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Bridging the gap between Education and Learning

My talk at #XGrad2021 organized by Xebia Educational Alliance on 22 Jan 2021.

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Bridging the gap between Education and Learning

  1. 1. Bridging the gap between Education and Learning! Tathagat Varma Strategy & Operations, Walmart Global Tech Doctoral Scholar, Indian School of Business
  2. 2. Disclaimer! • These are my personal views and have no relation to my employer. • The data referred in this talk comes from public-domain materials. • The views presented are meant to raise systemic issues and not to discredit the hard work by those involved! • The scope of this talk is for higher education, and focused on IT industry.
  3. 3. Importance of Education Education is fundamental for achieving full human potential, developing an equitable and just society, and promoting national development. Providing universal access to quality education is the key to India’s continued ascent, and leadership on the global stage in terms of economic growth, social justice and equality, scientific advancement, national integration, and cultural preservation…India will have the highest population of young people in the world over the next decade, and our ability to provide high-quality educational opportunities to them will determine the future of our country. - National Education Policy, 2020
  4. 4. So, why “IT” alone? The world is undergoing rapid changes in the knowledge landscape. With various dramatic scientific and technological advances, such as the rise of big data, machine learning, and artificial intelligence, many unskilled jobs worldwide may be taken over by machines, while the need for a skilled workforce, particularly involving mathematics, computer science, and data science, in conjunction with multidisciplinary abilities across the sciences, social sciences, and humanities, will be increasingly in greater demand. - National Education Policy, 2020
  5. 5. Software is eating the world…and the already short half- life of IT knowledge is reducing even faster! https://www.techrepublic.com/blog/cio-insights/tech-skills-is-it-getting-harder-to-keep-up/
  6. 6. Agenda Symptoms of the Problems Challenges and Root Causes Ideas for Possible Solutions
  7. 7. The Symptoms of the Problems
  8. 8. Our Labor Productivity (2017) continues to among the lowest…
  9. 9. Agriculture productivity among the lowest, despite employing 59% of workforce contributing 23% of GDP (2016)
  10. 10. Lowest ranked in Top 40 countries by Scientific papers published per capita (2015) https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Top-40-countries-by-the-number-of-scientific-papers-published_tbl1_319523994
  11. 11. Patents filed per million inhabitants (2015) are the lowest! https://www.patent-pilot.com/en/industry-studies/worldwide-industry-study-patent-law-firms-2016/patents-filed-per-one-million-inhabitants/
  12. 12. Still a very long way to go building global innovation competitiveness!
  13. 13. …and totally unprepared for an uncertain but very promising future! Upskilling India, 2016, IBM Institute for Business Value, https://www.ibm.com/downloads/cas/RMJXDJWX
  14. 14. Just 7 Indian companies in Global 500 (2020)! https://fortune.com/global500/2020/search/?fg500_country=India
  15. 15. “Stubborn Unemployability”! • In the fifth Edition of NER, Aspiring Minds finds that the employability of Indian engineers has not changed on aggregate level since 2010 – we call it ‘Stubborn Unemployability’. • The employability of Indian engineers continues to be painfully low with more than 80% engineers unemployable for any job in the knowledge economy • Only 3.84% of engineers are employable in software-related jobs at start-ups. • Around 3% engineers possess new-age skills in areas such as AI, Machine Learning, Data engineering and Mobile technologies. On an aggregate level, employability in these areas is around 1.5-1.7%. • US has a much higher proportion of engineers, almost four times, who have good programming skills as compared to India. • A much higher percentage of Indian engineers (37.7%) cannot write an error-free code, as compared to China (10.35%). • Only 40% of engineering graduates end up doing an internship and 36% do any projects beyond coursework. https://www.aspiringminds.com/research-reports/national-employability-report-for-engineers-2019/#
  16. 16. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/home/education/news/what-is-making-mba-graduates-more-employable-than-the-engineers/articleshow/72752346.cms
  17. 17. …and now it is failing even itself! https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/800-engineering-colleges-to-close-over-low-quality-admissions/articleshow/60334680.cms The total of 778 colleges got approval for progressive closure in last 8 years i.e session 2012-13 to 2019-20, an average of 100 colleges gets closed every year. These colleges are of belong to the below- mentioned streams: • Applied Arts and Craft • Architecture and Town Planning • Engineering and Technology • Hotel Management and Catering • Management • MCA • Pharmacy https://www.entrancezone.com/engineerin g/aicte-approves-507-colleges-progressive- closure/
  18. 18. The Challenges and Root Causes
  19. 19. Symptoms to the problems seem to be in direct proportion to the R&D investments!
  20. 20. Though the story really starts at the beginning …
