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An Action Plan for Lean Services

by Jim Womack of Lean Enterprise Institute shown at the 1st Lean Service Summit on 23rd June 2004 run by the Lean Enterprise Academy

An Action Plan for Lean Services

  1. 1. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 23 June 2004 www.lean.org An Action Plan forAn Action Plan for Lean ServicesLean Services A Presentation by James P. Womack President, Lean Enterprise Institute For Lean Service Summit Europe 2004 Amsterdam June 24, 2004
  2. 2. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org The Core of Lean ThinkingThe Core of Lean Thinking • All value is the result of a process. • A manager’s focal plane should be the value creating processes, rather than organizations and assets.
  3. 3. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org The Types of ProcessesThe Types of Processes • Some processes are primary, serving an external customer. Example: A transactional process such as processing an insurance claim or conveying a letter from mailer to receiver. • Some processes internal, to support the primary processes. Example: A hiring process to obtain the needed employees to process the insurance claim or collect, sort, and deliver letter mail. • Primary processes are easier to see, but support processes are equally necessary.
  4. 4. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org The Nature of a ProcessThe Nature of a Process • A process is a set of actions (steps), each of which must be accomplished properly in the proper sequence to create value for someone. Example: Receive the life insurance claim. Verify the data. Verify the death certificate. Calculate the amount of the pay out. Write the check. Send the check.
  5. 5. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org The Perfect ProcessThe Perfect Process We are all in search of the perfect process. But perhaps you have not realized this! The perfect process has some simple but challenging attributes: • It creates precisely the right value for the customer. Value is hard to determine for external processes and even harder for support processes. But note: In the absence of correctly specified value, every step in any process is muda!
  6. 6. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org The Perfect ProcessThe Perfect Process • Each step within the process must be: Valuable Capable (Six Sigma) Available (Total Productive Maintenance) Adequate (Theory of Constraints or TPS) Flexible (Toyota Production System)
  7. 7. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org The Perfect ProcessThe Perfect Process • The steps/actions in the process must be linked by: Flow (in low volume with high variety, TPS) Pull (Toyota Production System) Leveled demand, from the pacemaker step/action (TPS)
  8. 8. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org The Perfect ProcessThe Perfect Process • The actions in the process are satisfying for people to perform and managers to manage: No injuries. No fatigue. No boredom. A sense of providing a valuable good or service. A sense of personal fulfillment & accomplishment. Note that putting good people in a bad process is the best way to produce “bad” people!
  9. 9. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org The Perfect ProcessThe Perfect Process In SummaryIn Summary • The right purpose (value). • The best method (process). • The highest sense of accomplishment (people).
  10. 10. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org How Can We Create theHow Can We Create the Perfect Process for Every Service?Perfect Process for Every Service? Start by identifying the key processes in your organization: • Which are primary? • Which are support? • Which are most important to the customer? • Which are most important to the success of the organization? • Which are most troubling to your people?
  11. 11. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org Creating the Perfect ProcessCreating the Perfect Process Ask who is responsible for each process. When you discover that the answer is “no one”, appoint someone! Note that in the early going it helps if the someone is a “someone”. (That is, a widely respected person with a bright future in the organization.) Responsibility doesn’t necessarily mean a full time job and it certainly doesn’t mean direct reporting by everyone involved in the process.
  12. 12. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org Creating the Perfect ProcessCreating the Perfect Process Select the most important processes (but only a few). Form a team of the responsible person and those involved in the process – customers, participating employees across functions, technical advisors. Map the process as it currently operates, taking extra care to specify value from the standpoint of the customer (external or internal). Label this map the “current state”, making sure that everyone agrees that the map is truly accurate.
