Cloud computing promises to significantly change the way we use computers and access and store our personal and business information. With these new computing and communications paradigms arise new data security challenges. Existing data protection mechanisms such as encryption have failed in preventing data theft attacks, especially those perpetrated by an insider to the cloud provider. For securing user data from such attacks a new paradigm called fog computing can be used. Fog Computing is a paradigm that extends Cloud computing and services to the edge of the network. Similar to Cloud, Fog provides data, compute, storage, and application services to end-users. The motivation of Fog computing lies in a series of real scenarios, such as Smart Grid, smart traffic lights in vehicular networks and software defined network .This technique can monitor the user activity to identify the legitimacy and prevent from any unauthorized user access. Here we have discussed this paradigm for preventing misuse of user data and securing information.
Jain College of Engineering
T.S Nagar, Machhe, Belagavi-590014
Under the Guidance of
PROF. VIJAYALAXMI S. NAGANUR
Department of Computer science and Engineering
What Is FOG Computing.
Fog Computing is a technology that extends cloud computing and services
to the edge of the network.
It provides data, compute, storage and application services to the users like
Fog computing is an emerging technology that is basically used for Internet
Simple Three Level Hierarchy
A simple three level hierarchy as shown in above Figure.
In this framework, each smart thing is attached to one of Fog devices.
Fog devices could be interconnected and each of them is linked to the
As Fog computing is implemented at the edge of the network, it
provides low latency, location awareness, and improves quality-of-
services (QoS) for streaming and real time applications.
Cloud computing has provided many opportunities for enterprises by
offering their customers a range of computing services. Current “pay-as-
you-go” Cloud computing model becomes an efficient alternative to owning
and managing private data centers for customers facing Web applications
Existing data protection mechanisms such as encryption was failed in
securing the data from the attackers.
It does not verify whether the user was authorized or not.
Cloud computing security does not focus on ways of secure the data from
Unlike traditional data centers, Fog
devices are geographically
distributed over heterogeneous
platforms, spanning multiple
management domains. Cisco is
interested in innovative proposals
that facilitate service mobility across
platforms, and technologies that
preserve end-user and content
security and privacy across domains.
Fog can be distinguished from Cloud by its proximity to end-users.
The dense geographical distribution and its support for mobility.
It provides low latency, location awareness, and improves quality-of-
services (QoS) and real time applications.
User behavior profiling
• User profiling is a well-known technique that can be applied here to model
how, when, and how much a user accesses their information in the Cloud.
• Simple user specific features can serve to detect abnormal Cloud access based
partially upon the scale and scope of data transferred.
• Behaviour based security: a ‘normal user’ behaviour can be continuously
checked to determine whether abnormal access to a user’s information is
Ex: Fraud detection applications.
Decoy data, such as decoy documents, honey
pots and other bogus information can be
generated on demand and used for detecting
unauthorized access to information and to
poison the thief’s ex-filtrated information.
Serving decoys will confuse an attacker into
believing they have ex-filtrated useful
information, when they have actually not.
Fog computing architecture
APPLICATIONS OF FOG
• Connected cars: Fog computing is ideal for Connected Vehicles (CV)
because real-time interactions will make communications between cars,
access points and traffic lights as safe and efficient as possible
• Smart grids: Fog computing allows fast, machine-to-machine (M2M)
handshakes and human to machine interactions (HMI), which would work
in cooperation with the cloud
Fig. Fog computing in smart grid
The main security issues are authentication at different
levels of gateways as well as (in case of smart grids) at the smart meters
installed in the consumer’s home. Each smart meter and smart appliance
has an IP address. A malicious user can either tamper with its own smart
meter, report false readings, or spoof IP addresses.
EXAMPLE : MAN-IN –MIDDLE-ATTACK
In this subsection, we take man- in-the-middle attack as
an example to expose the security problems in Fog computing. In this
attack, gateways serving as Fog devices may be compromised or replaced by
fake ones .
In smart grids, privacy issues deal with hiding details, such as what
appliance was used at what time, while allowing correct summary
information for accurate charging.
With the increase of data theft attacks the security of user data is becoming
a serious issue for cloud service providers for which Fog Computing is a
paradigm which helps in monitoring the behavior of the user and providing
security to the user’s data. By using decoy technique in Fog can minimize
insider attacks in cloud. Fog provides unprecedented levels of security in the
Cloud and in social networks. The usage of fog computing can accelerate
the innovation process in ways that has never been seen before.
 F. Bonomi, “Connected vehicles, the internet of things, and fog com-
puting,” in The Eighth ACM International Workshop on Vehicular Inter-
Networking (VANET), Las Vegas, USA, 2011.
 F. Bonomi, R. Milito, J. Zhu, and S. Addepalli, “Fog computing and its
role in the internet of things,” in Proceedings of the First Edition of the MCC
Workshop on Mobile Cloud Computing, ser. MCC’12. ACM,2012, pp. 13–16.