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BUILDING SERVICES
&
STANDARDS
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN
SUBMITTEDTO:AR.DEEPIKAVERMA
AR.MANMOHAN
BUILDING SERVICES
BUILDING SERVICES ARETHE SYSTEMS INSTALLED IN
BUILDINGSTO MAKETHEM :-
• COMFORTABLE
• FUNCTIONAL
• EFFIC...
C O N T E N T S
• LIGHTNING & NATURAL VENTILATION
• AIR CONDITIONING, HEATING & MECHANICAL VENTILATION
• ACOUSTICS, SOUND ...
LIGHTING OR ILLUMINATION ISTHE DELIBERATE USE OF LIGHTTO ACHIEVE A
PRACTICAL OR AESTHETIC EFFECT. LIGHTING INCLUDESTHE USE...
LIGHTING
Light in its natural or artificial form determines
our perception.
• It strikes surfaces, creating space, plastic...
NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps andlight
fixtures, a...
VENTILATION
TYPES OFVENTILATION
• NATURALVENTILATION
• WIND DRIVEN NATURALVENTILATION
• BUOYANCY DRIVENVENTILATION
• MECHA...
IMPORTANCE OFVENTILATION
● Helping to moderate internal temperatures.
● Helping to moderate internal humidity.
● Replenish...
ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES ARETHE APPLIANCES USEDTO PROVIDE HUMANS COMFORTTHAT
WORK ON ELECTRICAL ENERGY USAGE
ELECTRICAL AND A...
POWER USAGE OF
DIFFERENT ELEMENTS IN A
RESIDENCE
HEATING,VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING (HVAC)[1]
ISTHETECHNOLOGY OF INDOOR ANDVEHICULAR
ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT. ITS GOAL...
HVAC : FACTORS
• Air Quality
• Air Movement
• Dry-bulb temperatures
• Fire Safety
• Vibration & Noise
• Energy Efficiency
...
HEATING
• Heaters are appliances whose purpose is to generate heat (i.e. warmth) for the building.
This can be done via ce...
VENTILATION
FORCED OR MECHANIC
VENTILATION
• Mechanical, or forced, ventilation is
provided by an air handler (AHU) and
us...
AIR HANDLING SYSTEMS
F I L T E R S I L E N C E R H E AT I N G & C O O L I N G
AIR CONDITIONING
• An air conditioning system, or a standalone air conditioner, provides cooling and
humidity control for ...
AIR CONDITIONING
• Air conditioned buildings often have sealed windows, because open windows would work
against the system...
COLD
STORAGE
•
• The refrigerated storage in
which all the produced food
items are present
ACOUSTICS ISTHE INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE
THAT DEALSWITHTHE STUDY OF ALL MECHANICAL
WAVES IN GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLIDS IN...
SOUND
• Sound can be described as a disturbance or turbulence which passes through
a physical medium in the form of longit...
SOUND INSULATION
• Soundproofing is any means of reducing the sound pressure with respect to a
specified sound source and ...
BEHAVIOUR OF SOUND IN AN
ENCLOSURE
• The vibration of some of the materials can be a source of noise within the space and
...
OUTDOOR NOISE
• There are two aspects of defence by
planning:
• The first is to plan so as to keep the noise at
a distance...
I N D OO R N O I S E
• The noises created inside the school
premises are produced by students while
learning.Which include...
• Acoustic insulation of separating walls & floors
between newly built dwellings & dwellings
formed by a material change o...
INTERNAL PLANNING
• The following principles should be
observed in the detailed planning of
educational buildings:
• Group...
ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES
• The fabric and the carpet( cassimere) even was
selected to contribute to the acoustical properties.
...
THE UPWARD AND DOWNWARD MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE IN AN
ERECTED MULTISTOREYED BUILDING IS PRINCIPALLY ACHIEVED LIFT
LIFTS, ESCALA...
L
I
F
T
S
E
S
C
A
L
A
T
O
R
STAIRCASE
C
I
R
C
U
L
A
T
I
O
N
S
N
O
R
M
S
FIRE SAFETY ISTHE SET OF PRACTICES INTENDEDTO REDUCETHE DESTRUCTION
CAUSED BY FIRE. FIRE SAFETY MEASURES INCLUDETHOSETHAT ...
