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Moamer Gabsa
ANTERIOR TRIANGLE OF
THE NECK
ObjectivesObjectives
By the end of this presentation you should know :
Boundaries and contents of the anterior triangle of...
• An anterior boundary:
formed by the
median line of the
neck.
• A posterior boundary:
formed by the
anterior border of th...
• A superior boundary:
formed by the inferior
border of the
mandible.
• An apex: located at
the jugular notch in the
manub...
Anterior triangle
SCM
Apex Jugular notch
• A roof: formed by subcutaneous tissue containing
the platysma.
• A floor: formed by the pharynx, larynx, and
thyroid gla...
• the digastric and
omohyoid muscles
divides the anterior
triangle to small
triangles .
Omohyoid muscle
Anterior belly
of ...
The anterior cervical region is
subdivided into four smaller triangles
• The unpaired submental triangle
and three small p...
THE SUBMENTAL TRIANGLE
• The submental triangle,
inferior to the chin, is an
unpaired suprahyoid
area
Hyoid bone
Submental triangle
Chin
• Inferiorly : body of the hyoid.
• Laterally : right and left anterior
bellies of the digastric muscles.
• Floor: the two...
Anterior belly of
digastric muscle Mylohyoid
muscle
Anterior belly of
digastric muscle
• Contents:
submental lymphsubmental lymph
nodesnodes and
anterior jugularanterior jugular
veinvein.
`
Port SudanPort Sudan
THE SUBMANDIBULAR TRIANGLE
• It is an area between the inferior
border of the mandible and the
anterior and posterior bellies of the
digastric muscle...
CONTENTS OF SUBMANDIBULAR
TRIANGLE
• The submandibular gland.
• Submandibular lymph nodes.
• The hypoglossal nerve (CN XII).
• The nerve to the mylohyoid mus...
Submandibular lymph
node
Submandibular gland
Facial vein
Facial artery
Kadogly- kordufanKadogly- kordufan
THE CAROTID TRIANGLE
• It is a vascular area bounded by the
superior belly of the omohyoid, the
posterior belly of the digastric, and the
anter...
• At the level of the superior
border of the thyroid
cartilage, the common
carotid artery divides into
the internal and ex...
CONTENT OF CAROTID TRIANGLE
• The common carotid artery
• The internal carotid artery
• The internal jugular vein
• The va...
CAROTID SHEATH
• The neurovascular structures of the carotid triangle are
surrounded by the carotid sheath and its contents.
carotid shea...
CAROTID SINUS
• A slight dilation of the proximal part of the
internal carotid artery, which may involve
the common caroti...
Innervated principally by the
glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX)
through the carotid sinus nerve, as
well as by the vagus nerv...
• A small, reddish brown ovoid mass of
tissue that lies on the medial (deep) side
of the bifurcation of the common carotid...
Jabl Mara – DarfurJabl Mara – Darfur
THE MUSCULAR TRIANGLE
•It is bounded by the superior
belly of the omohyoid muscle,
the anterior border of the SCM,
and the median plane of the
n...
CONTENT OF MUSCULAR TRIANGLE
• This triangle contains the infrahyoid muscles and viscera
(e.g., the thyroid and parathyroi...
THYROID GLAND
• It is an Endocrine gland
• lies deep to the sternothyroid
and sternohyoid muscles,
located anteriorly in t...
Sternohyoid muscle
Sternothyroid muscle
Thyroid
gland
• It consists of right and left
lobes.
• The isthmus unites the
lobes over the trachea,
usually anterior to the
second and...
• Approximately 50% of thyroid
glands have a pyramidal
lobe.
• This lobe, which varies in size,
extends superiorly from th...
BloodBlood supplysupply ofof thyroidthyroid
• Superior and inferior thyroid
arteries
• The superior thyroid arteries
descend from the external
carotid arteries, it is...
• In approximately 10%
of people, a small,
unpaired thyroid ima
artery arises from the
brachiocephalic
trunk supply the
is...
VEINS
• The superior and middle
thyroid veins drain into
the IJVs
• The inferior thyroid veins
drain into the
brachiocepha...
LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE
• The lymphatic vessels of the
thyroid gland run in the
interlobular connective tissue.
• They communic...
NERVE TO THYROID GLAND
• The nerves of the thyroid gland are derived from the
superior, middle, and inferior cervical symp...
REFERENCES
• Moore, Keith L.; Dalley, Arthur F, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 5th
Ed.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.
...
Anterior triangle of the neck
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Anterior triangle of the neck

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gross anatomy of the neck

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Anterior triangle of the neck

  1. 1. Moamer Gabsa ANTERIOR TRIANGLE OF THE NECK
  2. 2. ObjectivesObjectives By the end of this presentation you should know : Boundaries and contents of the anterior triangle of the neck Sub-divisions of anterior triangle and content of each one of these triangle
  3. 3. • An anterior boundary: formed by the median line of the neck. • A posterior boundary: formed by the anterior border of the SCM. SCMSCM
  4. 4. • A superior boundary: formed by the inferior border of the mandible. • An apex: located at the jugular notch in the manubrium.
  5. 5. Anterior triangle SCM Apex Jugular notch
  6. 6. • A roof: formed by subcutaneous tissue containing the platysma. • A floor: formed by the pharynx, larynx, and thyroid gland.
  7. 7. • the digastric and omohyoid muscles divides the anterior triangle to small triangles . Omohyoid muscle Anterior belly of digastric posterior belly of digastric
  8. 8. The anterior cervical region is subdivided into four smaller triangles • The unpaired submental triangle and three small paired triangles: • submandibular • carotid •Muscular by the digastric and omohyoid muscles.
  9. 9. THE SUBMENTAL TRIANGLE
  10. 10. • The submental triangle, inferior to the chin, is an unpaired suprahyoid area Hyoid bone Submental triangle Chin
  11. 11. • Inferiorly : body of the hyoid. • Laterally : right and left anterior bellies of the digastric muscles. • Floor: the two mylohyoid muscles. • The apex of the submental triangle is at the mandibular symphysis. • Base : is formed by the hyoid bone. Hyoid bone Submental triangle Anterior belly of digastric muscle Mylohyoid muscle 0 0 Mandibular symphysis
  12. 12. Anterior belly of digastric muscle Mylohyoid muscle Anterior belly of digastric muscle
  13. 13. • Contents: submental lymphsubmental lymph nodesnodes and anterior jugularanterior jugular veinvein.
  14. 14. ` Port SudanPort Sudan
  15. 15. THE SUBMANDIBULAR TRIANGLE
  16. 16. • It is an area between the inferior border of the mandible and the anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric muscle. • The floor is formed by the mylohyoid and hyoglossus muscles. Anterior belly of digastric posterior belly of digastric Sub mandibular triangle
  17. 17. CONTENTS OF SUBMANDIBULAR TRIANGLE
  18. 18. • The submandibular gland. • Submandibular lymph nodes. • The hypoglossal nerve (CN XII). • The nerve to the mylohyoid muscle (a branch of CN V3, which also supplies the anterior belly of the digastric). • Parts of the facial artery and vein, and the submental artery (a branch of the facial artery).
