTO CONTROL INDOORAIR QUALITY BY DILUTING AND
DISPLACING INDOOR POLLUTANTS; IT CAN ALSO BE USED FOR PURPOSES OF
THERMAL COMFORTOR DEHUMIDIFICATION.
LIGHTING AND VENTILATION
Light in its natural or artificial form determines
• It strikes surfaces, creating space, plasticity,
contours and shadow.
• Diffused, filtered, dimmed or reflected by
materials, light creates new spaces and
• Light affects people and the environment -
quantitatively, qualitatively and emotionally.
• Light architecture, to us, is a holistic
concept, a dance between artificial and
natural light. Locally rooted, globally
NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps andlight
fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight. Daylighting
(using windows, skylights, or light shelves) is sometimes used as the main
source of light during daytime in buildings.
● Helping to moderate internal temperatures.
● Helping to moderate internal humidity.
● Replenishing oxygen.
● Reducing the accumulation of moisture, odours, bacteria, dust, carbon
dioxide, smoke and other contaminants that can build up during occupied
● Creating air movement which improves the comfort of occupants.
ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES ARETHE APPLIANCES USEDTO PROVIDE HUMANS COMFORTTHAT
WORK ON ELECTRICAL ENERGY USAGE
ELECTRICAL AND ALLIED
POWER USAGE OF
DIFFERENT ELEMENTS IN A
HEATING,VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING (HVAC)
ISTHETECHNOLOGY OF INDOOR ANDVEHICULAR
ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT. ITS GOAL ISTO PROVIDE
THERMAL COMFORT AND ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR
QUALITY. HVAC SYSTEM DESIGN IS A SUB DISCIPLINE OF
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, BASED ONTHE PRINCIPLES OF
THERMODYNAMICS, FLUID MECHANICS, AND HEAT
(HEATING VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING)
HVAC : FACTORS
• Air Quality
• Air Movement
• Dry-bulb temperatures
• Fire Safety
• Vibration & Noise
• Energy Efficiency
• Relative Humidity
• Heaters are appliances whose purpose is to generate heat (i.e. warmth) for the building.
This can be done via central heating. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat
pump to heat water, steam, or air in a central location such as a furnace room in a home, or
a mechanical room in a large building.The heat can be transferred by convection,
conduction, or radiation.
• TYPES OF RADIATORS
• Cast Radiator
• Steel Radiator
• Tube Radiator
• Flat Panel Radiator
FORCED OR MECHANIC
• Mechanical, or forced, ventilation is
provided by an air handler (AHU) and
used to control
• indoor air quality
• Excess humidity
• contaminants can often be controlled via
dilution or replacement with outside air
• . However, in humid climates more
energy is required to remove excess
moisture from ventilation air.
• Natural ventilation is the ventilation of a
building with outside air without using
fans or other mechanical systems. It can
• operable windows
• trickle vents when spaces are small and the
• In more complex schemes, warm air is
allowed to rise and flow out high building
openings to the outside (stack effect),
causing cool outside air to be drawn into
low building openings
AIR HANDLING SYSTEMS
F I L T E R S I L E N C E R H E AT I N G & C O O L I N G
• An air conditioning system, or a standalone air conditioner, provides cooling and
humidity control for all or part of a building.
• Refrigeration cycle
• Free cooling
• Packaged vs. split system
• Air conditioned buildings often have sealed windows, because open windows would work
against the system intended to maintain constant indoor air conditions.
• Outside, fresh air is generally drawn into the system by a vent into the indoor heat
exchanger section, creating positive air pressure.The percentage of return air made up of
fresh air can usually be manipulated by adjusting the opening of this vent.Typical fresh air
intake is about 10%.
• The performance of vapour compression refrigeration cycles is limited by
thermodynamics.These air conditioning and heat pump devices move heat rather than
convert it from one form to another, so thermal efficiencies do not appropriately describe
the performance of these devices.
• In HVAC, air speed is defined as the rate of air movement at a point, without regard to
• The refrigerated storage in
which all the produced food
items are present
ACOUSTICS ISTHE INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE
THAT DEALSWITHTHE STUDY OF ALL MECHANICAL
WAVES IN GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLIDS INCLUDING
TOPICS SUCH ASVIBRATION, SOUND, ULTRASOUND
AND INFRASOUND. IT COVERS REQUIREMENTS &
GUIDELINES REGARDING PLANNING AGAINST
NOISE, ACCEPTABLE NOISE LEVELS &THE
REQUIREMENT FOR SOUND INSULATION IN
BUILDING WITH DIFFERENT OCCUPANCIES.