FIRE SAFETY
• Fire safety is the set of practices intended to reduce the destruction caused by fire. Fire
safety measures ...
FIRE SAFETY PLAN
• A fire safety plan is required by all national, state and provincial fire codes based on building use o...
FIRE : FACTORS
• FIRE RESISTANCE
• FIRE DETECTORS
• MECHANICAL SMOKE EXTRACTOR
• VENTING SYSTEM
• FIRE EXIT
• FIRE LIFT
• ...
NORMS
EXTINGUISHNG
SYSTEM
• SPRINKLERS
• OPEN NOZZEL SYSTEM
• EXTINGUSHER WATER
PIPELINE
• FOAM EXTINGUSHING
SYSTEM
• CO2 EXTING...
PLUMBING SERVICESARE SERVICESTHATARE RESPONSIBLE FORTHE
INSTALLATIONAND MAINTENANCE OF PIPING, FIXTURESAND EQUIPMENT USED
...
IMPORTANCE OF SANITATION AND
PLUMBING SERVICES
• Plumbing and Sanitation plays a very important role in the health and saf...
REQUIREMENTS OF WATER SUPPLY IN
DIFFERENTTYPES OF BUILDING
BUILDING
TYPES FOR
OCCUPANCY
AND
SANITATION
SANITATION REQUIREMENTS
NOTES FOR GENERAL GUIDANCE
• For new construction: Provision shall be made for under ground tank for the storage
of water,...
• . Water Harvesting: Water harvesting through storing of water runoff including
rainwater in all new buildings on plots o...
SPACE IS ONE OFTHE ELEMENTSOF DESIGN OF ARCHITECTURE,AS SPACE IS
CONTINUOUSLY STUDIED FOR ITS USAGE. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNS...
SPACES REQUIRED
R
E
L
A
T
I
O
N
S
H
I
P
S
A
R
E
A
S
SPACE
NORMS
E
X
T
E
R
I
O
R
PEN
S
P
A
C
BIBLOGRAPHY
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architectural_acoustics
• https://www.slideshare.net/haroldtaylor1113/9-acoust...
THE END
BY.KASHISH DUGGAL
3RDYEAR
B.ARCH
SOUTH POINT SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE
Building services & Standards For Institutional Building
Building services & Standards For Institutional Building
Building services & Standards For Institutional Building
Building services & Standards For Institutional Building
Building services & Standards For Institutional Building
Building services & Standards For Institutional Building
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Building services & Standards For Institutional Building

The presentation contains services that are to be provided in an institutional building along with the standards for the services that should be present in a college . For more info refer TSS.

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Building services & Standards For Institutional Building

  1. 1. BUILDING SERVICES & STANDARDS ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN SUBMITTEDTO:AR.DEEPIKAVERMA AR.MANMOHAN
  2. 2. BUILDING SERVICES BUILDING SERVICES ARETHE SYSTEMS INSTALLED IN BUILDINGSTO MAKETHEM :- • COMFORTABLE • FUNCTIONAL • EFFICIENT • SAFE
  3. 3. C O N T E N T S • LIGHTNING & NATURAL VENTILATION • AIR CONDITIONING, HEATING & MECHANICAL VENTILATION • ACOUSTICS, SOUND INSULATION & NOISE CONTROL • ELECTRICAL & ALLIED INSTRUMENTS • INSTALLATION OF LIFTS, ESCALATORS & MOVING WALK • FIRE SAFETY • WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION • SPACES
  4. 4. LIGHTING OR ILLUMINATION ISTHE DELIBERATE USE OF LIGHTTO ACHIEVE A PRACTICAL OR AESTHETIC EFFECT. LIGHTING INCLUDESTHE USE OF BOTH ARTIFICIAL LIGHT SOURCES LIKE LAMPSAND LIGHT FIXTURES,ASWELL AS NATURAL ILLUMINATION BY CAPTURING DAYLIGHT. VENTILATION ISTHE INTENTIONAL INTRODUCTIONOF AMBIENTAIR INTO A SPACE AND IS MAINLY USEDTO CONTROL INDOORAIR QUALITY BY DILUTING AND DISPLACING INDOOR POLLUTANTS; IT CAN ALSO BE USED FOR PURPOSES OF THERMAL COMFORTOR DEHUMIDIFICATION. LIGHTING AND VENTILATION
  5. 5. LIGHTING Light in its natural or artificial form determines our perception. • It strikes surfaces, creating space, plasticity, contours and shadow. • Diffused, filtered, dimmed or reflected by materials, light creates new spaces and associations. • Light affects people and the environment - quantitatively, qualitatively and emotionally. • Light architecture, to us, is a holistic concept, a dance between artificial and natural light. Locally rooted, globally competent.
