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2 researchinsexuality

Research Methods in the Study of Human Sexuality

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2 researchinsexuality

  1. 1. Research in Sexuality WARNING: This material includes sexually explicit images/words and is not expected to be viewed by younger people. If so, proper guidance is advised!
  2. 2. What is a Theory? A set of assumptions, principles, or methods that helps a researcher under-stand the nature of a phenomenon being studied. It provides an intellectual structure to help conceptualize, implement, and interpret a topic
  3. 3. Theories on Sexuality: Psychoanalytic  Freud believed that sex drive was one of the most important forces in life  Human behavior is motivated by instincts and drives  Libido – sexual motivation  Thanatos – aggressiveness motivation  Psychosexual Stages: erogenous zones  Oral  Anal  Phallic  Oedipus Complex  Electra Complex  Castration Anxiety  Latency  Genital  Fixations  Structures of Personality:  Id – pleasure principle; dominant in child  Ego – reality principle; begins when the child begins to interact  Superego
  4. 4. Theories on Sexuality: Behaviorism Overt Behavior Operant Conditioning We learn through reinforcement and punishment Behavior Modification Aversion Therapy
  5. 5. Theories on Sexuality: Learning Bandura There are internal and external influences Imitation and identification are important
  6. 6. Theories on Sexuality: Cognitive Information processing creates personality differences The biggest sexual organ is between the ears What sexually arouses us is what we think that arouses us
  7. 7. Theories on Sexuality: Humanistic Self-Actualization Sexual intimacy in loving and commitment in relationship can lead us to self-actualization Unconditional Positive Regard Conditional Love
  8. 8. Theories on Sexuality: Biological Sexual Functioning, Release of Hormones, Ejaculation, Conception, Pregnancy, and Birth are controlled physiologically, as well as human sexual behavior and intervention
  9. 9. Theories on Sexuality: Evolutionary Study animal behavior and sexual patterns Sexuality exists for the purpose of reproduction
  10. 10. Theories on Sexuality: Sociological Different societal standards Social institutions have an effect on one’s sexuality Family is the one that influences our sexuality first Economy – sex-related services Media Laws Medical
  11. 11. Theories on Sexuality: Feminism Much collaborative research on sex is needed
  12. 12. Theories on Sexuality: Queer Shares something in common with Feminist Theory Discover mismatches between sex, gender, and desire Abandon categorization
  13. 13. History of Sexuality Research  Socrates, Plato, Aristotle  developed theories regarding sexual responses and dysfunctions, sex legislation, reproduction and contraception, and sexual ethics  18th Century  Increased discussion of sexual ethics  Public and private sex education  19th Century  Heinrich Kaan – 1843 Psychopathia Sexualis  Sexuality research was thwarted in the Victorian Era  Late 19th Century – physicians as sexologists  Spread throughout Germany  Part of medical research  Researchers used pseudonyms
  14. 14. History of Sexuality Research 20th Century Freud 1921 – Committee for Research in Problems of Sex John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie funded sexuality research Alfred Kinsey – Father of Sexology American Law Institute lawyers recommended decriminalization of sexual behavior
  15. 15. Iwan Bloch Dermatologist Journal of Sexology Medical view of sexual behavior was shortsighted Historical and anthropological research would broaden sexology
  16. 16. Magnus Hirschfeld  German physician  Homophobic behavior were inhumane and unfounded  Funded his own work  Fought for the repeal of anti-LGBT laws that seeks to punish  1896- first sexology article  1899 – Yearbook for Sexual Intermediate Stages; educating about homosexuality and devious sexual acts  1900 – questionnaires on sexuality  1919 – Institute for Sexology
  17. 17. Albert Moll Conservative 1897 – Investigations Concerning the Libido Sexualis 1913 – International Society for Sex Research 1926 – International Congress of Sex Research Rejected
  18. 18. Richard von Krafft-Ebing Defiant sexual behavior is a result of engaging in nonreproductive sexual practices 1886 – Psychopathia Sexualis, a case history of 200 individuals who experienced sexual pathology
  19. 19. Havelock Ellis Pursued medical degree to study sexuality Rebelled against the secrecy of sexuality Studies in the Psychology of Sex (1897-1910)
  20. 20. Clelia Mosher Asked women about sexual behavior Helped married women to have satisfying sex lives Her works were never published
  21. 21. Katharine Bement Davis Interested in prostitution and STDs Defended homosexuality
  22. 22. Evelyn Hooker Compared a homosexual and heterosexual male Challenged the view that homosexuality was a mental illness
  23. 23. Alfred Kinsey 1938 – professor of zoology Atheoretical research Worried about interviewer bias Probability Sampling Volunteer Bias 100% sampling Sexual practices that were seen as unacceptable were found to be widely practiced
  24. 24. Morton Hunt Large scale sexuality study in the 1970s Generalizable results Premarital sex was increasing Reviewed his findings in a series of articles in Playboy magazine
  25. 25. Alan Bell and Martin Weinberg Colleagues from the Kinsey Institute 1968 – studied influences on homosexuality Supported Evelyn Hooker’s findings
  26. 26. William Masters and Virginia Johnson  Masters – gynecologist  Johnson – psychology researcher  Observed and measured sexual intercourse  Reduced gender bias  1966 – Human Sexual Response  Penile Strain Gauges  Photplethysmographs  1970 – Human Sexual Inadequacy; explored sexual dysfunction  Female orgasms results from direct and indirect clitoral stimulation  Used clinical terms to avoid censorship
  27. 27. Large Scale Sexuality Research Funded by family foundations: The Ford Robert Wood Johnson The Rockefeller Henry J. Kaiser
  28. 28. Privately Funded Organizations Conducting Sexuality Studies  National Health and Social Life Survey  1987 – AIDS outbreak  Americans were more sexually conservative than previously thought  Sex engagement is few times a month or less  Median of 2 to 6 sexual partners  The Social Organization of Sexuality  Sex in America: A Definitive Study  National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior  Published in late 2010  Masturbation was common throughout the life span  25% of teens aged 14 to 17 were involved in vaginal intercourse  Results could not be generalized among the LGBT  National College Health Assessment  Funded and established by American College Health Association  Began in 2000  NCHA examined the habits, behaviors, and perceptions of college students’ sexual health, alcohol and tobacco use, weight, nutrition, exercise, violence, and mental health.  4% of women engaged in anal sex
  29. 29. Government Funded Organizations Conducting Sexuality Studies  National Survey of Family Growth  is an ongoing government study that gathers data on family life, marriage and divorce, pregnancy, infertility, contraceptive use, and men’s and women’s health.  Sponsored by U.S National Center for Health Statistics in the Centers for Disease Control  Began in 1973  Included men in 2002  Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing and Audio-Computer Assisted Self-Interviewing  Youth Risk Behavior Survey  Monitors health-risk behaviors among Grade 9 – 12 pupils. 47% engaged in sex with 6% of age 13  Injuries and Violence, Tobacco/Drug/Alcohol Use, Sexual Behavior, and Unhealthy Dietary Behaviors  National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health  Grades 7 to 12  In-school questionnaire  National Survey of Adolescent Males  Longitudinal study on males  a significant number of heterosexual adolescent males engage in sexual activities beyond vaginal intercourse, such as mutual masturbation and oral and anal sex
  30. 30. Research Methods in Sexuality Case Study Interviews Questionnaires and Surveys Direct Observation Participant Observation Experimental Method Correlational Method Internet-Based Research Method
  31. 31. Problems in Sexuality Research Ethical Issues Volunteer Bias Sampling Reliability