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Research designs in nursing

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This is regarding the research designs used in nursing

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Research designs in nursing

  1. 1. S. D. Kavitha Devaraj
  2. 2. Research Design  Blue print  Back bone  Overall Plan  Framework  Master plan  A Strategy
  3. 3. Purposes of Research Design  Scheme for answering the question  Control bias  Organize the study
  4. 4. Characteristics of a good design  Control of bias.  Capable of obtaining the most reliable and valid data.  Helps an investigator avoid making mistaken conclusions  Control the various threats of validity, both internal and external.
  5. 5. FEATURES OF A GOOD DESIGN OBJECTIVITY VALIDITY RELIABILITY GENERALIZABILIY
  6. 6. ELEMENTS OF RESEARCH DESIGN APPROAC H SAMPLE& SAMPLING SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION TOOLS AND METHODS DATA ANALYSIS
  7. 7. RESEARCH DESIGNS RESEARCH DESIGNS QUANTITATIVE QUALITATIVE
  8. 8. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN EXPERIMENTAL NON EXPERIMENTAL OTHER METHODS
  9. 9. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS PHENOMENOLOGICAL ETHNOGRAPHIC GROUNDED THEORY CASE STUDIES HISTORICAL RESEARCH ACTION RESEARCH
  10. 10. OTHER RESEARCH DESIGNS Methodological studies Meta- analysis Secondary data analysis Outcome research Evaluation studies Operational research
  11. 11. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN True or Classical Experimental design Pre-experimental design Quasi-experimental design
  12. 12. TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Pre-test post-test control group Post-test only experimental design Solomon four group design Factorial design Randomized block design Cross-over design Latin square design
  13. 13. QUASI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Non randomized /non equivalent control group design Time series design
  14. 14. PRE – EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN One- shot case design One group pretest post test design
  15. 15. RESEARCH DESIGNS IN NURSING Descriptive / exploratory Correlational True Experimental Quasi experimental Pre experimental Outcome research Evaluation studies
  16. 16. DESCRIPTIVE STUDY  Picture of a situation as it naturally happens  Two or more variables  No manipulation of variables  Search for accurate information  More information about the characteristics
  17. 17. TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE STUDIES USED IN NURSING • Describe the frequency of occurrence rather than a study relationship Uni-variant descriptive design • Investigating the phenomenon and its related factors about which very little is known Exploratory descriptive design • Comparing occurrences of two or more groups Comparative descriptive design:
  18. 18. Advantages of descriptive study Develop theories Identify problems with current practices Justify current practices Accurate information Disadvantages Information collected is very brief and superficial Time consuming process
  19. 19. CORRELATIONAL /EX-POST FACTO DESIGN The researcher examines the relationship between two or more variables in a natural setting without manipulation or control.
  20. 20. TYPES OF CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH DESIGNS USED NURSING Prospective Retrospective
  21. 21. TYPES OF CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH DESIGN Prospective design • Examining relationship between cause to effect Retrospective design • Examining relationship between effect to cause
  22. 22. Advantages: Increase flexibility during examining the relationship Effective and efficient method in collecting large amount of data Exploring a relationship between variables. Opens up further research Disadvantages: Only uncovers a relationship Cannot provide reason for relationship No randomization Unable to determine causal relationship
  23. 23. EXPERIMETNAL RESEARCH DESIGN Observation under controlled conditions Conducted with scientific approach Examining the effect of independent variable on dependent variable. Manipulation of independent variable Testing hypotheses of causal relationship among variables
  24. 24. TYPES OF EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH IN NURSING True or Classical Experimental design Pre-experimental design Quasi-experimental design
  25. 25. ELEMENTS OF TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Manipulation Control Randomization
  26. 26. TRUE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN  Control over extraneous variables.  Observed effect on dependent variable is only due to the manipulation of independent variable  Consists of all three elements control, randomization and manipulation  3 types of experimental designs are commnonly used in Nursing.
  27. 27. 3 TYPES OF TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS ARE COMMONLY USED IN NURSING. Pre- test post test control group Post-test only control design Solomon –four group design
  28. 28. POST-TEST ONLY CONTROL GROUP DESIGN
  29. 29. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF TRUE EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN ADVANTAGES  Most appropriate for testing cause and effect relationship.  Most appropriate for testing the hypothesis. DISADVANTAGES  Ethical considerations for human subjects.  Pre test can affect the post test response.
  30. 30. QUASI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN  Involves manipulation of independent variable.  Lack one characteristics of true experimental design.  Either randomization or control exists.  Test cause and effect relationship.
  31. 31. TYPES OF QUASI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Non randomized /non equivalent control group design Time series design
  32. 32. QUASI EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS USED IN NURSING RESEARH NON RANDOMIZED CONTROL GROUP DESIGN:  Other name Non-equivalent control group design.  Identical to pretest posttest control group design except randomization.  No random assignment of subjects in experimental and control group  Common in Nursing research.
  33. 33. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages:  More practical  Feasible  Suitable in nursing research  Able to establish causal relationship. Disadvantages:  No control over extraneous variables  Lack of control over the research setting.
  34. 34. PRE EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN This design is considered as very weak, as the researcher has very little control over the experiment Types One- shot case design One group pretest post test design
  35. 35. ONE SHOT CASE DESIGN  Single experimental group.  No random assignment of the subjects  No control group
  36. 36. ONE GROUP PRETEST POSTTEST DESIGN  Simplest type  Only experimental group is selected  Pre test observation is done prior to the treatment  No control group
  37. 37. ONE GROUP PRETEST POST TEST DESIGN
  38. 38. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages  Very simple  Convenient  Suitable for the beginners Disadvantages:  Very weak experimental design  Selection bias  Higher threat of internal validity
  39. 39. OTHER DESIGNS USED IN NURSING Outcome research • Involves the care practices and systems. • To develop evidence based practice Evaluation studies • Judgment about success of programmes, procedures and policies
  40. 40. FACTORS AFFECTING RESEARCH DESIGN  Nature of the research problem  Purpose of the study  Researcher’s knowledge and experience  Researcher’s interest & motivation  Research ethics and principles  Subjects and participants  Resources  Time  Extraneous variables.
  41. 41. CURRENT CHALLENGES OF RESEARCH DESIGNS IN NURSING FIELD  Selecting the best research design  Performing the collection of data without errors  Use experimental Research  Use qualitative Research  Studies to support Nursing practice, education, administration, health promotion etc..  Feasible  Relevant  Time consuming studies

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