  6. 6. NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING Lighting includes the use of both artificial light sources like lamps andlight fixtures, as well as natural illumination by capturing daylight. Daylighting (using windows, skylights, or light shelves) is sometimes used as the main source of light during daytime in buildings.
  7. 7. VENTILATION TYPES OFVENTILATION • NATURALVENTILATION • WIND DRIVEN NATURALVENTILATION • BUOYANCY DRIVENVENTILATION • MECHANICALVENTILATION • ASSISTCONTROLVENTILATION • PRESSURE SUPPORT VENTILATION • PRESSURECONTROLVENTILATION
  8. 8. IMPORTANCE OFVENTILATION ● Helping to moderate internal temperatures. ● Helping to moderate internal humidity. ● Replenishing oxygen. ● Reducing the accumulation of moisture, odours, bacteria, dust, carbon dioxide, smoke and other contaminants that can build up during occupied periods. ● Creating air movement which improves the comfort of occupants.
  9. 9. ELECTRICAL APPLIANCES ARETHE APPLIANCES USEDTO PROVIDE HUMANS COMFORTTHAT WORK ON ELECTRICAL ENERGY USAGE ELECTRICAL AND ALLIED INSTRUMENTS
  10. 10. POWER USAGE OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS IN A RESIDENCE
  11. 11. HEATING,VENTILATION, AND AIR CONDITIONING (HVAC)[1] ISTHETECHNOLOGY OF INDOOR ANDVEHICULAR ENVIRONMENTAL COMFORT. ITS GOAL ISTO PROVIDE THERMAL COMFORT AND ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY. HVAC SYSTEM DESIGN IS A SUB DISCIPLINE OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, BASED ONTHE PRINCIPLES OF THERMODYNAMICS, FLUID MECHANICS, AND HEAT TRANSFER. HVAC (HEATING VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING)
  12. 12. HVAC : FACTORS • Air Quality • Air Movement • Dry-bulb temperatures • Fire Safety • Vibration & Noise • Energy Efficiency • Relative Humidity
  13. 13. HEATING • Heaters are appliances whose purpose is to generate heat (i.e. warmth) for the building. This can be done via central heating. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to heat water, steam, or air in a central location such as a furnace room in a home, or a mechanical room in a large building.The heat can be transferred by convection, conduction, or radiation. • TYPES OF RADIATORS • Cast Radiator • Steel Radiator • Tube Radiator • Flat Panel Radiator
  14. 14. VENTILATION FORCED OR MECHANIC VENTILATION • Mechanical, or forced, ventilation is provided by an air handler (AHU) and used to control • indoor air quality • Excess humidity • Odours • contaminants can often be controlled via dilution or replacement with outside air • . However, in humid climates more energy is required to remove excess moisture from ventilation air. NATURALVENTILATION • Natural ventilation is the ventilation of a building with outside air without using fans or other mechanical systems. It can be via • operable windows • louvers • trickle vents when spaces are small and the architecture permits • In more complex schemes, warm air is allowed to rise and flow out high building openings to the outside (stack effect), causing cool outside air to be drawn into low building openings
  15. 15. AIR HANDLING SYSTEMS F I L T E R S I L E N C E R H E AT I N G & C O O L I N G
  16. 16. AIR CONDITIONING • An air conditioning system, or a standalone air conditioner, provides cooling and humidity control for all or part of a building. • FACTORS • Refrigeration cycle • Free cooling • Packaged vs. split system • Dehumidification • Maintenance
  17. 17. AIR CONDITIONING • Air conditioned buildings often have sealed windows, because open windows would work against the system intended to maintain constant indoor air conditions. • Outside, fresh air is generally drawn into the system by a vent into the indoor heat exchanger section, creating positive air pressure.The percentage of return air made up of fresh air can usually be manipulated by adjusting the opening of this vent.Typical fresh air intake is about 10%. • The performance of vapour compression refrigeration cycles is limited by thermodynamics.These air conditioning and heat pump devices move heat rather than convert it from one form to another, so thermal efficiencies do not appropriately describe the performance of these devices. • In HVAC, air speed is defined as the rate of air movement at a point, without regard to direction.
