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Japanese literature

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Japanese literature

  1. 1. Japan  Also Known as THE LAND OF RISING SUN  Capital city is Tokyo
  2. 2. JAPANESE POETRY FORMS  KANSHI - literally means "Han poetry" and it is the Japanese term for Chinese poetry in general as well as the poetry written in Chinese by Japanese poets.  WAKA - has the general meaning of "poetry in Japanese", sometimes also is used in the more specific and restrictive sense of poetry  TANKA - are poems written in Japanese with five lines having a 5-7-5-7-7 metre
  3. 3. HAIKU Haiku are a short, 3-line verse form, which have achieved significant global popularity, and the haiku form has been adapted from Japanese into other languages. Typical of the haiku form is the metrical pattern of 3 lines with a distribution of 5, 7, and 5 on (also known as morae) within those lines. Other features include the juxtaposition of two images or ideas with a kireji ("cutting word") between them, and a kigo, or seasonal reference, usually drawn from a saijiki, or traditional list of such words.
  4. 4. Periods in Japanese Literature  Nara Period  Heian Period  Period of Cloistered rule  Kamakura Period  Nanboku-cho Period  Sengoku Period  Pre-modern Period
  5. 5. Nara Period (710 – 794)  It was the period when Chinese influence reached a culmination. During the Nara period, Todai-ji ("Great Temple of the East") was established together with the creation of the Great Buddha of Nara, by order of Emperor Shōmu. The significant waka poets in this period were Ōtomo no Tabito, Yamanoue no Okura, and Yamabe no Akahito.
  6. 6. Early poems recorded during Nara Period  Yakumo tatsu  Izumo yaegaki  Tsuma-gomi ni  Yaegaki tsukuru  Sono yaegaki wo.
  7. 7. Heian period (794 to 1185 )  was one of both extensive general linguistic and mutual poetic development, in Japan. Developments include the Kanbun system of writing by means of adapting Classical Chinese for use in Japan by using a process of annotation, and the further development of the kana writing system from the Man'yōgana of the Nara period, encouraging more vernacular poetry, developments in the waka form of poetry. The Heian era was also one in which developed an increasing process of writing poems (sometimes collaboratively) and collecting them into anthologies, which in the case of the Kokin Wakashū were given a level of prestige, due to imperial patronage.
  8. 8. Period of the cloistered rule  The period of cloistered rule overlapped the end of the Heian period and the beginning of the Kamakura period. Cloistered rule refers to an emperor "retiring" into a monastery, while continuing to maintain a certain amount of influence and power over worldly affairs, and yet retaining time for poetry or other activities. During this time the Fujiwara clan was also active both politically and poetically.
  9. 9. Kamakura Period (1185–1333)  is a period of Japanese history that marks the governance by the Kamakura Shogunate, officially established in 1192 AD in Kamakura, by the first shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo. The period is known for the emergence of the samurai, the warrior caste, and for the establishment of feudalism in Japan.
  10. 10. Nanboku-cho Period (1334 to 1392)  is also known as the "Northern and Southern Courts period". Poetic movements included Renga developments, such as the publication of the Tsukubashū - the first imperial anthology of renga, in about 1356. There were various Renga poets, critics and theories, such as the development of shikimoku (renga rules) and Sōgi. Haikai no renga appears - as a parody of renga Shinseninutusukbashu. Noh play and poetry began to develop. There was influence from waka and other poetry, and Noh play reading as verse.
  11. 11. Sengoku Period  The Sengoku period literally derives its name from the Japanese for "warring states". It was a militarily and politically turbulent period, with nearly constant military conflict which lasted roughly from the middle of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century, and which during which there were also developments in renga and waka poetry.
  12. 12. Pre-modern or Edo Period  In the Pre-modern or Edo period (1602–1869) some new styles of poetry developed. One of greatest and most influential styles was renku, (also known as haikai no renga, or haikai), emerging from renga in the medieval period. Matsuo Bashō was a great haikai master and had a wide influence on his contemporaries and later generations. Bashō was also a prominent writer of haibun, a combination of prose and haiku, one famous example being his Oku no Hosomichi (or, The Narrow Road to the Interior).
  13. 13. POST TEST 1. Japan is also known as the? 2. What is the capital city of Japan? 3-6. What are the 4 poetry forms of Japan? 7. What does KANSHI mean? 8. Waka has the general meaning of? 9. Tanka has how many lines? 10. Haiku has how many line verse?
  14. 14. 11-17. What are the periods in the Japanese Literature? 18-22. The five early poems recorded during the Nara Period. 23. Cloistered rule refers to an emperor ____? 24. Todai-ji ("Great Temple of the East") was established together with the creation of the Great Buddha of Nara, by order of Emperor Shōmu on what Period? 25. What was established during the Nara Period? 26. Emperor who ordered to build the Todai-ji.
  15. 15. 27. What year did the Nara period start? 28. What year did the Nara period end? 29. What year did the Heian period start? 30. What year did the Heian period end? 31. What does Todai-ji mean? 32. What system of writing was developed during the Heian period? 33. Kana writing system from the Man'yōgana was from what period? 34-38. Tanka has 5 lines having _-_-_-_-_ metre 39. What does kireji mean? 40.The Fujiwara Clan was active during what period?
  16. 16. 41-42. The Fujiwara clan was active both _and_. 43. What period did the samurai emerge? 44. What year did the Kamakura period start? 45. What year did the Kamakura period end? 46. What year did the Namboku-cho period start? 47. What year did the Namboku-cho period end? 48. Namboku-cho is also known as what? 49. The Japanese name for “warring states”. 50.What is the other name for Pre-modern?
  17. 17. 51-52. What year did the Pre-modern Period Start and End? 53. Renku was also known as? 54. Who was the prominent writer of haibun? 55. What is saijiki? 56. What is Kigo? 57-59. Who were the significant poets in the Nara period? 60. What period overlapped the end of the Heian period and the beginning of the Kamakura period?

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