ACOUSTICS, SOUND INSULATION &
• Sound can be described as a disturbance or turbulence which passes through
a physical medium in the form of longitudinal waves from a source to a receiver
causing a sensation of hearing. This medium could be solid, fluid or gas.
• Soundproofing is any means of reducing the sound pressure with respect to a
specified sound source and receptor.There are several basic approaches to
• Increasing the distance between source and receiver
• Using noise barriers to reflect or absorb the energy
of the sound waves, using damping structures such as
• Using active antinomies sound generators.
• Two distinct soundproofing problems may need to be considered when designing
acoustic treatments - to improve the sound within a room and reduce sound
leakage to/from adjacent rooms or outdoors.
BEHAVIOUR OF SOUND IN AN
• The vibration of some of the materials can be a source of noise within the space and
this can be a bane to the achievement of clear and audible speech and music.
• The effect of indirect sound may be pronounced n spaces enclosed with materials that do
not allow the passage of sound rays through them. Adjustments to the material to
aid diffusion will improve the acoustic of the space. Some of these materials can absorb
sound, reducing the effect of indirect sound.
• Sound waves are likely to behave in following ways:-
• There are two aspects of defence by
• The first is to plan so as to keep the noise at
a distance. Under this aspect comes the
separation of housing from traffic noise by
interposing buffer zones, and the protection
of schools and hospitals by green belts,
public gardens, etc.
• The second is the principle of shading or
screening.This consists of deliberately
interposing a less vulnerable building to
screen a more vulnerable one or by
providing a solid barrier, such as a wall,
between the source and the location to be
I N D OO R N O I S E
• The noises created inside the school
premises are produced by students while
• reproduced music
• Which may take place in class rooms and
in dining and assembly halls particularly
in primary schools. In secondary
schools, specialized music rooms are
• Movement of chairs, desks and tables at
the end of one period may disturb a class
engaged in a lesson in a room.
• Acoustic insulation of separating walls & floors
between newly built dwellings & dwellings
formed by a material change of use.
• Noisy rooms should be separated from quiet ones, if
possible. In general, it is desirable that rooms
should be grouped together.
• Noisy and quiet rooms should not open on to the
same courtyard or be near to one another. Skylights
and ventilators over noisy rooms should be
avoided, if they are likely to be a source of noise.
• Sliding doors should be avoided as they reduce
• Acoustic characteristics of schools.
Comprehensive guidance on requirements and
ways of meeting them is covered by Building
• The following principles should be
observed in the detailed planning of
• Noisy rooms should be separated from
quiet ones, if possible. In general, it is
desirable that rooms should be grouped
• Windows and ventilators
• Windows of noisy and quiet rooms should
not open on to the same courtyard or be
near to one another.
• Skylights and ventilators over noisy rooms
should be avoided, if they are likely to be a
source of nuisance to adjacent upper
• The fabric and the carpet( cassimere) even was
selected to contribute to the acoustical properties.
• The material of the door and some elements
lubricated in the hall are designed to prevent the
echo and noise.
• The tapestry in Aula Magna has absorption capacity ,
when the room is empty does not distort the sound.
• The flying clouds were not the part of actual design
but as the hall wasn’t good at acoustics , so it needed
sound insulators . The clouds provided elemental
value to it.
THE UPWARD AND DOWNWARD MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE IN AN
ERECTED MULTISTOREYED BUILDING IS PRINCIPALLY ACHIEVED LIFT
FIRE SAFETY ISTHE SET OF PRACTICES INTENDEDTO REDUCETHE DESTRUCTION
CAUSED BY FIRE. FIRE SAFETY MEASURES INCLUDETHOSETHAT ARE INTENDEDTO
PREVENT IGNITION OF AN UNCONTROLLED FIRE, ANDTHOSETHATARE USEDTO
LIMITTHE DEVELOPMENTAND EFFECTS OF A FIREAFTER IT STARTS.
• Fire safety is the set of practices intended to reduce the destruction caused by fire. Fire
safety measures include those that are intended to prevent ignition of an uncontrolled fire,
and those that are used to limit the development and effects of a fire after it starts.
• The fire code, a model code adopted by the state or local jurisdiction and enforced by fire
prevention officers within municipal fire departments. It is a set of rules prescribing
minimum requirements to prevent fire and explosion hazards arising from storage,
handling, or use of dangerous materials, or from other specific hazardous conditions. It
complements the building code.
• The fire code is aimed primarily at preventing fires, ensuring that necessary training and equipment
will be on hand
• that the original design basis of the building, including the basic plan set out by the architect, is not
• The fire code also addresses inspection and maintenance requirements of various fire protection
equipment in order to maintain optimal active fire protection and passive fire protection measures.