  19. 19. Submandibular lymph node Submandibular gland Facial vein Facial artery
  20. 20. Kadogly- kordufanKadogly- kordufan
  21. 21. THE CAROTID TRIANGLE
  22. 22. • It is a vascular area bounded by the superior belly of the omohyoid, the posterior belly of the digastric, and the anterior border of the SCM. omohyoid SCMSCM Carotid triangle Posterior belly of digastric
  23. 23. • At the level of the superior border of the thyroid cartilage, the common carotid artery divides into the internal and external carotid arteries. Superior border of thyroid cartilage Thyroid cartilage Carotid sinus Common carotid artery Internal carotid artery External carotid
  24. 24. CONTENT OF CAROTID TRIANGLE • The common carotid artery • The internal carotid artery • The internal jugular vein • The vagus nerve This structure covered by carotid sheath
  25. 25. CAROTID SHEATH
  26. 26. • The neurovascular structures of the carotid triangle are surrounded by the carotid sheath and its contents. carotid sheath is a column of fascia that surrounds • The common carotid artery • The internal carotid artery • The internal jugular vein • The vagus nerve as these structures pass through the neck carotid sheath
  27. 27. CAROTID SINUS • A slight dilation of the proximal part of the internal carotid artery, which may involve the common carotid artery. Carotid sinus
  28. 28. Innervated principally by the glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) through the carotid sinus nerve, as well as by the vagus nerve (CN X). It is a baroreceptor (pressoreceptor) that reacts to changes in arterial blood pressure. Common carotid Carotid sinus Carotid sinus nerve Internal Carotid artery External Carotid artery
  29. 29. • A small, reddish brown ovoid mass of tissue that lies on the medial (deep) side of the bifurcation of the common carotid artery in close relation to the carotid sinus . • Supplied mainly by the carotid sinus nerve (CN IX) and by CN X. • It is a chemoreceptor that monitors the level of oxygen in the blood. It is stimulated by low levels of oxygen and initiates a reflex that increases the rate and depth of respiration, cardiac rate, and blood pressure. CAROTID BODY Carotid body
  30. 30. Jabl Mara – DarfurJabl Mara – Darfur
  31. 31. THE MUSCULAR TRIANGLE
  32. 32. •It is bounded by the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle, the anterior border of the SCM, and the median plane of the neck. Omohyoid muscle Muscular triangle Hyoid bone SCM SCM
  33. 33. CONTENT OF MUSCULAR TRIANGLE • This triangle contains the infrahyoid muscles and viscera (e.g., the thyroid and parathyroid glands).
  34. 34. THYROID GLAND • It is an Endocrine gland • lies deep to the sternothyroid and sternohyoid muscles, located anteriorly in the neck at the level of the C5 - T1 vertebrae • Butterfly in shape
  35. 35. Sternohyoid muscle Sternothyroid muscle Thyroid gland
  36. 36. • It consists of right and left lobes. • The isthmus unites the lobes over the trachea, usually anterior to the second and third tracheal rings. THYROID GLAND Right lobe Left lobe ist h m us
  37. 37. • Approximately 50% of thyroid glands have a pyramidal lobe. • This lobe, which varies in size, extends superiorly from the isthmus of the thyroid gland, usually to the left of the median plane pyramidal lobe
  38. 38. BloodBlood supplysupply ofof thyroidthyroid
  39. 39. • Superior and inferior thyroid arteries • The superior thyroid arteries descend from the external carotid arteries, it is accompanied by the external laryngeal nerve . • The inferior thyroid arteries, the largest branches of the thyrocervical trunks arising from the subclavian arteries. Superior thyroid inferior thyroid External carotid Thyrocevical trunk ArteriesArteries
  40. 40. • In approximately 10% of people, a small, unpaired thyroid ima artery arises from the brachiocephalic trunk supply the isthmus Thyroid ima artery
  41. 41. VEINS • The superior and middle thyroid veins drain into the IJVs • The inferior thyroid veins drain into the brachiocephalic veins Superior thyroid vein Middle thyroid vein Internal jugular vein Inferior thyroid vein Brachiocephalic vein
  42. 42. LYMPHATIC DRAINAGE • The lymphatic vessels of the thyroid gland run in the interlobular connective tissue. • They communicate with a capsular network of lymphatic vessels. • They drain eventually to the superior and inferior deep cervical nodes
  43. 43. NERVE TO THYROID GLAND • The nerves of the thyroid gland are derived from the superior, middle, and inferior cervical sympathetic ganglia. • These fibers are vasomotor, not secretomotor. They cause constriction of blood vessels. • Endocrine secretion from the thyroid gland is hormonally regulated by the pituitary gland.
  44. 44. REFERENCES • Moore, Keith L.; Dalley, Arthur F, Clinically Oriented Anatomy, 5th Ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006. • Richard L.Drake, Wayne Vogl,Adam W.M.Mitchell, GRAYS anatomy for students, Elsevier Inc. 2007

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