üIn a 1977 report, the incidence in the published
literature was estimated to be 1 in 7000 deliveries.
üMiller and colleagues reported an incidence of
abnormal placentation of 1 in 2510 for a 10-year
period at their center ending in 1994.
üWu and colleagues reported an incidence of
1 in 533 over a 20-year period ending in 2002.
Frequency of placenta observational study that
In a large prospective accreta according to number of
cesarean deliveries and presence or absence of
considered the number of prior cesarean deliveries
and presence or absence of placenta previa,the risk
of placenta accreta was
No Placenta previa
Adapted from SMFM. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010.
Which imaging modalities are necessary
The Diagnosis Of Placenta Accreta?
for the diagnosis of placenta accreta?
• In the vast majority of cases, placenta accreta may
be diagnosed on the basis of ultra-sound alone.
• Sonographic findings suggestive of accreta include
The use of power Doppler, color Doppler, or
three-dimensional imaging does not
significantly improve the diagnostic
sensitivity compared with that achieved by
grayscale ultrasonography alone
15.Chou MM, Ho ES, Lee YH. Prenatal diagnosis of placenta
previa accreta by transabdominal color Doppler ultrasound.
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2000;15:28–35.
MRI findings suggestive of placenta
• Lower uterine bulging,
• Heterogeneous placenta
• Dark intraplacental linear bands
on T2-weighted images.
Which is better ?
ØDiagnostic accuracy of both US and MRI are
ØIn patients with suspected placenta percreta
MRI can provide information on depth of
invasion and may be particularly useful in the
diagnosis of posteriorly located placenta.
ØIn such cases MRI can be complmentary to
How is prenatal care different in
the patient with placenta accreta?
Ø Patients should ideally be referred to a tertiary center
with adequate surgical facilities and a
• Occasionally, patients may require recombinant
erythropoietin as adjuvant therapy
• sonographic follow up every 3 to 4 weeks to evaluate
placental location, depth of invasion, and fetal
ü The preferred strategy was delivery at 34
weeks without amniocentesis for placenta
previa with suspected accreta,and for cases
with recurrant bleeding
üAn expert opinion in 2010 recommended
delivery for uncomplicated previa at 36 -37
weeks and 34 to 35 weeks for suspected
What should be included in the consent
form for caesarean section?
ØThe different risks and treatment options
should have been discussed and a plan agreed,
which should be reflected clearly in the consent
ØThis should include the anticipated skin and
uterine incisions and whether conservative
management of the placenta or proceeding
straight. to hysterectomy is preferred in the
situation where accreta is confirmed at surgery.
Ø Thorough discussion with patient on
üthe suspected diagnosis,
üthe anticipated surgical procedure
ühigh potential for hysterectomy, profuse
üprobable transfusion needs,
A preoperative checklist would be
helpful in confirming necessary
preparations and for identifying contact
persons in case perioperative assistance
Which preoperative interventions are
beneficial for patients with suspected accreta
to decrease transfusion needs?
Preoperative bilateral common iliac
Preoperative bilateral common iliac
artery balloon catheter placement
artery balloon catheter placement with
with inflation after delivery of the
inflation after delivery of the fetus
preoperative placement of femoral
preoperative placement of femoral access
access by IR with selective embolization
by IRvessels at the time of delivery
with selective embolization of
uterine vessels at the time of delivery
Level of evidance
ØNo sufficient evidences for a firm
recommendation on the use of balloon catheter
occlusion or embolization to reduce blood loss
and improve surgical outcome.
ØThere have been other reports of no benefits
and even of significant complications.
What the optimal anesthetic technique
What isis the optimalanesthetic technique
for patients with placental accreta
for patients with placental accreta? ?
• When massive blood loss is expected, a complete
sympathectomy (eg, spinal anesthesia) could
impair the patient’s ability to cope with sudden
hypovolemia, as the capacity to vasoconstrict
and increase systemic vascular resistances will
• Regional anesthesia with a continuous epidural
technique is safe and may be appropriate for
patients with placental accreta
If extensive dissection, prolonged
operating time, and massive hemorrhage
are anticipated, general anesthesia is
commonly recommended. 1
When regional anesthesia was first used
a reported rate of conversion to general
anesthesia of about 28% to 30%
Can the cell saver (salvage) be
used in these cases?
