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Lkk01 Computer Hardware and Networking ppt

Computer Hardware and Networking

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Lkk01 Computer Hardware and Networking ppt

  1. 1. COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING By, L. K. Kothwar Lecturer – Electronics Engg Government Polytechnic Ambad, Jalna, MH
  2. 2. COURSE OBJECTIVES After completion of this course you will able to: • Understand principle, construction, working of computer peripherals • Select cost effective, good quality reliable peripherals and equipment • Identify the problem as hardware or software related. • Identify and repair the simple faults in computer systems. • Plan, analyze, design, install, configure, test, implement and maintain networking systems Application : • Selection of appropriate hardware based on application • Repair and maintenance of PC’s • Plan, analyze, design, install, configure, test, implement and maintain networking systems 2
  3. 3. CONCEPT MAPPING 3 COMPUTER (Hardware & Networking) Types DIGITAL •Micro •Home •PC •Mainframe •Super •Mini ANALOG HYBRID Hardware CPU •ALU •Motherb oard •Chipset •Intel 945 G •Register MEMORY •DDR RAMs •Cache •Internal •External •L1,L2,L3 •CD/DVD ROM •BIOS I/O DEVICES • Keyboard • Mouse • Monitor POWER SUPPLY • SMPS • UPS • USB Software SYSTEM SOFT • O/S • Utility Programs etc APPLICATION SOFT • Web • Mobile etc Networking CLASSIFI- CATIONS •LAN •WAN •MAN •Peer to Peer TOPOLOGY CABLES • Coaxial • UTP • STP • Fiber Optics STANDARDS • Ethernet • Ring • Token • Wireless DEVICES & MODELS • OSI • Interlayer Comm • TCP/IP Hubs Switches Routers Bridge Repeaters Gateways Firewalls Diagnostic, Testing& Maintenance • Preventive • Passive
  4. 4. Unit 1: MOTHERBOARD AND PERIPHERALS
  5. 5. OBJECTIVES After completion of this unit you will able to: • Identify different components and their function on motherboard • Identify and compare storage devices • Write specifications, select appropriate monitor and compare LCD and CRT monitors • Understand principle, construction and working of peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5 Motherboard & Peripherals
  6. 6. CONTENTS • Different types of PC configurations and their comparison, Chipset basic, Architecture of Intel 945 G • Overview and features of ISA, PCI-X, PCI-Xpress • Overview features and types of DDR RAMs, Concept of cache memory : Internal cache, External cache (L1, L2, L3 cache), OS Basics • CD/DVD ROM drive : Construction, recording, comparison • LCD monitor: functional block diagram of LCD monitor, working principle, Types- Passive matrix and Active matrix. important characteristics - Resolution, Refresh rate, Response time. Comparison of CRT display and LCD display • Construction, working & Installation of Keyboard, mouse, Scanner and printer. • Keyboard: Membrane and mechanical only. • Mouse: Optical only, Scanner: Flatbed only, Printer: Dot matrix, Inkjet, and Laser only Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  7. 7. TYPES OF PC BASED ON CONFIGURATIONS • Different types of PC Based on configurations • Comparison 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 7 Motherboard & Peripherals Computer Digital Micro Home PC Mainframe Super MiniAnalog Hybrid
  8. 8. TYPES OF PC BASED ON CONFIGURATIONS • DIGITAL COMPUTER • ANALOG COMPUTER • HYBRID COMPUTER 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 8 Motherboard & Peripherals
  9. 9. TYPES OF PC BASED ON CONFIGURATIONS • DIGITAL COMPUTER • A Digital Computer works with digits to represent numerals, letters or other special symbols. • Digital Computers operate on inputs which are ON-OFF type and its output is also in the form of ON-OFF signal. • Normally, an ON is represented by a 1 and an OFF is represented by a 0. • A digital computer can be used to process numeric as well as non- numeric data. • ANALOG COMPUTER • HYBRID COMPUTER 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 9 Motherboard & Peripherals
  10. 10. TYPES OF PC BASED ON CONFIGURATIONS • DIGITAL COMPUTER • ANALOG COMPUTER • Analog computers are used to process analog data. Analog data is of continuous nature and which is not discrete or separate. • Such type of data includes temperature, pressure, speedweight, voltage, depth etc. • These quantities are continuous and having an infinite variety of values. • HYBRID COMPUTER 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 10 Motherboard & Peripherals