FIRE SAFETY PLAN
• A fire safety plan is required by all national, state and provincial fire codes based on building use or
occupancy types. Generally, the owner of the building is responsible for the preparation of a fire safety
plan. Buildings with elaborate emergency systems may require the assistance of a fire protection
consultant. Once approved, the owner is responsible for implementing the fire safety plan and training all
staff in their duties. It is also the owner’s responsibility to ensure that all visitors and staff are informed of
what to do in case of fire.
• Fire safety plan structure
• Key contact information
• Utility services (Including shut-off valves for water, gas and electric)
• Access issues
• Dangerous stored materials
• Location of people with special needs
• Connections to sprinkler system
• Layout, drawing, and site plan of building
• Maintenance schedules for life safety systems
• Personnel training and fire drill procedure
• Create safe haven (zone)
FIRE : FACTORS
• FIRE RESISTANCE
• FIRE DETECTORS
• MECHANICAL SMOKE EXTRACTOR
• VENTING SYSTEM
• FIRE EXIT
• FIRE LIFT
• FIRE DOOR
• FIRE STAIRCASE
• VOLUME PLOTAREA RATIO
• OPEN NOZZEL SYSTEM
• EXTINGUSHER WATER
• FOAM EXTINGUSHING
• CO2 EXTINGUSHER SYSTEM
• HALON ROOM PROTECTION
• POWDER EXTINGUSHER
PLUMBING SERVICESARE SERVICESTHATARE RESPONSIBLE FORTHE
INSTALLATIONAND MAINTENANCE OF PIPING, FIXTURESAND EQUIPMENT USED
FORTHE DELIVERYOF WATER, FUEL GASES, COMPRESSEDAIR, STORMAND
SANITARY SEWERSWITHINTHE BUILDINGS.
SANITATION ISTHE MEANS OF PROMOTING HYGIENE THROUGHTHE PREVENTION OF HUMAN
CONTACTWITH HAZARDS OF WASTES ESPECIALLY FAECES, BY PROPERTREATMENT AND
DISPOSAL OFTHE WASTE, OFTEN MIXED INTO WASTEWATER
PLUMBING AND SANITATION
IMPORTANCE OF SANITATION AND
• Plumbing and Sanitation plays a very important role in the health and safety of
modern society. If there was no proper sanitation system many communities
would suffer from a large number of water borne diseases.
• Proper sanitation system plays an important role in protecting humans and gives
hygienic atmosphere to live
• Plumbing brings comfort and beauty into homes and lives. Kitchens and
bathrooms not only serve functional purposes; they provide the refuge of
comforting meals, soothing baths and restorative relaxation.
• The increased use of water-efficient plumbing is an important.
REQUIREMENTS OF WATER SUPPLY IN
DIFFERENTTYPES OF BUILDING
NOTES FOR GENERAL GUIDANCE
• For new construction: Provision shall be made for under ground tank for the storage
of water, having capacity at 200 l. per person with adequate pumping arrangements
to supply water to upper floors.
• Filtered water connection will be allowed only for use of drinking and bathing needs.
For other purposes i.e. flushing and gardening etc., the individual shall be required to
have own arrangements of tube well water within the premises.
• While according sanction to Layout Plan, the Authority shall make a special mention
that provision for space shall be kept for the construction of under ground reservoir
of adequate capacity along with booster pumping station.
• Arrangements as given in above shall also be provided in Group Housing Societies.
• The plumbing arrangement in case of new constructions shall be made in a way that
the potable water shall be used for drinking, cooking & bathing only and for rest of
the uses, provision for ground water can be made with dual piping system.
• Low capacity cistern should preferably be provided instead of normal 12.5 l. capacity.
• . Water Harvesting: Water harvesting through storing of water runoff including
rainwater in all new buildings on plots of 100 sq. m. and above will be mandatory.
The plans submitted to the local bodies shall indicate the system of storm water
drainage along with points of collection of rain water in surface reservoirs or in
• All building having a minimum discharge of 10,000 l. and above per day shall
incorporate waste water recycling system.The recycled water should be used for
SPACE IS ONE OFTHE ELEMENTSOF DESIGN OF ARCHITECTURE,AS SPACE IS
CONTINUOUSLY STUDIED FOR ITS USAGE. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNSARE CREATED
BY CARVING SPACE OUT OF SPACE, CREATING SPACE OUT OF SPACE, AND DESIGNING
SPACES BY DIVIDINGTHIS SPACE USINGVARIOUSTOOLS, SUCH AS GEOMETRY,
COLOURS,AND SHAPES. IT IS AN UNDEFINED EXPANSEOF LANDGIVENTO AN