Intraoperative cell salvage
Intraoperative cell salvage
• It has been used successfully in obstetric hemorrhage
lacerations of the genital tract(6%)
• A theoretical concern with the use of the cell saver in
obstetrics is the occurrence of iatrogenic amniotic
fluid embo-lism (AFE)
• Rh negative should receive anti-D immunoglobulin
as soon as possible with a dose given according to
results of a Kleihauer Betke
• There is no unique approach to the
management of placenta accreta.
• Surgical team expertise, availability of
resources and local conditions are
determining factors when choosing the
• One-step surgery involves wide mobilization of
tissue, tissue resection, myometrial and
• Meticulous dissection allows an accurate
haemostasis, which makes it possible to resect
the invaded tissue and have adequate tissue
The definite treatment for placental
• Cesarean hysterectomy, ideally without attempts to
remove the placenta.
• In cases in which the placenta has been distorted
and massive hemorrhage ensues, any delays in
definite treatment (hysterectomy) may seriously
compromise maternal hemodynamics
• Patients with no interest in future child-bearing
likely will also benefit from hysterectomy
With the exception of upper-segment invasions,
hysterectomy for placenta accreta must be total;
otherwise there is a high percentage of
rebleeding in subtotal resections within the
IF SUBTOTAL IS DONE
it is not recommended to close the
peritoneum over the cervical stump,
As rebleeding in these circumstances
usually goes unnoticed.
Therapeutic practice points
Therapeutic practice points
• The presence of pericervical or lower-segment
varicose veins proper of placenta praevia can
be confused with the neovascularization of
• Surgical exploration will make a differential
diagnosis, thus avoiding unnecessary
In cases of placental accreta, the areas of
placental invasion outside the uterus may also
be affected by the abnormal blood supply.
• Care should be taken not to compromise the
parasitic vasculature when entering the
abdomen and exposing the uterus.
• Neoformation vessels should not
be electrocoagulated because of
poor development of the middle
• This procedure can be the cause of
bleeding difﬁcult to control, or of
a postsurgical haemorrhage.
No attempt at placenta removaL
Placenta left in situ
blood flow at 700 to
900 mL/min near
term, every minute
Incisions made through
the placenta and any
attempts to deliver the
placenta in these cases
will often incite
Surgical difﬁculties and possibility of
complications in placenta accreta are
directly related to
the invaded anatomical area,
its speciﬁc circulation
the dissection of the organs
Is there a role for
conservative treatment in
In selected cases acases a conservative
In selected conservative approach
may be attempted.
approach may be attempted.
üHemodynamically stable patients with no heavy
bleeding or DIC at time of surgery
üwomen who desire to have more children
üCases with placenta percreta invading adjacent organs
(eg, bladder, ureter, bowel)
Morbidity can be high and that further
Patient shouldoften bebe willing to
intervention will also necessary
üOutcome is unpredictable
üMorbidity can be high
üStrict prolonged followc up is
üand that further intervention will
often be necessary
Different techniques have been
Different techniues have been
üIn cases involving only focal accreta found
incidentally at the time of surgery, attempts
to place local haemostatic sutures may
control bleeding after placental removal)
üAlternatively, the placenta may be partially
left in situ
The conservative approach may be
The conservative approach
may be combined with
• Administration of uterotonics, intraoperative
uterine devascularization, or pelvic arterial
embolization by interventional radiology.
• The use of prophylactic antibiotics may be
considered,despite lack of clinical data.
• No convincing evidence exists for or
against the use adjuvant methotrexate,
Option of Conservative ttt
1-One step suregery
2-Adjuvant methotrexate (MTX) treatment,
4-Tamponade of the placental implantation site
with inflated intrauterine ballon catheter bags,
5- Lower segmant compression suture
6-Local excision, and repair or
oversewing of the implantation site
The Triple-P procedure for placenta
• 1-perioperative placental
localization and delivery by incision above the
upper border of the placenta
2- pelvic devascularization;
3- placental non-separation with
myometrial excision and
reconstruction of the uterine wall
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics
Volume 117, Issue 2, May 2012, Pages 191–194
qFor persistent diffuse non arterial bleeding that is
not amenable to surgical control,
qPlacement of pelvic pressure
packing(laparotomy sponges) may be considered
as a temporizing step to allow time for
hemodynamic stabilization, correction of
coagulopathy, and eventual completion of surgery.