  11. 11. TYPES OF PC BASED ON CONFIGURATIONS • DIGITAL COMPUTER • ANALOG COMPUTER • HYBRID COMPUTER • A hybrid is a combination of digital and analog computers. • It combines the best features of both types of computers,i-e. It has the speed of analog computer and the memory and accuracy ofdigital computer. • Hybrid computers are used mainly in specialized applications where both kinds of data need to be processed. Therefore, they help the user, to process both continuous and discrete data. 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 11 Motherboard & Peripherals
  12. 12. TYPES OF PC BASED ON CONFIGURATIONS What makes a computer powerful? • Speed • A computer can do billions of actions per second. • Reliability • Failures are usually due to human error, one way or another. • Storage • A computer can keep huge amounts of data. • Digital Computer Categories • Mobile Computer • Microcomputer • Minicomputers • Mainframes • Supercomputer 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 12 Motherboard & Peripherals
  13. 13. COMPUTER OPERATIONS • The computer is an electronic machine that performs the following five basic operations: • Input • Process • Store • Control • Output 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 13 Motherboard & Peripherals Memory Unit Control Unit ALU INPUT OUTPUT Take Input Output Information Control the workflow Store Data Process Data CPU
  14. 14. HARDWARE vs SOFTWARE • Hardware: It is any part of your computer that has a physical structure, such as the computer monitor or keyboard. • Software: It is any set of instructions that tells the hardware what to do. It is what guides the hardware and tells it how to accomplish each task. 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 14 Motherboard & Peripherals
  15. 15. BASIC COMPUTER COMPONENTS 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 15 Motherboard & Peripherals DISPLAY UNIT MAINBOARD PRINTER EXTERNAL HARD DRIVE MOUSE KEYBOARD CPU PLUG IN MEMORY MODULE POWER SUPPLY UNIT SCANNER HARD DISK DRIVE SPEAKER PLUG IN CKT MODULE CD/DVD ROM DRIVE
  16. 16. COMPUTER COMPONENTS • System Unit • The system unit is the core of a computer system. • The most important of these components is the central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor, which acts as the "brain" of your computer. • Another component is random access memory (RAM), which temporarily stores information that the CPU uses while the computer is on. • Almost every other part of your computer connects to the system unit using cables. 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 16 Motherboard & Peripherals
  17. 17. COMPUTER COMPONENTS • Computer Case • Where all of the components are stored. • The computer case serves mainly as a way to physically mount and contain all of the actual computer components. • Cases typically come bundled with a power supply. • Two types of casing: • Tower • Desktop • Desktop and tower computers are two different styles of computer case that use desk space in varying ways. • Desktop computers are designed to lay flat on the desk, while towers stand upright 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 17 Motherboard & Peripherals
  18. 18. COMPUTER COMPONENTS • Power Supply • Used to sends power to all of the other hardware so they can operate. • Two types of power supply: • –AT (Advanced Technology) • –ATX (Advanced Technology Extended) • Central Processing Unit (CPU) • The CPU, or the Central Processing Unit, is the brain of the computer and the single most important chip in the computer. • The CPU performs the system's calculating and processing. 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 18 Motherboard & Peripherals
  19. 19. COMPUTER COMPONENTS • Computer Memory • Also known as Random Access Memory (RAM) • Computer memory is used to store information in electronic devices. • Motherboard • The main circuit board of the computer. • All key internal and external components of the computer plug into the Motherboard. • Components directly attached to the motherboard include: • CPU, Chipset, Random-Access Memory(RAM), Read-Only Memory(ROM), BIOS(Basic Input Output System), Buses, Ports 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 19 Motherboard & Peripherals
  20. 20. • Motherboard 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 20 Motherboard & Peripherals
  21. 21. COMPUTER COMPONENTS • Hard disk • It used to store computer data and program. • It can hold more data and are faster than floppy disks • Optical Disc Drive • An optical storage technology that stores and plays back data. • Some drives can only read from discs, but recent drives are commonly both readers and recorders. 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 21 Motherboard & Peripherals
