<ul><li>1848 uprising - not successful for Italy. Still not a “nation” </li></ul><ul><li>Austria controlled large part of the northern territory </li></ul><ul><li>Rest of the penninsula was small kingdoms - it was here conservatives met their match </li></ul>
<ul><li>One of the kingdoms, Piedmont, ruled by King Victor Emmanuel II. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1852 he chose Camillo di Cavour as his prime minister </li></ul><ul><li>Cavour set our to free Italian territory from Austrian control and uniting the penninsula </li></ul>
<ul><li>Cavour joined European Emperor of France - Napoleon III - in a military alliance </li></ul>
<ul><li>1859 Armies of France and Piedmont went to war against Austria </li></ul><ul><li>They won! </li></ul><ul><li>See the blue territories? </li></ul><ul><li>In exchange for France’s help Italy let France take the regions of Nice and Savoy </li></ul>
<ul><li>Meanwhile Austria supported the gov’ts of several northern states </li></ul><ul><li>Here the people were inspired by Piedmont’s success so they deposed- overthrew- their Austrian backed rulers and joined their states with Piedmont </li></ul>
<ul><li>Cavour’s careful planning had worked - Italy was now a nation under King Victor Emmanuel II </li></ul>
A Moment - Emperor Louis-Napoleon twice tried to rule France. - In 1836 he attempted it but was exiled to England - his second attempt, 1840, led to a sentence of life in prison - he escaped 6 years later - went back to England
A Moment - Returned to France, again, during 1848 revolt and was elected President. - 1851, knowing he could not be elected President again according to Fr. constitution, he instituted a military coup d e’tat and declared new constitution - - he ruled as Emperor 1851-1870 when he was taken prisoner in Franco-Prussian war - he escaped to England, again, where he died 1873 -Franco-Prussian war explains France’s desire for revenge against Germany “ I’m so proud”
Unification of Italy <ul><li>Victor Emmanuel and Cavour had united most of northern Italy. </li></ul>In the south, Giuseppe Garibaldi was building support for a single Italy
Unification of Italy He is a strong nationalist. But unlike Cavour, he didn’t want a monarchy. He wanted a republic.
Unification of Italy 1860, Garibaldi pulled together a volunteer army of 1,000 patriots They wore red shirts as a uniform Know as the red shirts
Unification of Italy They helped a revolt on Sicily Quickly controlled the two kingdoms Giribaldi turned it over to Victor Emmanuel. In exchange Emmanuel agreed to a constitutional monarchy
Unification of Italy Regions of Venetia and Papal States still not part of Italy Austria gave up Venetia in 1866 after they lost the Austro-Prussia war (Italy was an ally of Prussia during that war)
Unification of Italy Italian forces invaded Papal States in 1870 French Emperor Napoleon III defended the states! But he had to remove his troops to fight Prussia in the Franco-Prussian war citizens of Papal States voted to join Italy
Unification of Italy Create a concept map of how Italy became a nation Label the large center circle “Unifying Italy” Then, with a partner, draw smaller circles for different steps in the process Be sure to include details!
Unification of Italy Create a concept map of how Italy became a nation Label the large center circle “Unifying Italy” <ul><li>Cavour joined Nap III against Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Italian nationalist joined with Piedmont </li></ul><ul><li>Garibaldi and Red Shirts liberated Sicily </li></ul><ul><li>Italy formed a constitutional monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Venice and Papal States joined the rest of Italy </li></ul>
Unification of Germany <ul><li>Nationalism is sweeping Europe </li></ul><ul><li>but Germany is still 39 separate states ruled by princes, dukes, and petty kings </li></ul>
Unification of Germany <ul><li>After the Congress of Vienna, unification of Germany began with economic reform </li></ul><ul><li>Tariffs on goods moving from state to state </li></ul><ul><li>Junkers - aristocratic land owners complained about the tariffs. </li></ul>
Unification of Germany <ul><li>Junkers + tadespeople, financiers, etc. call for Zollverein (pre European union) this is a customs union </li></ul>
Unification of Germany <ul><li>Otto von Bismark was an aristocratic Prussian with no romantic views for a German national state or any wish for a democratic gov’t </li></ul>Reapoltik - poltics based on practical or material matters rather than theory or ethics I agree!
Unification of Germany Prince Otto Edward Leopold von Bismarck was the mastermind of German Unification and was the first chancellor of the united nation.
Unification of Germany <ul><li>1862 </li></ul><ul><li>As minister president of Prussia Prince Bismarck immediately worked to create a German empire (reich) dominated by Prussia. </li></ul><ul><li>While other Germans dreamed of a national state, Bismarck quickly modernized the Prussian army with a well-trained high command, the latest weapons, and the best railways in Europe. </li></ul>
Unification of Germany <ul><li>1862 </li></ul><ul><li>Using the weakest of excuses he took over several German states and through inimidation forced rest of Germany to accept Prussian rule. </li></ul><ul><li>1871 </li></ul><ul><li>Bismark declared German empire under his leadership </li></ul>
Unification of Germany <ul><li>1871 </li></ul><ul><li>The new unified German nation, instead of being a democratic state, was ruled by a Prussian emperor, a Prussian military, and above all, a Prussian named Bismark. </li></ul>
Unification of Germany Quickly became a national state whose military power could quickly crush any rebellion and force its will on any weaker neighboring states Which it did
Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871 1870-1871 The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War was a conflict between France and Prussia, while Prussia was backed by the North German Confederation, of which it was a member, and the South German states of Baden, Württemberg and Bavaria. N German Confederation
The cause of the Franco-Prussian War? The conflict was a culmination of years of tension between the two powers, which finally came to a head over the issue of a Hohenzollern candidate for the vacant Spanish throne. The public release of the Ems Dispatch, which played up alleged insults between the Prussian king and the French ambassador, inflamed public opinion on both sides. France mobilized, and on 19 July declared war on Prussia only, but the other German states quickly joined on Prussia's side I set Napoleon III up!
The events of the Franco-Prussian War The superiority of the Prussian and German forces was soon evident, due in part to efficient use of railways and impressively superior Krupp steel artillery.
The events of the Franco-Prussian War Over a five-month campaign, the German armies defeated the newly recruited French armies in a series of battles fought across northern France. Following a prolonged siege, Paris fell in 1871. The siege is also notable due to the fact that it saw the first use of anti-aircraft artillery, a Krupp piece built specifically to shoot down the hot air balloons being used by the French as couriers.
The events of the Franco-Prussian War Ten days earlier, the German states had proclaimed their union under the Prussian King, uniting Germany as a nation-state, the German Empire. The final peace Treaty of Frankfurt was signed 10 May 1871
Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871 1870-1871 Results of the Prussian/German victory: 1. the final unification of the German Empire under King William I of Prussia.
Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871 1870-1871 Results of the Prussian/German victory: 2. It marked the downfall of Napoleon III and the end of the Second French Empire, which was replaced by the Third Republic.
Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871 1870-1871 Results of the Prussian/German victory: 3. As part of the settlement, almost all of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine was taken by Prussia to become a part of Germany, which it would retain until the end of W W I.
Under the readings of German Unification Under the subheading “Building German Power at Home” each paragraph has a different topic Draw four columns on paper. Neatly label each column with topic of the paragraphs. List additional information about each topic in the correct column. Then switch with a partner and gather additional infomation you might have missed.