Optimal postdelivery follow-up of
patients treated with this pproach.
üNo guidelines exist regarding the optimal
üPostpartum hemorrhage may happen up to 105
days after the initial procedure
üSerial ultrasounds to assess placental involution
and frequent visits to screen for delayed
hemorrhage and early signs of sepsis
üAccess to pelvic subperitoneal spaces
üwide opening of vesicouterine space
ümanagement of proximal vascular control,
üand accurate use of compression sutures
are key to achieving vascular control and
üCarrying out hysterectomy during shock or
coagulopathy implies a high risk of immediate and
üUse of effective vascular control, such as
internal aortic compression may provide time to
improve haemodynamic and haemostatic status,
which increases the effectiveness of compression
üHysterectomy or one-step conservative surgery
is complex at first, but offers a relatively known
üTo leave placenta in situ provides a bloodless
surgery initially, but with risks of unpredictable
Which mechanisms lead to acute
• Classically, hemorrhage resuscitation has been centered
on administration of crystalloids and (PRBC).
• Use of other blood products, like FFP,CPPT,PTS
is indicated if laboratory values are abnormal
• (eg, platelet count <50,000/mm 3, , fibrinogen <100
mg/dL, [PT] or [aPTT >1.5 normal).
• These current transfusion guidelines fail to prevent
coagulopathy in massive bleedings.
Patients with crystalloid/PRBC-based
resuscitation will frequently develop
• Dilution of clotting factors and platelets,
leading to the so called dilutional
coagulopathy. The latter
• may be complicated by hypothermia and
acidosis, both of which lead to coagulation
What Is Hemostatic Resuscitation,
And Does It Improve Outcomes?
Hemostatic resuscitation is a new
concept that mainly involves
1. Limited early aggressive use of crystalloids
and consideration of permissive
2. Early administration of fresh frozen plasma
and platelets (with concomitant packed red
blood cells) achieving a ratio of 1:1:1
3. Early use of rFVIIa
resuscitation is avoided to
prevent hemodilution and early
clot dislodgement secondary to
increases in blood pressure as
a result of volume expansion.
Prior to surgical control of
hypotension with systolic blood
pressures between 80 and 100
mmHg may be optimal to limit
ongoing blood loss.
the rationale for early
administration of fresh frozen
plasma and platelets with PRBC in
a ratio of 1:1:1. is to achieves
hemostasis earlier, thus decreasing
the total number of blood products
Is there a role for the use of
recombinant factor vii a?
• 17 RCT have been reported in different subgroups
of patients in which r FVIIa was used to control
hemorrhage. 4 of them found a reduction in
transfusion requirements or blood loss, and none
reported a survival benefit.
• Overall, r FVIIa decrease the amount of blood
transfused, but data on survival benefit are lacking
In cases where massive resuscitation takes
ØAny space-occupying mass, like a hematoma,
will increase intra-abdominal pressure.
ØBoth crystalloid and colloid administration lead
to third spacing of fluid with subsequent bowel
edema and ascitis.
ØExtensive surgical procedures are commonly
associated with ileus, which may also favor intraabdominal hypertension.
Put together, all to be familiar
Obstetricians need these factors may
increase the intra-abdominal preswith this complication, as the
sure to a point where compression
administration of more fluid in an
of the abdominal and
attempt to increase blood pressure
retroperitoneal vessels will
andcompromise preload to the heart,
urine output will only worsen
intra-abdominal pressures and
leading to a drop in cardiac output
and, consequently, in blood
If the condition is suspected, a
bladder pressure should be obtained at
the bedside as a surrogate of
Normal abdominal pressures are 0 to
10 mm Hg. Abdominal hypertension
is defined as an intracavitary pressure
greater than 12 mm Hg. Abdominal
compartment syndrome includes a
pressure greater than 20 mm Hg
Once the diagnosis is established, most patients
üsurgical decompression, with a vacuumassisted closure
üEnteral feeding and limitation of fluid
therapy are beneficial.
üIf fluids are required, the use of colloids
(eg, albumin) is recommended over