  22. 22. COMPUTER COMPONENTS • Video card • A board that plugs into a personal computer to give it display capabilities. • The display capabilities of a computer, however, depend on both the logical circuitry (provided in the video adapter) and the display monitor. • Sound card • A circuit board that plugs into your Motherboard that adds audio capability to your computer, providing high quality stereo output to the speakers. 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 22 Motherboard & Peripherals
  23. 23. COMPUTER COMPONENTS • Modem • Short for modulator-demodulator. • A modem is a device or program that enables a computer to transmit data over, for example, telephone or cable lines. • Monitor • The part of a computer that allows you to see what the computer is processing. • Other Components •Input Devices –Keyboard, mouse •Output Devices –Printer, speakers •Operating System –Windows, MacOS, Linux 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 23 Motherboard & Peripherals
  24. 24. • The CPU is the hardware device in a computer that executes all of the instructions from the software CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 24 Motherboard & Peripherals CPU ROM RAM I/O BUS INTERFACE UNIT ALU Timing & Control ADDRESS BUS DATA BUS CONTROL BUS Fig: - A simple CPU design
  25. 25. • The bus interface unit takes the data to & from the CPU along the Data bus to Read/Write memory & Input/output devices. This is a two way bus. The bus interface unit also places the required location addresses on to the Address Bus, so that the input/output devices can be accessed. The ALU carries out all the calculations & decisions. The Control bus gives indications of whether the CPU is currently reading or writing to memory or to I/O devices. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 25 Motherboard & Peripherals
  26. 26. • ROM (Read Only Memory) • Once data has been written onto a ROM chip, it cannot be removed and can only be read. Unlike main memory (RAM), ROM retains its contents even when the computer is turned off. ROM is referred to as being nonvolatile, whereas RAM is volatile. • RAM • I/O • ADDRESS BUS • DATA BUS • INTERNAL REGISTER CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 26 Motherboard & Peripherals
  27. 27. • ROM • RAM (Random Access Memory) • It is the internal memory of the CPU for storing data, program, and program result. It is a read/write memory which stores data until the machine is working. As soon as the machine is switched off, data is erased. • I/O • ADDRESS BUS • DATA BUS • INTERNAL REGISTER CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 27 Motherboard & Peripherals
  28. 28. • ROM • RAM • I/O • ADDRESS BUS • The address bus is the set of wires that carries the addressing information used to describe the memory location to which the data is being sent or from which the data is being retrieved. • The size (or width) of the address bus indicates the maximum amount of RAM a chip can address. • DATA BUS • INTERNAL REGISTER CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 28 Motherboard & Peripherals
  29. 29. • ROM • RAM • I/O • ADDRESS BUS • DATA BUS • The bundle of wires (or pins) used to send and receive data. • The more signals that can be sent at the same time, the more data can be transmitted in a specified interval and, therefore, the faster (and wider) the bus. • Modern processors data bus can transfer 64 bits of data at a time to and from the motherboard chipset or system memory. • INTERNAL REGISTER CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 29 Motherboard & Peripherals
  30. 30. • ROM • RAM • I/O • ADDRESS BUS • DATA BUS • INTERNAL REGISTER • The size of the internal registers indicates how much information the processor can operate on at one time and how it moves data around internally within the chip. This is sometimes also referred to as the internal data bus. • A register is a holding cell within the processor. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 30 Motherboard & Peripherals
  31. 31. • Modes of operation of CPU : Processor modes refer to the various ways that the processor creates an operating environment for itself. Specifically, the processor mode controls how the processor sees and manages the system memory and the tasks that use it. • Real Mode • IA-32 (Intel Architecture - 32)(Protected) Mode • IA-32 Virtual Real Mode CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 31 Motherboard & Peripherals