  18. 18. COLD STORAGE • • The refrigerated storage in which all the produced food items are present
  19. 19. ACOUSTICS ISTHE INTERDISCIPLINARY SCIENCE THAT DEALSWITHTHE STUDY OF ALL MECHANICAL WAVES IN GASES, LIQUIDS, AND SOLIDS INCLUDING TOPICS SUCH ASVIBRATION, SOUND, ULTRASOUND AND INFRASOUND. IT COVERS REQUIREMENTS & GUIDELINES REGARDING PLANNING AGAINST NOISE, ACCEPTABLE NOISE LEVELS &THE REQUIREMENT FOR SOUND INSULATION IN BUILDING WITH DIFFERENT OCCUPANCIES. ACOUSTICS, SOUND INSULATION & NOISE CONTROL
  20. 20. SOUND • Sound can be described as a disturbance or turbulence which passes through a physical medium in the form of longitudinal waves from a source to a receiver causing a sensation of hearing. This medium could be solid, fluid or gas.
  21. 21. SOUND INSULATION • Soundproofing is any means of reducing the sound pressure with respect to a specified sound source and receptor.There are several basic approaches to reducing sound: • Increasing the distance between source and receiver • Using noise barriers to reflect or absorb the energy of the sound waves, using damping structures such as sound baffles • Using active antinomies sound generators. • Two distinct soundproofing problems may need to be considered when designing acoustic treatments - to improve the sound within a room and reduce sound leakage to/from adjacent rooms or outdoors.
  22. 22. BEHAVIOUR OF SOUND IN AN ENCLOSURE • The vibration of some of the materials can be a source of noise within the space and this can be a bane to the achievement of clear and audible speech and music. • The effect of indirect sound may be pronounced n spaces enclosed with materials that do not allow the passage of sound rays through them. Adjustments to the material to aid diffusion will improve the acoustic of the space. Some of these materials can absorb sound, reducing the effect of indirect sound. • Sound waves are likely to behave in following ways:- • Reflection • Refraction • Diffraction • Diffusion • Absorption • Transmission
  23. 23. OUTDOOR NOISE • There are two aspects of defence by planning: • The first is to plan so as to keep the noise at a distance. Under this aspect comes the separation of housing from traffic noise by interposing buffer zones, and the protection of schools and hospitals by green belts, public gardens, etc. • The second is the principle of shading or screening.This consists of deliberately interposing a less vulnerable building to screen a more vulnerable one or by providing a solid barrier, such as a wall, between the source and the location to be protected. •
  24. 24. I N D OO R N O I S E • The noises created inside the school premises are produced by students while learning.Which include • Singing, • instrumental • reproduced music • Which may take place in class rooms and in dining and assembly halls particularly in primary schools. In secondary schools, specialized music rooms are generally provided. • Movement of chairs, desks and tables at the end of one period may disturb a class engaged in a lesson in a room.
  25. 25. • Acoustic insulation of separating walls & floors between newly built dwellings & dwellings formed by a material change of use. • Noisy rooms should be separated from quiet ones, if possible. In general, it is desirable that rooms should be grouped together. • Noisy and quiet rooms should not open on to the same courtyard or be near to one another. Skylights and ventilators over noisy rooms should be avoided, if they are likely to be a source of noise. • Sliding doors should be avoided as they reduce insulation. • Acoustic characteristics of schools. Comprehensive guidance on requirements and ways of meeting them is covered by Building Bulletin.
  26. 26. INTERNAL PLANNING • The following principles should be observed in the detailed planning of educational buildings: • Grouping • Noisy rooms should be separated from quiet ones, if possible. In general, it is desirable that rooms should be grouped together. • Windows and ventilators • Windows of noisy and quiet rooms should not open on to the same courtyard or be near to one another. • Skylights and ventilators over noisy rooms should be avoided, if they are likely to be a source of nuisance to adjacent upper floors.
