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Tourism planning and development


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Tourism planning and development

  1. 1. History of Tourism
  2. 2. Tourism is derived from the Hebrew word: TORAH Which means studying, searching and learning.
  3. 3. Along with existence of first human ancestors, the activity of traveling started. Early nomadic people did not travel only for leisure: to look for food for survival
  4. 4. Early Tourism has two forms:
  5. 5. The invention of money, writing and wheel by the Summerians facilitated travel and exchange of goods. Both Greeks and Romans were well – known traders and as their respective empires increased, travel became necessary. The Roman traveler was largely aided by improvement in communication, first class roads and inns. (the forerunner of the modern day hotel).
  6. 6. Modern Tourism Two technological developments: Introduction of the railway system Development of steam power
  7. 7. World War II The war had introduced combatants not only to new countries but to new continents, generating new friendships and an interest in different cultures Air travel had become more comfortable, safer, faster and cheaper in comparison with other forms of transport With the Introduction of the Boeing 707 jets in 1958, the age of air travel for the masses arrived, hastening the decline of sea travel Improvements in air transport not only encouraged greater transcontinental travel but were instrumental in the growth of intercontinental travel in 1960’s and 1970’s
  8. 8. After the post – war recovery years, there was an increase in private car ownership The private car provided flexible transportation which freed people from the schedules and fixed routes of public transport The post – war economic recovery provided the increase in discretionary income and leisure time which many people converted into increased recreation and travel.
  9. 9. TOURISM
  10. 10. the travel for recreational, leisure,family or business purposes, usually of a limited duration. Tourism is commonly associated with trans-national travel, but may also refer to travel to another location within the same country.
  11. 11. • Tourism is commonly associated with trans-national travel, but may also refer to travel to another location within the same country.
  13. 13. PLANNING • Planning is a dynamic process of determining goals, systematically selecting alternative courses of actions to achieve those goals, implementing the chosen alternatives, and evaluating the choice to determine if it is successful.
  15. 15. WHAT IS TOURISM PLANNING??? • Tourism planning is the process of considering the needs of people planning a trip and using those factors to determine the best resources, programs and activities for their trip. Tourism planning is intended for local residents and businesses of the location, as well as tourists who travel there.
  16. 16. ESSENCE OF TOURISM PLANNING • Tourism planning involves the coordination with other government agencies to improve tourism-related infrastructure. The planning also extends to participation of the private sector, the hotels and restaurants, travel transport, and even popular outlets (like Jollibee) that can help as information centers (in the absence of actual tourist information centers)
  17. 17. • The planning process is essential as it provides plenty of resources and information for travelers, while ensuring that the location and local businesses provide everything needed to improve their tourism. In tourism planning, every factor is considered, ranging from finding a variety of accommodations to fit travelers' different wants and needs to locating special programs and activities in that location.
  18. 18. What are the consequences of having a lack of tourism planning or poor tourism planning? • The consequences of having a lack of tourism planning or poor tourism planning is that the tourism industry is unorganized, the tourist does not take the opportunity to travel, the numbers of tourists decrease. and profits decrease.
  19. 19. A. PHYSICAL IMPACTS • Damage or permanent alteration of the physical environment • Damage or permanent alteration of the historical/cultural landmarks and resources • Overcrowding and congestion • Pollution • Traffic problems
  20. 20. B. HUMAN IMPACTS • Less accessibility to services and tourist attractions for local residents resulting in local resentment • Dislike of tourist by local residents • Loss of cultural identities • Lack of education of tourism employees in skills and hospitality • Lack of awareness of the benefits of tourism to the destination area.
  21. 21. C. MARKETING IMPACTS • Failure to capitalize on new marketing opportunities. • Erosion of market shares due to the actions of competitive destination area. • Lack of sufficient awareness in prime markets • Lack of clear image of destination area in potential markets. • Lack of cooperative advertising among individual operators • Inadequate capitalization in packaging opportunities.
  22. 22. D. ORGANIZATIONAL IMPACTS • Fragmental approach to the marketing and development of tourism, often involving “competitive splinter groups”. • Lack of cooperation among individual operators. • Inadequate representation of the tourism industry’s interests. • Lack of support from local public authorities. • Failure to act on important issues, problems and opportunities of common interest to the industry.
  23. 23. E. OTHER IMPACTS • Lack of sufficient attractions and events. • High seasonality and short lengths of stay. • Poor or deteriorating quality of facilities and services. • Poor or inadequate travel information services.
  24. 24. TOURISM PLANNING IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES • In general planning for tourists is less difficult in developed countries than it is in developing ones. • Planning is important and should provide a quality environment for both tourists and residents. • The planning process for tourism development is the same as in city or regional planning. Most problems involve policy decisions on alternative land uses for the health and welfare of the citizens.
  25. 25. • In countries with less control over the economic sector, guidelines and ordinances can restrict private development to prescribed areas, while in others, all development can be directed by the central government. • Target countries or states can be identified as potential tourist generators through research and market analysis. Proper planning include government assistance in direct advertising to attract tourist.
  26. 26. • In developed countries, planning and construction of infrastructure facilities is a must particularly in areas that do not have them. For regions that have existing infrastructure, the planning process should include alternatives to improve or further develop it.
  27. 27. TOURISM IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES • Tourism is important in bringing the much needed foreign currency for developing countries. Mexico and Spain for example have benefited very much from tourism. • Other advantages are increased employment opportunities and the development of infrastructure. Roads, water and sewage systems provided for tourists also help local industries.
  28. 28. • Planning in developing countries should consider the cultural impact of tourism on the area. Many times the culture may be so fragile that tourism can greatly influence it particularly in developing countries. • In a developing society, people tend to adopt the lifestyle of the tourists changing their clothing, food and other customs. In this way the local culture is greatly influenced or altered.
  29. 29. BARRIERS TO PLANNING The following are the barriers to tourism planning and the problems associated with it. 1. Many people are against planning in principle, particularly within the free-enterprise system. Many businessmen view tourism planning as an encroachment into their domain and are skeptical of its real value.
  30. 30. Classification of Travelers Based on Personality – Psychocentrics – Allocentrics Based on the Purpose of Travel – Regular Business Traveler – Business Traveler attending meetings, conventions and congresses – Incentive Travelers Pleasure Travelers – Resort Travelers – Family pleasure travelers – The elderly – Singles and couples
  31. 31. Based on Personality: Psychocentrics @ people who are centered on self, are inhibited and unadventuresome @ they have the strong desire for consistency and the familiar Allocentrics @ people having interest and attention on the other persons, are highly curious and thrive on stimulation and change @ they have a strong need for variety and new experiences