organizations should be aware that there are many different aspects to quality; CCHSA has selected these 8 dimensions as being important when trying to evaluate quality there are a number of different factors to look at or think about competence – providers have the necessary skills and knowledge acceptability – meeting clients expectations effectiveness – extent to which intervention achieves desired outcome appropriateness – relevant to client and based on established standards efficiency – cost-effective use of resources accessibility – service provided at right time, place etc. continuity – uninterrupted coordinated services safety – risks are avoided or minimized
Council doesn&apos;t mandate a specific set of tools or theories, but incorporates the principles of CQI. Since the the most Whole program is designed around the CQI philosophy the five pillars represent the fundamental principles of quality improvement which are common to any QI program; they are incorporated into all aspects of the accreditation program leadership is required to facilitate the process both from above and within the teams there needs to be an organizational commitment to QI and the desire to always improve
ادارة الجودة الشاملة لفني الصيدلة
ععععععععععععععععععععObjectives & T – L Plan
•Understand each other
•ععععععCourse Objective in this T & L Plan
•TQM Historical Progress
= •TQM Approaches; Tools & Technologies 7-9
= •TQM & PTQM Systems; Standards & Associations
-PTQM Standards; Systems & Association:
Standards of Care in Community Pharmacy
= •Benefits of TQM SSA
ييييي يييييي ييييي
Total Quality Management: Strategies and Techniques Proven at Today's Most Successful Companies (Portable Mba Se
- Hardcover (Feb 1998) by Stephen George and Arnold Weimerskirch
Medical Quality Management: Theory and Practi…(Paperback) by American College of Medical Quality,
Prathibha Varkey MD
The Healthcare Quality Book: Vision, Strategy…(Hardcover) by Elizabeth R. Ransom, Maulik S. Joshi
A History of the Arab Peoples by Albert Hourani 1991
)PT & PA:
Pharmacy technician NHS, UK
This page describes the role of pharmacy technicians and where they work.
Types of pharmacy technician
Pharmacy technicians in the NHS work mainly in one of two areas, hospital pharmacy
and community pharmacy although opportunities also exist in other areas such as GP
practices and in primary care trusts. Pharmacy technicians are part of the pharmacy
team and work under the supervision of a pharmacist. They are involved in the supply
of medicines and products to patients. The opportunities for specialization and
increased responsibility extend with experience. There are a number of management,
administration and specialist roles undertaken by pharmacy technicians. Click on the
links in the "Related Information.." section for more information on the work of
hospital and community pharmacy technicians, and pharmacy assistants (who work
with technicians and pharmacists as a part of the pharmacy team).
In the hospital service, there are several grades for qualified pharmacy technicians. Senior
technicians can specialize in areas such as medicines management, manufacturing, quality
control, staff training, information technology, supplies procurement, clinical trials or medicines
information services. An expanding role is that of clinical technician, which involves working on
wards, liaising with other healthcare professionals and closer contact with patients. A chief
technician is often responsible for managing a section of the pharmacy department.
PT Entry requirements:
There are no minimum entry requirements, although you will usually be expected to have
four GCSEs at Grade C or above, or the equivalent, including English, science and maths. You
will then need to obtain a trainee post either at a hospital or in a community pharmacy.
Some trusts may offer the chance to train through an apprenticeship for pharmacy
technicians. For general information about apprenticeships, please click here
PT Training programmes and registration:
To register as a pharmacy technician you need an NVQ level 3 in pharmacy services. The
training involves both practical experience and study at a college or by open learning. It
usually takes two years to complete.
Pharmacy technicians with appropriate qualifications can register with the Royal
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain*.
Currently, registration is voluntary, but from 1 July 2011, registration will be mandatory and
only pharmacy technicians with acceptable qualifications will be able to join. Eligibility to join
the register will be based on the candidate holding the Pharmacy Services S/NVQ level 3 and
will include a requirement for the training programme to include an accredited underpinning
knowledge programme and completion of work experience in a pharmacy. For a transitional
period, the Society will recognise a range of other pharmacy technician qualifications.
More information about registration is available from the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain
NHS- UK Pharmacy assistants
Pharmacy assistants and dispensing assistants work alongside pharmacy technicians and
under the supervision of a registered pharmacist. They work in hospital and community settings.