  13. 13. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org CurrentCurrent--State Process MapState Process Map Order EntryOrder Entry Customer Quoting Applications Engineering Verify Design & BOM Credit Checking Order Entry/ Scheduling Sales Dept. Valuable? Capable? Available? Adequate? Valuable? Capable? Available? Adequate? Valuable? Capable? Available? Adequate? Valuable? Capable? Available? Adequate? Valuable? Capable? Available? Adequate? 6 Hours 12 Hours 4 Hours 55 Min 5 Min 6 Days 3 Days 1.5 Days 3.5 Days Valuable? Capable? Available? Adequate? Valuable? Capable? Available? Adequate? Valuable? Capable? Available? Adequate? Valuable? Capable? Available? Adequate? 9 2 9 1 14 Days 21 Hours
  14. 14. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org Creating the Perfect ProcessCreating the Perfect Process Ask how the process should be changed to move toward perfection. Note that if the value of the existing process is found to be incorrectly specified, the entire process may need to be changed or even eliminated. Note that in many cases, one tangled process with many exceptions may need splitting into a number of processes, each with its own flow path. Label this map the “future state”, making sure that everyone agrees about the key changes in the process.
  15. 15. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org FutureFuture--State Process MapState Process Map Order EntryOrder Entry C u s to m e r Q u o te & A p p lic a tio n s E n g in e e r in g C re d it C h e c k in g O r d e r E n try / B O M / S c h e d u lin g S a le s D e p t. V a lu a b le ? C a p a b le ? A v a ila b le ? A d e q u a te ? V a lu a b le ? C a p a b le ? A v a ila b le ? A d e q u a te ? V a lu a b le ? C a p a b le ? A v a ila b le ? A d e q u a te ? 3 0 M in V a lu a b le ? C a p a b le ? A v a ila b le ? A d e q u a te ? V a lu a b le ? C a p a b le ? A v a ila b le ? A d e q u a te ? 5 2 2 D a y s 8 H o u rs O X O X F IF O F IF O 4 H o u rs4 H o u rs 6 H o u r s 1 .5 H o u r s
  16. 16. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org Creating the Perfect ProcessCreating the Perfect Process Think a bit about your organization: • From the standpoint of its customers, an organization is the sum of its processes, both primary and supporting. • Processes flow horizontally toward customers, across departments, functions, and organizations. • However, organizations tend to be oriented vertically, toward senior leadership. • And organizations tend to measure functional performance in terms of asset utilization (people, machines) and other metrics that may be inconsistent with a perfect process.
  17. 17. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org Creating the Perfect ProcessCreating the Perfect Process Ask what changes in your organization will be needed to create and sustain the future state of your test process(es): • Create a new position of “process manager”? • Rearrange existing departments and functions? • Introduce new metrics to align department and function performance with process needs?
  18. 18. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org Creating the Perfect ProcessCreating the Perfect Process Implement the necessary changes to create the “future state” process: • Measure the performance compared with the current state. • Reflect on what has been accomplished and how it could have been better. (“Check” in PDCA language.) • Introduce necessary changes to adjust the process. (“Act” in PDCA language.) • Determine whether the adjusted process is stable and sustainable.
  19. 19. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org Creating the Perfect ProcessCreating the Perfect Process Once test processes have proved your improvement method: • Develop a “Plan for Every Process”. • Determine and clearly explain what you will do with excess people and assets. Hint: Service processes can only perform at a high level for the customer if employees feel the management is introducing lean methods in a fair and equitable way. So, deal with processes painful to employees early and use excess people to grow. • Tackle every process, in order of importance.
  20. 20. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 24 June 2004 www.lean.org Creating the Perfect ProcessCreating the Perfect Process Once you have tackled all of your processes: • Start the cycle again! (The former “future state” is the new “current state”.) • Start to look at extended processes shared downstream and upstream with other organizations. • Periodically review the Plan for Every Process to guard against backsliding. • Share your successes (and failures) with the Lean Community as we all pursue the perfect process for every service!
  21. 21. Lean Service Summit – Amsterdam, 23 June 2004 www.lean.org An Action Plan forAn Action Plan for Lean ServicesLean Services A Presentation by James P. Womack President, Lean Enterprise Institute For Lean Service Summit Europe 2004 Amsterdam June 24, 2004

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