  32. 32. • Process Technologies: Dual Independent Bus Architecture • DIB uses two buses: 1. One from the processor to main memory, and The other from the processor to the L2 cache. 2. The processor can access both buses simultaneously, which increases throughput. • Hyper-Threading Technology: 1. HT Technology enables a single processor to execute 2 separate code streams (called threads) concurrently. 2. HT technology allows 1 physical processor to appear as 2 “logical” processors to software (O/S and applications). • Each logical processor has its own architecture state with its own set of general-purpose and control registers • Some resources are shared (caches, exe units, buses, etc) CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 32 Motherboard & Peripherals
  33. 33. • Processor Sockets & Slots: • A CPU socket or CPU slot is a mechanical component(s) that provides mechanical and electrical connections between a microprocessor and a printed circuit board (PCB). • This allows the CPU to be replaced without soldering. • A CPU socket is made of plastic, a lever or latch, and metal contacts for each of the pins or lands on the CPU. CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 33 Motherboard & Peripherals Fig: CPU Socket 775
  34. 34. • A chipset is a set of electronic components in an integrated circuit that manages the data flow between the processor, memory and peripherals. It is usually found in the motherboard of a computer. CHIPSET BASIC 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 34 Motherboard & Peripherals SOUTH BRIDGE PROCESSOR NORTH BRIDGEAGP RAM PCI ISA HDDI SCSI BIOS LAN
  35. 35. • Northbridge 1. Northbridge is also called Memory Controller Hub (MCH) in Intel Systems. It is one of the two chips in the core logic chipset on the PC motherboard. 2. It handles communication between CPU, RAM, AGP or PCI Express and the Southbridge. 3. Some North-bridges also have the integrated Video controller called Graphics Memory Controller Hub (GMCH). 4. Since different processors and RAM require different signaling, a north-bridge will work with one or two types of CPU and only one type of RAM It provides the number, Speed, type of CPU, Size, type of RAM that can be used. 5. The north-bridge plays an important role in deciding how far a computer can be over- clocked. 6. It uses a heat sink and some kind of cooling (Fan). • South bridge 1. The Southbridge, also known as the I/O Controller Hub (ICH) 2. It is a chip that implements the "slower" capabilities of the motherboard in north bridge/south bridge chipset computer architecture. 3. It is not directly connected to the CPU. Rather, the north bridge ties the south bridge to the CPU. 4. A particular type of south bridge may work with different north bridge chipsets. 5. The interface between the north bridge and the south bridge is the PCI bus. 6. Bridge connection from Memory Controller Hub to slower devices like USB devices, PCI-X, IDE(SATA/PATA), Real Time Clock, BIOS, onboard sound and more CHIPSET BASIC 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 35 Motherboard & Peripherals
  36. 36. Architecture of Intel 945 G 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 36 Motherboard & Peripherals
  37. 37. • Latest chipset for PC Latest chipset for PC 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 37 Motherboard & Peripherals
  38. 38. BUSES : ISA,PCI-X, PCI-Xpress • ISA (industry Standard Architecture) • ISA is the first open s/m bus architecture used for IBM-Type personal computer. • Both 8-bit and 16-bit version of ISA bus are available 1. 8-bit ISA bus: 2. 16-bit ISA bus • Features Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  39. 39. BUSES : ISA,PCI-X, PCI-Xpress • PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect): • It is high performance Bus that is used to integrate chips, processor, memory subsystems and expansion boards. • Features of PCI bus: 1. Extremely High-speed data transfer: 32 bit wide data transfer @33 MHz gives a maximum throughput of 132 mbps. Data transfer @66 MHz with 64 bit wide data is now being offered. 2. Plug & play facility: A PCI board inserted in any PCI slot is automatically detected & the required i/o & memory resources are allotted by the system. 3. New Approach: It moves peripherals of the i/o bus & places them closer to the system processor bus. Thereby providing faster data transfer between the processor & peripherals. 4. Processor Independent: The PCI local bus fulfills the need for the local bus standard that is not directly dependent on the speed & structure of processor bus, and that is both reliable and expandable. 5. Full multi master capability: This allows any PCI master to communicate directly with other PCI master slave. 