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History of Statistics

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History of Statistics

  1. 1. Statistics
  2. 2. Introduction to Statistics
  3. 3. Some Statistical Terms
  4. 4. 1.) Data is any quantitative or qualitative information. a.) Quantitative data refers to numerical information obtained from counting or measuring that which be manipulated by any fundamental operation. Examples: age, I.Q. scores, height, weight, income
  5. 5. b.) Qualitative data refers to descriptive attributes that cannot be subjected to mathematical operations. Examples: gender, citizenship, educational attainment, religion
  6. 6. 2.) Population refers to the totality of all the elements or persons for which one has an interest at a particular time.
  7. 7. For example, the members of the faculty of a school, the graduating class, the Visayan-speaking employees of a company, the male students, etc. A particular variable of a population can be associated to the population.
  8. 8. A researcher may associate a population to the ages of graduating students,, the I.Q. scores of the employees, the income of single parent, and so on. The usual notation for population is N.
  9. 9. 3.) Sample is a part of population determined by sampling procedures. It is usually denoted by n.
  10. 10. 4.) Parameter is any statistical information or attribute taken from a population. It is a true value or actual statistics since its source is the population itself.
  11. 11. 5.) Statistic is any estimate of statistical attributes taken from a sample.
  12. 12. 6.) Variable is a specific factor, property, or characteristic of a population or a sample which differentiates a sample or group of samples from another group.
  13. 13. For example, the score obtained from a coeducation class may differ by gender. Hence, gender is considered variable. In a catholic congregation, religion cannot be considered a variable since every member the population is Catholic.
  14. 14. a.) Discrete variable is a variable that can be obtained by counting. Examples: the number of cellphone users in a company, the number of computers in the laboratory.
  15. 15. b.) Continues variable is a variable that can be obtained by measuring objects or attributes. Examples: the weight of students, the temperature in a city over a period of time, the area of classrooms.
  16. 16. Definition of Statistics
  17. 17. Statistics is a branch of Mathematics that deals with the scientific collection, organization, presentation, analysis, and interpretation of numerical data in order to obtain useful and meaningful information.
  18. 18. Collection of data refers to the process of obtaining information.
  19. 19. Organization of data refers to the ascertaining manner of presenting the data into tables, graphs, or charts so that logical and statistical conclusions can be drawn from the collected measurements.
  20. 20. Analysis of data refers to the process of extracting from the given data relevant information from which numerical description can be formulated.
  21. 21. Interpretation of data refers to the task of drawing conclusions from the analyzed data.
  22. 22. Branches of Statistics
  23. 23. 1.) Descriptive Statistics The branch of statistics that focuses on collecting, summarizing, and presenting a set of data.
  24. 24. Examples: a.) The average age of citizens who voted for the winning candidate in the last presidential election. b.) The average length of all books about statistics.
  25. 25. 2.) Inferential Statistics The branch of Statistics that analyzes sample data to draw conclusions about a population.
  26. 26. Examples: a.) For instance, suppose a survey group wants to know the prevailing sentiments among Filipino people on a certain issue. Asking every Filipino to answer a questionnaire would be impossible. It is expensive, timeconsuming, and impractical. Instead, a small part of the entire population is scientifically chosen. The data gathered from this group is used to draw a general opinion of the entire population.
  27. 27. b.) A survey that sampled 2001 full or part-time workers ages 50 to 70, conducted by the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), discovered that 70% those polled planned to work past the traditional mid-60s retirement age. By using inferential statistics, this statistics could be used to draw conclusions about the population of all workers ages 50 to 70.
  28. 28. History of Statistics
  29. 29. The processing of statistical information has a history that extends back to the beginning of humanity. * As early as 3800 B.C., there were records of population in Babylonia and in China.
  30. 30. Babylonia China
  31. 31. * In biblical times, the census was undertaken by Moses in 1491 B.C. and by David in 1017 B.C.. * Indian literature dating back to the reign of the northern Hindustan King Asoka (270-230 B.C.) also described methods of taking census.
  32. 32. Reign Coronation 268 BCE Born 304 BCE, Close to 7th Aug Birthplace King Asoka of Northern Hindustan 268–232 BCE Pataliputra, Patna Died 232 BCE (aged 72) Place of death Pataliputra, Patna