  27. 27. ACOUSTIC PROPERTIES • The fabric and the carpet( cassimere) even was selected to contribute to the acoustical properties. • The material of the door and some elements lubricated in the hall are designed to prevent the echo and noise. • The tapestry in Aula Magna has absorption capacity , when the room is empty does not distort the sound. • The flying clouds were not the part of actual design but as the hall wasn’t good at acoustics , so it needed sound insulators . The clouds provided elemental value to it.
  28. 28. THE UPWARD AND DOWNWARD MOVEMENT OF PEOPLE IN AN ERECTED MULTISTOREYED BUILDING IS PRINCIPALLY ACHIEVED LIFT LIFTS, ESCALATORS
  29. 29. L I F T S
  30. 30. E S C A L A T O R
  31. 31. STAIRCASE
  32. 32. C I R C U L A T I O N S N O R M S
  33. 33. FIRE SAFETY ISTHE SET OF PRACTICES INTENDEDTO REDUCETHE DESTRUCTION CAUSED BY FIRE. FIRE SAFETY MEASURES INCLUDETHOSETHAT ARE INTENDEDTO PREVENT IGNITION OF AN UNCONTROLLED FIRE, ANDTHOSETHATARE USEDTO LIMITTHE DEVELOPMENTAND EFFECTS OF A FIREAFTER IT STARTS. FIRE SAFETY
  34. 34. FIRE SAFETY • Fire safety is the set of practices intended to reduce the destruction caused by fire. Fire safety measures include those that are intended to prevent ignition of an uncontrolled fire, and those that are used to limit the development and effects of a fire after it starts. • The fire code, a model code adopted by the state or local jurisdiction and enforced by fire prevention officers within municipal fire departments. It is a set of rules prescribing minimum requirements to prevent fire and explosion hazards arising from storage, handling, or use of dangerous materials, or from other specific hazardous conditions. It complements the building code. • The fire code is aimed primarily at preventing fires, ensuring that necessary training and equipment will be on hand • that the original design basis of the building, including the basic plan set out by the architect, is not compromised. • The fire code also addresses inspection and maintenance requirements of various fire protection equipment in order to maintain optimal active fire protection and passive fire protection measures.
  35. 35. FIRE SAFETY PLAN • A fire safety plan is required by all national, state and provincial fire codes based on building use or occupancy types. Generally, the owner of the building is responsible for the preparation of a fire safety plan. Buildings with elaborate emergency systems may require the assistance of a fire protection consultant. Once approved, the owner is responsible for implementing the fire safety plan and training all staff in their duties. It is also the owner’s responsibility to ensure that all visitors and staff are informed of what to do in case of fire. • Fire safety plan structure • Key contact information • Utility services (Including shut-off valves for water, gas and electric) • Access issues • Dangerous stored materials • Location of people with special needs • Connections to sprinkler system • Layout, drawing, and site plan of building • Maintenance schedules for life safety systems • Personnel training and fire drill procedure • Create safe haven (zone)
  36. 36. FIRE : FACTORS • FIRE RESISTANCE • FIRE DETECTORS • MECHANICAL SMOKE EXTRACTOR • VENTING SYSTEM • FIRE EXIT • FIRE LIFT • FIRE DOOR • FIRE STAIRCASE • VOLUME PLOTAREA RATIO • FAR • FIREVENT
  37. 37. NORMS
  38. 38. EXTINGUISHNG SYSTEM • SPRINKLERS • OPEN NOZZEL SYSTEM • EXTINGUSHER WATER PIPELINE • FOAM EXTINGUSHING SYSTEM • CO2 EXTINGUSHER SYSTEM • HALON ROOM PROTECTION SYSTEM • POWDER EXTINGUSHER SYSTEM
  39. 39. PLUMBING SERVICESARE SERVICESTHATARE RESPONSIBLE FORTHE INSTALLATIONAND MAINTENANCE OF PIPING, FIXTURESAND EQUIPMENT USED FORTHE DELIVERYOF WATER, FUEL GASES, COMPRESSEDAIR, STORMAND SANITARY SEWERSWITHINTHE BUILDINGS. SANITATION ISTHE MEANS OF PROMOTING HYGIENE THROUGHTHE PREVENTION OF HUMAN CONTACTWITH HAZARDS OF WASTES ESPECIALLY FAECES, BY PROPERTREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OFTHE WASTE, OFTEN MIXED INTO WASTEWATER PLUMBING AND SANITATION
  40. 40. IMPORTANCE OF SANITATION AND PLUMBING SERVICES • Plumbing and Sanitation plays a very important role in the health and safety of modern society. If there was no proper sanitation system many communities would suffer from a large number of water borne diseases. • Proper sanitation system plays an important role in protecting humans and gives hygienic atmosphere to live • Plumbing brings comfort and beauty into homes and lives. Kitchens and bathrooms not only serve functional purposes; they provide the refuge of comforting meals, soothing baths and restorative relaxation. • The increased use of water-efficient plumbing is an important.
