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Evolution Evidence
Overview
By:
Historical Sciences –
Reconstructing a Crime
• Discuss: When someone is accused of committing
a crime, how are they shown ...
Questions to Get You Thinking
• If evolution is true, what kind of evidence
might you suspect you would find in nature?
• ...
Evidence Overview
• Similarities between species showing
common ancestry
• Progressions of species changing over time
• Re...
Similarities – Family Resemblance
• Discuss: Do people ever say that you look like
anyone else in your family? Why?
• In t...
Examining the Evidence –
Similarities
• What might disprove evolution:
– species are totally unique, unlike each other.
• ...
Anatomical Similarity: 5 Fingers
• Vertebrates usually have a humerus, an ulna, a
radius, wrist bones, and five fingers, e...
Anatomical Similarity: Neck Vertebrae
• Almost all mammals have 7 neck vertebrae,
even though they use them very different...
Similarity: Orchid Structure
• Orchids of incredible variety have the same
pattern of parts
Similarity: Number of Legs
• Though both groups are extremely diverse,
insects have 6 legs, while arachnids have 8.
Arachn...
Examples of Similarities Between
Species
• Echinoderms, though very diverse, have 5
sides.
Biomolecular Similarities
• Species also share a number of molecular
similarities.
– Species share
• the same genetic lang...
Gene Similarities
• Humans share
98% of our genes
with chimpanzees
• This picture graphically
represents a
comparison of o...
Biogeographic Similarities
• Species that are related often come from the same
area. This is even true for fossil species....
Progressions of Change –
Putting the Frames of a Movie Together
• When we watch TV or a movie our brain puts
together indi...
Examining the Evidence –
Progressions
• What might disprove evolution:
– Species are shown to be unchangeable
– Species re...
Progressions
Examples of Progressions - Whales
• Modern day whales
evolved from land
dwelling relatives of
hippos
Examples of
Progressions -
Whales• The back legs of the whales
become reduced over time
• The nose of the whales
moves to ...
Examples of Progressions - Horses
• Horses have evolved to become larger, have
fewer toes, and to eat grass.
Examples of Progressions:
Artificial Selection
• Dogs and wild mustard are excellent examples
of how much a species can qu...
Progressions Across Geography:
Ring Species
• Ring species: As species spread across an area they
sometimes wrap around ge...
Remnants – Signs of Origins
• Coins minted in the U.S. have letters
on them that tell which mint they
came from.
• Discuss...
Remnants – Whale Legs
• Whales and dolphins
have the vestigial legs
early in development
• All whales and
dolphins have th...
Remnants – Fibulas
• Horses have vestigial bones in
their legs called fibulas.
– These bones easily break
causing the hors...
Remnants in You!
• Coccyx
• Wisdom teeth
• Ear muscles
• Goosebumps
• Nictitating eye
membrane
• Canine teeth
Genetic
Remnants
• Pseudogenes are genes that no longer
have their original function but are similar
to functional genes.
...
Thinking Evolutionarily
Knowing these patterns of evolution, you can now
ask 3 very important questions about any
species:...
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Evolution Evidence and Evolutionary Thinking - The 3 Patterns of Evolution - Similarities, Progressions, and Remnants - By EvolutionEvidence.org

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Evolution Evidence and Evolutionary Thinking - The 3 Patterns of Evolution - Similarities, Progressions, and Remnants - By EvolutionEvidence.org