Staff falling into this category will have a range of roles and responsibilities and therefore different
job titles will apply. In the community sector these will include dispenser, dispensing assistant,
pharmacy assistant and healthcare assistant. Within the hospital sector the titles pharmacy
assistant and assistant technical officer are more commonly used.
The range of duties is broad and varies depending on the post, but would typically include the
selecting specific pharmaceutical items from within a store area, according to a list, for
assembly for delivery towards, departments, clinical areas or community sites
answering queries on supply and availability of medicines, where it is within their competence
drawing to the attention of clinical pharmacists or pharmacy technicians, problems or queries
ordering items for use within a department
receiving, loading, unloading incoming goods from wholesalers, manufacturers and
delivering pharmaceuticals and other goods to sites within a pharmacy department, and
PA with P D & PT Duties:
assisting in the maintenance of reasonable stock levels
pre-packing, assembling and labelling medications
aseptic preparation of medicines (preparations of medicines in a very clean environment
using special techniques)
using dispensary and stores computer systems to generate stock lists and labels
liaison with appropriate healthcare professionals to ensure the effective use of resources
across the primary/secondary care interface as delegated.
responding to telephone and face to face enquiries of a routine nature from patients, their
representatives and a wide range of staff groups, either in a pharmacy or in a ward, and refer
appropriate queries to the relevant member of the pharmacy team when necessary.
Applicants will usually need to have a good standard of education and some GCSEs at grade C or above (or
equivalent) can be an advantage. Some posts may require specific GCSE grades or (equivalent) - such as A-C in English,
maths and a science subject. Applicants would also usually need: good communication skills; the ability to read and
carry out instructions; pay attention to detail; manual dexterity. Some trusts may offer the chance to train
through an apprenticeship for pharmacy assistants. For general information about apprenticeships, please click
Normally within posts as pharmacy assistants, there is the opportunity to work towards an NVQ
level 2 Qualification in Pharmacy Services. With experience and achievement in relevant
qualifications, it is possible to progress to senior pharmacy assistant roles and onto pharmacy
Reflective Activity 1
Mention one example of good quality and another of poor quality you
faced at any health care center and list the service features and
deficiencies you found.
Creation & Humankind
Pre Islamic Greece, Indian, Persian & Roman Civilizationععععع ععع6ع
(spiritual leaders ) Concise of Quality Gurus
Western Quality Gurus Islamic Quality Gurus
Philip Crosby, Edwards Deming
and Joseph Juran ( ) have shaped the
dimensions, practices and mechanism which
underpin the concept, but it is noted that none
of these three actually uses theTQM term.
Feigenbaum and Ishikawa are
the greatest contributors to the development
of the term TQM
Others; Shigeo Shingo; G Taguchi;
and, recently: Avedis Donabedian
(burn in Beirut 1919, USA, UK, Spain.. MD -
Prof Harvards U., produce huge numbers of
Books, Researches, articles … in Quality of
The Term TQM started to be used in the
mid-1980s and only became a recognized
part of the quality-related language in early
1990s. it became global 1992.
The medical writings of Ibn Sina
(Avicenna) have been explained about
the close of the last century in Monabiliah
Imam Chuck Hagel al-Ghazali, who was
popular educational philosopher (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imam_Al-Ghazali)
Al-Razi, who was a philosopher and a
mathematician as well as a physician.
Ibn- Khaldun: http://www.wikipedia.org/IbnKhaldum
For I once saved one
group by it, while I
By doing that, I
wished to reach a
900AD 1780 1840 1937/48 1967 1970’s
publishes his book
publishes review &
clinical trial in
Treatise on Scurvy
“numerical method” and
changes blood letting
practice in France
publishes Principles of
MRC trial of streptomycin
New Evidence Nov. 2009
Some milestones in the history of EBM
outcomes management in patient caremortality & morbidity reviews
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations..