  41. 41. REQUIREMENTS OF WATER SUPPLY IN DIFFERENTTYPES OF BUILDING
  42. 42. BUILDING TYPES FOR OCCUPANCY AND SANITATION
  43. 43. SANITATION REQUIREMENTS
  44. 44. NOTES FOR GENERAL GUIDANCE • For new construction: Provision shall be made for under ground tank for the storage of water, having capacity at 200 l. per person with adequate pumping arrangements to supply water to upper floors. • Filtered water connection will be allowed only for use of drinking and bathing needs. For other purposes i.e. flushing and gardening etc., the individual shall be required to have own arrangements of tube well water within the premises. • While according sanction to Layout Plan, the Authority shall make a special mention that provision for space shall be kept for the construction of under ground reservoir of adequate capacity along with booster pumping station. • Arrangements as given in above shall also be provided in Group Housing Societies. • The plumbing arrangement in case of new constructions shall be made in a way that the potable water shall be used for drinking, cooking & bathing only and for rest of the uses, provision for ground water can be made with dual piping system. • Low capacity cistern should preferably be provided instead of normal 12.5 l. capacity.
  45. 45. • . Water Harvesting: Water harvesting through storing of water runoff including rainwater in all new buildings on plots of 100 sq. m. and above will be mandatory. The plans submitted to the local bodies shall indicate the system of storm water drainage along with points of collection of rain water in surface reservoirs or in recharge wells. • All building having a minimum discharge of 10,000 l. and above per day shall incorporate waste water recycling system.The recycled water should be used for horticultural purposes.
  46. 46. SPACE IS ONE OFTHE ELEMENTSOF DESIGN OF ARCHITECTURE,AS SPACE IS CONTINUOUSLY STUDIED FOR ITS USAGE. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNSARE CREATED BY CARVING SPACE OUT OF SPACE, CREATING SPACE OUT OF SPACE, AND DESIGNING SPACES BY DIVIDINGTHIS SPACE USINGVARIOUSTOOLS, SUCH AS GEOMETRY, COLOURS,AND SHAPES. IT IS AN UNDEFINED EXPANSEOF LANDGIVENTO AN ARCHITECTTO DEFINE. SPACE USAGE
  47. 47. SPACES REQUIRED
  48. 48. R E L A T I O N S H I P S A R E A S
  49. 49. SPACE NORMS
  50. 50. E X T E R I O R PEN S P A C
  51. 51. BIBLOGRAPHY • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Architectural_acoustics • https://www.slideshare.net/haroldtaylor1113/9-acoustics-sound-and-noise-control • file:///C:/Users/hp/Documents/Desktop/Storm%20W%20Software/Books/NBC%202016-VOL.2.pdf.pdf • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermal_comfort#Air_speed • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refrigeration • http://www.nacubo.org/Documents/FINAL%20Space%20Planning%20Guidelines.pdf • http://www.nacubo.org/Documents/FINAL%20Space%20Planning%20Guidelines.pdf • https://webcpm.com/Articles/2013/06/01/Creating-Collaborative-Space.aspx?Page=2 • http://www.smg.ac.uk/documents/spacenorms.pdf • http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/design/how-architecture-uses-space-light-and-material-to-affect-your- mood-american-institute-architects-a6985986.html • http://moud.gov.in/upload/uploadfiles/files/Chap-4.pdf
  52. 52. THE END BY.KASHISH DUGGAL 3RDYEAR B.ARCH SOUTH POINT SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE

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