  33. 33. * The Athenians and other ancient Greeks conducted the census in times of stress, counting the adult male citizens in war time and the general populace every time the food supply was endangered.
  34. 34. Athenians Athenians Ancient Greeks
  35. 35. * The Romans registered adult males and their property for military and administrative purposes.
  36. 36. Romans
  37. 37. * The sixth king of Rome, Servinus Tullius (578-534 B.C.) was given credit for instituting the gathering of population data.
  38. 38. Reign Predecessor Lucius Tarquinius Priscus Successor Lucius Tarquinius Superbus Father Unknown Mother Servinus Tullius c. 578 – 535 BC Ocrisia
  39. 39. * Two thousand years ago, each male in the Roman Empire had to return to the city of his birth to be counted and taxed. Thus, the Bible gives an account of the return of Joseph and Mary to Bethlehem for such purpose, (The Holy Bible, Luke 2: 4-5).
  40. 40. Joseph and Mary in Bethlehem
  41. 41. * In the Middle Ages, registrations of land ownership and manpower for wars were made. * In the thirteenth century, tax lists of Paris included the registration of those who were subjected to tax.
  42. 42. * In England, William the Conqueror required the compilation of information on population and resources. The compilation “The Domesday Book” is the first landmark in British statistics. Later on, the need to register births, deaths, baptisms, and marriages was reinforced as the population grew bigger.
  43. 43. Born: 1028, Château de Falaise, Falaise, France Died: September 9, 1087, Rouen, France the Bastard William I Flanders Nickname: William Full Name: Spouse: Matilda of Children: of England Henry I William II of England
  44. 44. Doomsday Book
  45. 45. * It was Gottfried Achenwall who first introduced the word statistiks in a preface to a statistical work. He was a German philosopher, historian, economist, jurist and statistician. He is counted among the inventors of statistics.
  46. 46. Born: October 20, 1719, Elblag Poland Died: May 1, 1772 Gottingen, Germany Education: University of Leipzig
  47. 47. * Girolamo Cardano, an Italian mathematician, physician, and gambler, wrote Liber de Ludo Aleae in which appeared the first known study of principles of probability. He wrote more than 200 works on medicine, mathematics, physics, philosophy, religion, and music.
  48. 48. Born: September 24, 1501 Pavia, Italy Died: September 21, 1576 Rome, Italy Cardano Parents: Fazio Books: The Rules of Algebra The book of my life The rules of algebra Education: University of Padua University of Pavia Gerolamo Cardano
  49. 49. Liber de Ludo Aleae
  50. 50. * Another gambler, Chevalier de Mere, made a proposal to Blaise Pascal in the famous Problem of Points, a work which marked the beginning of the mathematics of probability. Marquis de Laplace’s Theorie Analytique des Probabilities of 1812 stabilized and supported the said theory.
  51. 51. He was a French writer born in Poitou. Although he was not a nobleman, he adopted the title Chevalier for the character in his dialogues who represented his own views. Born: 1607, Poitou Died: December 29, 1684 Chevalier de Méré
  52. 52. He was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Christian philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a tax collector in Rouen. Born: June 19, 1623 Clermont-Ferrand, France Died: August 19, 1662 Paris, France Full name: Blaise Pascal Parents: Antoinette Begon Étienne Pascal Blaise Pascal Siblings: Jacqueline Pascal Gilberte Pasca
  53. 53. * Modern theories of Statistics were attributed to the great names like Abraham De Moivre (1667-1754) who discovered the equation of the normal curve.
  54. 54. He was a French mathematician famous for de Moivre's formula, which links complex numbers and trigonometry, and for his work on the normal distribution and probability theory. Born: May 26, 1667 Vitry-le-François, France Died: November 27, 1754 London, United Kingdom Education: Academy of Saumur Books: The Doctrine of Chances, Abraham de Moivre A Method of Calculating the Probabilities of Events in Play
  55. 55. * Karl Pearson who made an extensive study on correlation among several variables.
  56. 56. He was an influential English mathematician who has been credited with establishing the discipline of mathematical statistics. In 1911 he founded the world's first university statistics department at University College London. Born: March 27, 1857 Islington, United Kingdom Died: April 27, 1936 Capel, United Kingdom Children: Egon Pearson Karl Pearson Education: Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg, University of Cambridge, King's College, Cambridge
  57. 57. * Just right after the World War II, the need for a basic understanding of statistics arose. Statistical literacy became a necessity in today’s modern world.
  58. 58. * Nowadays, the use of Statistics has extended to such things as theater attendance, sports results, car sales in a certain period of time, heights, weights, birth rates, death rates, and other things that can be expressed numerically.

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