Department of Health Policy and ManagementChief Executive OfficerInstitute for Healthcare
Improvement (IHIrapid cycle improvement"130
health care improvement leadership development HCILDEvaluative Clinical SciencesErnest
BreechDepartment of Health Care Quality Improvement Education and Research at the Henry
Ford Health Sciences Center
Intermountain Healthcare's Institute
Most Common Management Theories & The Place of TQM
HEALTH CARE TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT
ةةةةةة ةةةةةةة ةة ةةةةةة ةةةةةةةةةةةة ةةةةةةة ةة ةةةةةة ةةةةةة
) ."،،،،،،،،،،،،،،) ."،،،،،،،،،،،،،،(،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،(،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،
Do Right Dietitian First Time, Every Time & ForeverDo Right Dietitian First Time, Every Time & Forever
،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، :،،،،،،،،،،،،،،Belong & Participation،
،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،:،،،،،،،،،،،،،،Critical Thinking & Creativity,”“
،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، :،،،،،،،،،،،،،،OutcomesResults Based M,
Organizations should be aware that there are many different aspects to quality; As being the
most important, has selected 8 major HCTQM Dimensions have being selected:
1،،،،،، ،،،،،، ،،، ،،،،،،، :،،،،،،، ،،،،،،، .
،،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،
1. Competence – providers have the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge
2،، ،،،،،،، ،،، ،،،، ،،،، :،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،، .
2. Acceptability – meeting clients expectations
3،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،، ،، ،، ،،، : ،،،،،،،، .
3. Effectiveness – extent to which intervention achieves desired outcome
4. Appropriateness – relevant to client and based on established standards
5،،،،، ،،،،، ، ،،،،،، ،،،،، ،،،،، :،،،،،،، .
،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،، ،،،، ،،،،،، ،،،،،،،
5. Efficiency – cost-effective use of resources
5:،،،،،،،، ،،،،، .،،،،،، ،،،،،، ،، ،،،،،، ،،،،
،،،،،،، ،،،،،، ،، ،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،
6. Accessibility – service provided at right time, place etc.
6:،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،، ،،،،،، ،،،، ،،،،، ،،
،،،،، ،،، ،، ،،،،،، ،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،، ،، ،، ،،،، ،، ،،
7. Continuity – uninterrupted coordinated services
8:،،،،،،، .،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،، ،،،،، ،،،، ،،،،، ،
،،،،،،، ،، ،،، ،،،،، ،،،،، ،،، ،،
8. Safety – risks are avoided or at least minimized to ZD
HCTQM PTQM Dimensions the CcPTTQM
on what we
The Client Centered PTTQM - The CcPTTQM Model ?
ممممممممممممممممSelf Health Care19771978Promotion،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،
Six SigmaSix Sigma
Two meaningsTwo meanings
Statistical definition of a process that isStatistical definition of a process that is
99.9997% capable, 3.4 defects per99.9997% capable, 3.4 defects per
million opportunities (DPMO)million opportunities (DPMO)
A program designed to reduce defects,A program designed to reduce defects,
lower costs, and improve customerlower costs, and improve customer
مممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممInternational Organization for Standardizationممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممممم90مممممممممممممممممممممممممممم)ISO(مممممممممممممممممممممممممم"ISOS
Types of International TQ Standardization &
:،،،،،، ،، ،،،،،،،،،،9000 ISO
:،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،مممم9001ISO 9001/مةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةممم20ممممممممممممممممممممةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةة.مممممممممممممم
:،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،مممم9002ISO 9002/مةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةمةممم18.مممممممممممممممممممةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةةة.
:،،،،،،، ،، ،،،،،،،،،،
9004 ISO 9004/:،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،
، ...،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،2،،،، :9004...،،، (،،،،/،،)،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،
Types of International TQ Standardization & Accreditation
ISO 22000: 2005 Food Safety Management System … Look
Introduction:- Food reaches consumers via supply chains that may link many different
types of organizations and may stretch across multiple borders. One weak link may
result in unsafe food that is dangerous to health and if this happens, the hazards to
consumers may be serious.
ISO 22000 is therefore designed to allow all types of organizations within the food
chain to implement a Food Safety Management System. These include:
feed producers, primary producers, and food manufacturers,
transport and storage operators and sub contractors,
retail service outlets,
producers of equipments, and packaging materials,
additives and ingredients.
ISO 22000 will make it easier for organizations to implement HACCP (Hazard Analysis and
Critical Control Point) system for food hygiene as it incorporates the principles of HACCP.
Another benefit of ISO 22000 is that it extends the successful management system approach
of ISO 9001:2000 quality management system standard which is widely implemented in all
sectors but does not itself specifically address food safety.
ISO 22000 can be implemented on its own, it is designed to be fully compatible with ISO
9001:2000. Companies already certified to ISO 9001 will find it easy to extend their
certification to ISO 22000.