6. Parity on both data & address line: This allows implementation of robust systems (Robustness is defined as "the ability of a system to resist change without adapting its initial stable configuration") support for both 5 V & 3.3 V operated logic. 7. Forward & backward compatibility between 66MHz & 33MHz PCI Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  40. 40. BUSES : ISA,PCI-X, PCI-Xpress • PCI-X: PCI-X (Peripheral Component Interconnect Extended) is a computer bus technology that increases the frequency of the data bus from 66MHz to 133MHz. • Features of PCI-X bus: 1. Up to 133MHz bus speed 2. 64 bit bandwidth 3. 1 Gbps throughput 4. More efficient bus operation for easier interface. 5. Split transaction allows & indicator device to make only one data request & release the bus, instead of constantly needing to poll the bus for response. 6. Byte count that enables indicators to specify in advanced, the specific number of bytes requested, eliminating the inefficiency of involving a high risk of loss pre fetches. 7. Backward compatibility. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  41. 41. BUSES : ISA,PCI-X, PCI-Xpress • PCI-Express (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe)): • It is a scalable Input/output (I/O) serial bus technology that largely replaced earlier PCI slots on motherboards. • Features of PCI Express: 1. Point-to-Point connection: PCI Express is a point-to-point connection, which means it does not share bandwidth but communicates directly with devices via a switch that directs data flow. 2. Hot Swapping & Plugging: This allows for "hot swapping" or "hot plugging," which means cards in PCIe slots can be changed without shutting down the computer. 3. Less Power Consumption: It consumes less power than previous PCI technology. 4. Scalable: One of the most promising features of PCI-Express is that it is scalable, which means greater bandwidth can be achieved through adding more "lanes." Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  42. 42. MEMORIES • Memory : It is workplace for the processor or temporary storage area • RAM (Random Access Memory) is where data is stored that's being accessed by the CPU. • Types of RAM: 1. Static RAM: • (Static RAM or SRAM) that holds data in a static form, that is, as long as the memory has power. • Unlike dynamic RAM, it does not need to be refreshed. • Stores a bit of data on four transistors using two cross-coupled inverters. • Faster and less volatile than dynamic RAM, but it requires more power and is more expensive. 2. Dynamic RAM: • stores each bit in a storage cell consisting of a capacitor and a transistor. Capacitors tend to lose their charge rather quickly; thus, the need for recharging or refreshing. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  43. 43. MEMORIES • Types of DRAM: 1. FPM (Fast Page Mode): • Traditional RAM for PC. • Mounted in single inline memory module (SIMM) of 2MB, 4MB, 8MB, 16MB, 32MB. 2. EDO (Extended Data Out): It is faster than FPM RAM. EDO have improvement in performance 2% to 5% compared with FPM. 3. ECC (Error Correcting Code): It is special error correcting RAM used in server. 4. SDRAM (Synchronous Dynamic RAM): • It synchronizes data transfer between the CPU and memory. • Allows the CPU to process data while another process is being queued. • Features of SDRAM: • All SDRAM chips for desktop PC have 168 pins • Speed of SDRAM is 100 MHz & 133 MHz • Available in sizes 32MB, 64MB, 128MB, 256MB, 512MB, & 1GB • Operating Voltage 3.3 V • Architecture used Synchronous • Operating Max Temperature is 85oC • It Pre-fetches 1 bit at a time Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  44. 44. MEMORIES • DDR (Double Data Rate SDRAM): also called DDR1 SDRAM. • DDR SDRAM (double data rate SDRAM) is synchronous dynamic RAM (SDRAM) that can theoretically improve memory clock speed to at least 200 MHz • Features of DDR SDRAM: • Chips have 184 pins. • Comes in different speeds i.e.100Mhz, 133MHz, 166MHz, 200MHz • DDR is twice as fast as SDRAM • Operating Voltage 2.5 V • Architecture used is Source Synchronous (it refers to the technique of having the transmitting device send a clock signal along with the data signals.) • Operating Max Temperature – 85oC • It Pre-fetches 2 bit at a time Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  45. 45. MEMORIES • DDR2 (Double Data Rate 2 SDRAM): Features of DDR2: • The DDR2 RAM chip has 240 pins • DDR2 operate at data rates of 400MHz, 533MHz, 667MHz, & above • Higher Bandwidth • Lower power 1.8V • Architecture used source synchronous • It pre-fetches 4 bits at a time • Operating Max Temperature – 95oC • DDR3 (Double Data Rate 3 RAM): Features of DDR3: • Introduction to asynchronous RESET pin. • Support system level same delay compensation. On DIMM (dual in-line memory module) mirror friendly DRAM pin out. • Introduction of CWL (CAS Write Latency) per Speed bin. • On-die I/O calibration engine. • READ & WRITE calibration. • It works on very low power i.e.1.5V • DDR3 operate at data rates of 800MHz, 1066MHz, 1333MHZ, 1600MHz, & above. • It pre-fetches 8 bits at a time. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  46. 46. CACHE MEMORY •“The cache is a very high speed and very expensive piece of memory, which is used to speed up the memory retrieval process.” • Recently used instructions and data are kept in a very fast memory so that the CPU does not have to access the main memory every time it requires access to data. • Cache memory is random access memory (RAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  47. 47. CACHE MEMORY • As the microprocessor processes data, it looks first in the cache memory and if it finds the data there (from a previous reading of data), it does not have to do the more time-consuming reading of data from larger memory. • Cache is a smaller, faster, memory which stores copies of data from most frequently used main memory location. • Cache memory is a high speed memory buffer that processor need allows processor to retrieve data faster than it will come from main memory. • The advantage of cache memory is that CPU does not have to use the motherboard bus for data transfer. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  48. 48. CACHE MEMORY •Types of Cache Memory: • L1 (Level 1 or Internal or Primary) Cache • L2 (Level 2 or External or Secondary) Cache • L3 Cache Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  49. 49. CACHE MEMORY •Types of Cache Memory: • L1 (Level 1 or Internal or Primary) Cache: • Called primary cache, is a static memory integrated with processor core that is used to store information recently accessed by a processor. • The purpose is to improve data access speed in cases when the CPU accesses the same data multiple times. • The L1 cache typically ranges in size from 8KB to 64KB and uses the high- speed SRAM (static RAM) instead of the slower and cheaper DRAM (dynamic RAM) used for main memory. • L2 (Level 2 or External or Secondary) Cache: • L3 Cache: Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  50. 50. CACHE MEMORY •Types of Cache Memory: • L1 (Level 1 or Internal or Primary) Cache • L2 (Level 2 or External or Secondary) Cache: • Called secondary cache, is a memory that is used to store recently accessed information. • The goal of having the level 2 cache is to reduce data access time in cases when the same data was already accessed before. This also reduces data access time. • Please note that the level 2 caches is secondary to the CPU - it is not as fast as the level 1 cache, although it is usually much larger. • All data that is requested from level 2 cache is copied to level 1 cache. Requested data stays in the secondary cache if it's an inclusive cache, and is removed from secondary cache if it's an exclusive cache. • L2 caches come between L1 and RAM (processor-L1-L2-RAM) and are bigger than the primary cache (typically 64KB to 4MB). • L3 Cache: Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  51. 51. CACHE MEMORY •Types of Cache Memory: • L1 (Level 1 or Internal or Primary) Cache • L2 (Level 2 or External or Secondary) Cache • L3 Cache: • L3 caches are found on the motherboard rather than the processor. It is kept between RAM and L2 cache. • Cache Hit: A request to read from memory which can satisfy from the cache without using the main memory. • Cache Miss: A request to read from memory which cannot be satisfied from the cache, for which the main memory has to be consulted. • The percentage time cache hit is called as Cache Hit Ratio Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  52. 52. BIOS BASICS •Definition: Basic Input/output System, the BIOS, ROM BIOS, or System BIOS is a chip located on all motherboards that contain instructions and setup for how your system should boot and how it operates. • The main function of BIOS in a computer is to offer a small library of basic input/output functions that are used to run and manage computer peripherals. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  53. 53. BIOS BASICS • Main functions that the BIOS perform include: • A power-on self-test (POST) for all of the different hardware components in the system to make sure everything is working properly • Activating other BIOS chips on different cards installed in the computer - For example, SCSI and graphics cards often have their own BIOS chips. • Providing a set of low-level routines that the operating system uses to interface to different hardware devices. Managing a collection of settings for the hard disks, clock, etc. • The BIOS is special software that interfaces the major hardware components of your computer with the operating system. It is usually stored on a Flash memory chip on the motherboard, but sometimes the chip is another type of ROM. