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Abnormal Behavior in the Historical Context

Introduction to Abnormal Psychology

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Abnormal Behavior in the Historical Context

  1. 1. C ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR IN THE HISTORICAL CONTEXT MAP106 – Advanced Abnormal Psychology
  2. 2. What is a Psychological Disorder? • A dysfunction within an individual associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a response that is not typical or culturally expected Psychological Dysfunction • Breakdown in cognitive, emotional, or behavioral functioning Distress or Impairment • Extreme feelings of being upset. • Distress alone CANNOT define abnormality Atypical or Not culturally expected • Infrequent occurrence • Violation of social norms
  3. 3. Jerome Wakefield’s Harmful Dysfunction • Harmful is a value term based on social norms. • Dysfunction is a scientific term referring to the failure of a mental mechanism to perform a natural function for which it was designed by evolution.
  4. 4. DSM-5 Definition • “ a clinically significant disturbance in cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that indicates a dysfunction in mental functioning that is usually associated with significant distress or disability in work, relationships, or other areas of functioning (p. 20).
  5. 5. Psychopathology and Its Related Professions • Psychopathology is the study scientific study of psychological disorders. • RELATED PROFESSIONS: • Clinical Psychologists & Counseling Psychologists • Psychiatrists • Psychiatric Social Workers • Psychiatric Nurses • Marriage and Family Therapists
  6. 6. The Scientist-Practitioner Model • Mental health professionals taking a scientific approach. • Keeping up with the latest scientific developments. • Evaluation of their own assessments or treatment procedures to see whether they work. • Professionals may conduct studies regarding disorders or their treatment.
  7. 7. Clinical Description • Presenting Problem refers to the specific problems or set of problems manifested by the patients. • Clinical Description refers to the unique combination of behaviors, thoughts, and feelings making up a specific disorder. • Prevalence refers to the figures on how many people in a population as a whole have the disorder. • Incidence refers to the statistics on how many new cases occur during a given period.
  8. 8. Clinical Description • Course refers to the individual pattern of a disorder. • Chronic: tend to last a long time, sometimes a lifetime. • Episodic: likely to cover within a few months and suffer recurrence at a later time • Time-limited: improvement in a relatively short period without treatment with little or no risk of recurrence • Onset: beginning of a disorder • Acute: begins suddenly • Insidious: gradual development over an extended period • Prognosis refers to the anticipated course of a disorder. • Etiology: study of origins; includes the biological, psychological and social dimensions.
  9. 9. Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior: Supernatural Tradition • Deviant behavior is a battle between good and evil. • Exorcism became a form of intervention. • Tortures and beatings were done to assure that bodies won’t be inhabitable by evil spirits. • Paracelsus contended that the movement of the moon and stars has a profound effect on psychological functioning.
  10. 10. Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior: The Biological Tradition • Hippocrates contends that psychological disorders could be treated like any disease. • The brain was considered to be the seat of wisdom, consciousness, intelligence, and emotion. Thus, any disturbances in these functioning can be traced from the brain • Galen later adopted Hippocrates’ ideas. • Humoral Theory of Disorder: • Sanguine (blood; cheerful & optimistic; insomnia & delirium) • Melancholic (depressive; black bile) • Phlegmatic (phlegm; apathy & sluggishness; calm under stress) • Choleric (yellow bile; hot tempered) • Treatments: • Bloodletting • Regulation of the environment • Acupuncture
  11. 11. Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior: The Biological Tradition • Syphilis was thought to be related with psychosis • Penicillin was used for treatment • John P. Grey championed the biological tradition in the U.S. • Causes of insanity were always physical. Therefore, the mentally ill shall be treated similar to the physically ill. • Interventions: • Gain rest • Proper room temperature and ventilation
  12. 12. Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior: The Psychological Tradition • Development of moral therapy, which was aimed at treating institutionalized patients as normally as possible. It allowed for interaction among patients. • Philippe Pinel began moral therapy in France along with his colleague Jean-Baptiste Pussin. • William Tuke followed the lead in England • Benjamin Rush followed the lead in the U.S and became the father of American Psychiatry. • Dorothea Dix campaigned for the mental hygiene movement.
  13. 13. Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior: Psychoanalysis • Franz Anton Mesmer – “animal magnetism” should be blocked; used hypnosis • Sigmund Freud & Josef Breuer – unconscious and catharsis • Case of “Anna O.” • Structure of the Mind • Defense Mechanisms • Psychosexual Stages of Development • Interventions: • Free Association • Dream Analysis • Transference
  14. 14. Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior: Humanism • We are capable reaching our highest potential. • Person-centered Therapy • Unconditional Positive Regard • Empathy
  15. 15. Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior: Behaviorism • Pavlov – Classical Conditioning • John B. Watson –founder of behaviorism; emphasized scientific psychology. • Watson & Rayner’s Little Albert • Mary Cover Jones – first behaviorist to treat phobia • Systematic Desensitization – gradual exposure to fear-inducing stimuli until it extinguishes • B. F Skinner – Operant Conditioning
  16. 16. The Present: Scientific Method and An Integrative Approach • Increased sophistication in the use of scientific tools and methodology. • No factors – biological, behavioral, cognitive, emotional, or social – ever occur in isolation