  21. 21. The cycle continues from home to the colleges… https://www.indiatoday.in/education-today/news/story/93-indian-students-aware-of-just-seven-career-options-what-are-parents-doing-wrong-1446205-2019-02-04
  22. 22. Even the premier institutes don’t seem to be able to have it all! https://www.indiatoday.in/education-today/news/story/over-2-800-faculty-positions-vacant-at-iits-3-211-at-nits-1565169-2019-07-09
  23. 23. Is the curriculum serving us, or are we serving it? https://timesofindia.indiatimes. com/home/education/90- Indian-universities-have- outdated-curriculum-CNR- Rao/articleshow/49671332.cms
  24. 24. The desire is there, but where are the PhDs? https://www.education.gov.in/sites/upload_files/mhrd/files/press-releases_13062018.pdf Of the 6,000 people granted science PhDs annually, not even 2,000 find decent employment today. – Prof T. Pradeep, IIT Madras, https://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op-ed/how-far-does-a-phd-go/article24988294.ece
  25. 25. Multiple challenges abound… Upskilling India, 2016, IBM Institute for Business Value, https://www.ibm.com/downloads/cas/RMJXDJWX
  26. 26. The world we live in…
  27. 27. Knowledge is doubling every 12 hours! (In 1982, Buckminster Fuller introduced his “knowledge-doubling curve.” To this, IBM added its post-1982 predictions) https://learningsolutionsmag.com/articles/2468/marc-my-words-the-coming-knowledge-tsunami
  28. 28. Tech knowledge decays the fastest! Schüppel (1996) estimates the “half-life period” (i.e. the time which passes until only half of knowledge on hand is still up-to-date) of technological and statistical knowledge at 1-2 years and that of university-level knowledge at 5 years. https://doi.org/10.4000/rga.475
  29. 29. We were warned!
  30. 30. Ideas for solutions…
  31. 31. There are several opportunities… Upskilling India, 2016, IBM Institute for Business Value, https://www.ibm.com/downloads/cas/RMJXDJWX
  32. 32. …and Tech could play a big role! Upskilling India, 2016, IBM Institute for Business Value, https://www.ibm.com/downloads/cas/RMJXDJWX
  33. 33. Recommendations are great, but probably not easy to action on… Develop more practical, applied, experience-based education • Rethink higher education curricula • Identify opportunities in current curricula to infuse experience-based and real-world learning experiences, such as internships and apprenticeships. • Embrace new teaching technologies and techniques that support experimental learning and customized coaching. • Partner with industry • Build alliances with industry partners to identify and validate particular needs for specific skills. • • Work with partners to establish apprenticeships, internships and other practical programs. • Share learning and refine strategies • Develop a benefits-realization plan to monitor and evaluate the impact of real-world learning programs on student skills and capabilities. • • Create a framework for sharing and adopting best practices with higher education institutions across the nation. Embrace technologies that improve education access, experience and outcomes. • Assess current capabilities and requirements • Engage core customers to evaluate existing capabilities, programs and mechanisms for providing access, experience and variety to identify opportunities for improvement. • • Evaluate analytics capabilities and decision-support tools within the ecosystem to identify opportunities to enhance decision making and improve student outcomes. • Experiment with what’s possible using new technologies • Closely monitor new education innovations and validate disruptive technologies (such as analytics, cognitive computing and simulation modeling) that can enable expanded access, experience and variety to help improve outcomes. • • Pursue opportunities to experiment and to broaden organizational acceptance of the inevitability of failure as well as success in the process of innovation. • Extend capabilities through ecosystem partners • Identify and evaluate new opportunities to expand access, experience and variety by leveraging capabilities, resources and assets of ecosystem partners. • • Conceptualize and execute new operating and business models working with partners that would be unattainable if operating alone. Build deeper relationships with ecosystem partners • Identify the right partners and empower an orchestrator • Identify key potential ecosystem partners from academia, industry and the public sector. • Define, empower and enable a strong intermediary to recruit partners, build consensus among partners and orchestrate emergent ecosystems. • Crystalize your partner vision and gain commitment • Define and reach consensus with key partners around a common vision for the education ecosystem, with clearly defined commitments from all partners. • • Define business intelligence requirements and strategies for collecting and sharing data among partners. • Formalize processes and design for sustainability • Define and formalize processes, accountability mechanisms and governance requirements to help ecosystem partners remain engaged and committed. • • Encourage partners to align internal business metrics to the ecosystem vision. Upskilling India, 2016, IBM Institute for Business Value, https://www.ibm.com/downloads/cas/RMJXDJWX
  34. 34. “10-20-30” 10% Change: of each subject every year 20% Teaching: by industry professionals 30% Learning: based on a real- life project
  35. 35. 10% Change
  36. 36. 20% Teaching
  37. 37. 30% Learning
  38. 38. All life is problem solving – Karl Popper

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