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  54. 54. BIOS BASICS • CMOS • The CMOS setup utility is used to setup the hardware configuration of your computer's motherboard. It's the same function as the BIOS utility. It has things like disk boot order, RAM settings, and system clock settings (so your computer knows what time it is). • “There are some differences between a warm and cold booting. A warm boot is what happens when a computer is running and it is restarted. A cold boot is when the computer is already off and the power is turned on.” • To boot (also "to boot up") a computer is to load an operating system into the computer's main memory or random access memory (RAM). • A bootstrap is the process of starting up a computer. It also refers to the program that initializes the operating system (OS) during start-up. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  55. 55. Motherboard Selection Criteria •Knowing What to Look For: • It helps to think like an engineer when you make your selection. Consider every aspect and detail of the motherboards in question. For instance, you should consider present usage as well as any future uses and upgrades. Technical support at a professional (as opposed to a user) level is extremely important. The following list includes some of the most important criteria to consider when selecting a motherboard: Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5 8. Basic Input Output System (BIOS) 9. Form Factor 10.Built-in Interfaces 11.On-board IDE interfaces 12.Power Management 13.Documentation 14.Technical Support 1. Motherboard Chipset 2. Processor 3. Processor Sockets 4. Motherboard Speed 5. Cache Memory 6. SIMM/DIMM/RIMM memory 7. Bus Type
  56. 56. CD/DVD ROM Drive • Optical Storage: • Optical technology standard can be divided into three types: • CD (Compact Disc) • CD-ROM, is an optical read only storage medium based on the original CD-DA (Digital Audio) format first developed for the audio CDs • CD-R (Recordable), CD-RW (Rewritable) • CD-ROM standard is an 80-minute disc with a data capacity of 700MB • DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) • BD (Blue-ray Disc) Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  57. 57. CD/DVD ROM Drive • CD (Compact Disc) ROM Drive • Construction : • Made up of polycarbonate wafer, 120mm in diameter and 1.2mm thick with a 15mm hole in the center • The Steps in manufacturing CDs Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  58. 58. CD/DVD ROM Drive Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5 CD (Compact Disc) ROM Drive • Working
  59. 59. CD/DVD ROM Drive • CD (Compact Disc) ROM Drive • Working Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  60. 60. CD/DVD ROM Drive • DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) ROM Drive • Construction : • Click here.. • DVD-5 : 4.7GB, DVD-9 : 8.5GB, DVD-10 : 9.4GB, DVD-18:17.1GB • Comparison Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  61. 61. LCD MONITOR Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5 Functional Block Diagram :
  62. 62. LCD MONITOR • Working principle : • The main principle behind liquid crystal molecules is that when an electric current is applied to them, they tend to untwist. • Liquid Crystal Display technology works by blocking light. • LCD is made up of two pieces of polarized glass (also called substrate) that contain a liquid crystal material between them. • A backlight creates light that passes through the first substrate. • This causes a change in the light angle passing through them. At the same time, electrical currents cause the liquid crystal molecules to align allow varying levels of light to pass through to the second substrate & create the color images. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  63. 63. LCD MONITOR • Types : • Passive Matrix • Active Matrix Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  64. 64. LCD MONITOR • Types : • Passive Matrix • Active Matrix Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  65. 65. LCD MONITOR • Characteristics : 1. Dot Pitch: Distance between two adjacent pixel centers. 2. Resolution: It is number of horizontal & vertical pixels. 3. Refresh rate: The refresh rate is the number of times in a second that display hardware draws the data. 4. Response time: The minimum time necessary change in pixel color or brightness. 