  1. 1. Evolution Evidence Overview By:
  2. 2. Historical Sciences – Reconstructing a Crime • Discuss: When someone is accused of committing a crime, how are they shown to be guilty or not guilty? • One thing we can not do is rewind time to repeat the crime. • We can, however, use evidence to draw the most reasonable conclusion. • We will use this same process used in a court room to determine if evolution is historically accurate.
  3. 3. Questions to Get You Thinking • If evolution is true, what kind of evidence might you suspect you would find in nature? • If evolution is false, what kind of evidence might you suspect you would find in nature? • Is there any evidence to support the theory of evolution? • If so, what kind of evidence?
  4. 4. Evidence Overview • Similarities between species showing common ancestry • Progressions of species changing over time • Remnants of past generations within species
  5. 5. Similarities – Family Resemblance • Discuss: Do people ever say that you look like anyone else in your family? Why? • In the same way that people in the same family look alike, so species that are related also share similarities inherited from common ancestors.
  6. 6. Examining the Evidence – Similarities • What might disprove evolution: – species are totally unique, unlike each other. • Strong evidence in support of evolution: – Similarities from multiple disciplines agree – genetics, anatomy, behavior, geography, etc. – Species share greater number, intensity, and variety of similarities the more recent they shared a common ancestor – The similarities shared between species are arbitrary or harmful to have
  7. 7. Anatomical Similarity: 5 Fingers • Vertebrates usually have a humerus, an ulna, a radius, wrist bones, and five fingers, even though they use them for very different purposes – walking, grasping, flying, swimming, digging, etc.
  8. 8. Anatomical Similarity: Neck Vertebrae • Almost all mammals have 7 neck vertebrae, even though they use them very differently
  9. 9. Similarity: Orchid Structure • Orchids of incredible variety have the same pattern of parts
  10. 10. Similarity: Number of Legs • Though both groups are extremely diverse, insects have 6 legs, while arachnids have 8. Arachnids Insects
  11. 11. Examples of Similarities Between Species • Echinoderms, though very diverse, have 5 sides.
  12. 12. Biomolecular Similarities • Species also share a number of molecular similarities. – Species share • the same genetic language • the same types of amino acids – L isomer • The same kind of sugars – D isomer Sugars Amino acids Genetic Language
  13. 13. Gene Similarities • Humans share 98% of our genes with chimpanzees • This picture graphically represents a comparison of one gene, FOXP2, shared by both humans and chimps. The white gaps are deletions or insertions that differ between humans and chimps. The red spots are significant genetic differences between humans and chimps. The letters that form the body of the chimp are the shared sequences.
  14. 14. Biogeographic Similarities • Species that are related often come from the same area. This is even true for fossil species. – Almost all marsupials are in Australia – even fossil species – Lemurs are found only on Madagascar today
  15. 15. Progressions of Change – Putting the Frames of a Movie Together • When we watch TV or a movie our brain puts together individual frames into smooth movements. • Evolutionary progressions also come in similar "frame by frame" sequences.
  16. 16. Examining the Evidence – Progressions • What might disprove evolution: – Species are shown to be unchangeable – Species remains do not show progressions of change • Strong evidence in support of evolution – Modern dating techniques confirm the ages of fossils within a progression – Multiple traits are held in common by evolving species showing they are related – Multiple traits change over time within an evolving species
  17. 17. Progressions
  18. 18. Examples of Progressions - Whales • Modern day whales evolved from land dwelling relatives of hippos
  19. 19. Examples of Progressions - Whales• The back legs of the whales become reduced over time • The nose of the whales moves to the top of the head • As some whales transitioned from eating with teeth to eating with baleen, some intermediate fossil species had both teeth and baleen – bottom right photo is of a toothed whale with baleen blood vessels
  20. 20. Examples of Progressions - Horses • Horses have evolved to become larger, have fewer toes, and to eat grass.
  21. 21. Examples of Progressions: Artificial Selection • Dogs and wild mustard are excellent examples of how much a species can quickly be modified by selection.
  22. 22. Progressions Across Geography: Ring Species • Ring species: As species spread across an area they sometimes wrap around geographic obstacles, like mountains, forming a ring. When the species meet on the far side of the mountain range, they can no longer reproduce together. They can, however, reproduce with the population that they most recently came from.
  23. 23. Remnants – Signs of Origins • Coins minted in the U.S. have letters on them that tell which mint they came from. • Discussion: Has anyone ever said that you have an accent? Do you think you do? What can we tell about where someone is from based on how they speak? • Similar to the above signs of origins, we can look at species and tell a lot about their evolutionary history.
  24. 24. Remnants – Whale Legs • Whales and dolphins have the vestigial legs early in development • All whales and dolphins have the remains of hips and legs inside their body.
  25. 25. Remnants – Fibulas • Horses have vestigial bones in their legs called fibulas. – These bones easily break causing the horse great discomfort. Race horses have their legs wrapped to help prevent breaks. • Many other species also have vestigial fibulas, chickens are one example. • Discussion: Have you seen this bone while eating chicken?
  26. 26. Remnants in You! • Coccyx • Wisdom teeth • Ear muscles • Goosebumps • Nictitating eye membrane • Canine teeth
  27. 27. Genetic Remnants • Pseudogenes are genes that no longer have their original function but are similar to functional genes. – Examples: • humans can’t synthesize Vitamin C, but we possess the pseudogene to. • 51% of human scent genes have mutated into pseudogenes • Atavistic genes are genes are that are typically pseudogenes but occasionally mutate to be turned on again. – Examples • Toothless chickens and baleen whales can grow teeth • Whales grow hind legs • Humans can grow tails
  28. 28. Thinking Evolutionarily Knowing these patterns of evolution, you can now ask 3 very important questions about any species: 1. Does this species share any anatomical, geographic, or biomolecular similarities with any other species that are signs of their common ancestry? 2. Is this species a part of a progression of change seen in the fossil record, across geography, or in recorded history? 3. Does this species have any remnants of past generations within its anatomy or genome?

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