5. Viewable size: CRT monitor gives viewable size in diagonal measures from 15 inch to 42 inch. 6. Color Support: Number of types of color is supported. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  66. 66. OTHER I/O DEVICES • KEYBOARD (Membrane & Mechanical Only) • A keyboard is a typewriter-style device, which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys, to act as electronic switches. • Different types of key Switches in Keyboard: 1. Capacitive Key Switch 2. Membrane Key Switch 3. Rubber Dome Key Switch 4. Hall Effect Key Switch 5. Opto-Electronic Key Switch 6. Mechanical Key Switch Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  67. 67. OTHER I/O DEVICES • MEMBRANE KEYBOARD SWITCH Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  68. 68. OTHER I/O DEVICES • MEMBRANE KEYBOARD SWITCH • It is a multi-layer plastic or rubber assembly. • It is used as keyboard in video game machines, calculators, medical instruments, cash registers etc. • Two rubber or plastic sheets are used as row conductor sheet & column conductor sheet. • Rows & columns line are made on the plastic or rubber sheet using silver or some other conductor ink. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  69. 69. OTHER I/O DEVICES • MECHANICAL KEYBOARD SWITCH Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  70. 70. OTHER I/O DEVICES • MECHANICAL KEYBOARD SWITCH • Two metal pieces or contacts are kept in open position & moved into closed position when switch is pressed. • When the switch is in normal position the contact is open, when the switch is pushed the contact closes, & the closure is sensed by the keyboard interface. • After some use contacts become oxidized or dirty & make the switch useless. • Gold plating on these contacts is done to improve the life span of the switch. • Normal life span of high quality switches is about 1 million keystrokes. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  71. 71. OTHER I/O DEVICES • MOUSE (Optical Only) • A computer mouse is an input device that is most often used with a personal computer. • Moving a mouse along a flat surface can move the on-screen cursor to different items on • the screen. Items can be moved or selected by pressing the mouse buttons. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  72. 72. OTHER I/O DEVICES • MOUSE (Optical Only) Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  73. 73. OTHER I/O DEVICES • MOUSE (Optical Only) Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  74. 74. OTHER I/O DEVICES • MOUSE (Optical Only) Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  75. 75. OTHER I/O DEVICES • MOUSE (Optical Only) • Working: • In this type of mouse, a light source & photo detector is used with a special mouse pad. • When the optical mouse is moved on this special pad, light from the light source gets reflected from the pad & special photo detector inside the mouse detects the horizontal & vertical movements. • Two photo detectors are there, among that one of the photo detectors is used to detect vertical movement of the cursor on the screen & the other is used to detect the horizontal movement of the cursor on the screen. • The movement of the cursor on the screen depends on the number of the signals that is passed to the PC through the wire connected with the mouse. • The PC, in turn, passes them to the mouse driver software which then converts the distance, & speed required for the movement of the screen cursor. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  76. 76. OTHER I/O DEVICES • SCANNER (Flatbed Only) Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  77. 77. OTHER I/O DEVICES • PRINTER (Dot Matrix, Inkjet & Laser Only) • Printers are Output devices used to prepare permanent Output devices on paper. Printers can be divided into two main categories: • Impact Printers: In this hammers or pins strike against a ribbon and paper to print the text. This mechanism is known as electro-mechanical mechanism. • Non-Impact Printers: There printers use non-Impact technology such as ink-jet or laser technology. There printers provide better quality of O/P at higher speed. Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  78. 78. OTHER I/O DEVICES • PRINTER - Dot Matrix Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  79. 79. OTHER I/O DEVICES • PRINTER - Inkjet Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5
  80. 80. OTHER I/O DEVICES • PRINTER - Laser Motherboard & Peripherals 12/21/2018 Computer Hardware & Networking 5

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