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ادارة الجودة الشاملة لفني الصيدلة

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ادارة الجودة الشاملة لفني الصيدلة

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ادارة الجودة الشاملة لفني الصيدلة

  1. 1. PTTQM ‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬Objectives & T – L Plan 171430620093 - - - - - •Understand each other •‫عععععع‬Course Objective in this T & L Plan •Why PTTQM? 1-2 •TQM Historical Progress - ”” 3-6 = •TQM Approaches; Tools & Technologies 7-9 = •TQM & PTQM Systems; Standards & Associations -PTQM Standards; Systems & Association: Standards of Care in Community Pharmacy ISO 10-12 = •Benefits of TQM SSA • ‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬ 13-15
  2. 2. PTTQM ‫ييييي‬ ‫يييييي‬ ‫ييييي‬ 2010PTTQM‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬‫ي‬:( ‫ي‬2005   20081429  Total Quality Management: Strategies and Techniques Proven at Today's Most Successful Companies (Portable Mba Se - Hardcover (Feb 1998) by Stephen George and Arnold Weimerskirch  Medical Quality Management: Theory and Practi…(Paperback) by American College of Medical Quality, Prathibha Varkey MD  The Healthcare Quality Book: Vision, Strategy…(Hardcover) by Elizabeth R. Ransom, Maulik S. Joshi  A History of the Arab Peoples by Albert Hourani 1991 http://www.amazon.com/History-Arab-Peoples-Albert-Hourani/dp/0446393924/ref=cm_lmf_tit_1_rsrsrs0#reader Pharmacy  www.astf.net/Uploads/10184/SRO4Prog.xl  http://www.kau-tqm.com/site/   http://forum.sqc.org.sa/default.asp 4
  3. 3. ‫ااااا‬‫ا‬Why PTTQM?   ‫عع‬ ‫ععععع‬ ‫عع‬ ‫عععع‬ ‫عع‬ ‫ععع‬ ‫عع‬ ‫عععع‬ ‫ععععععع‬ ‫عع‬ ‫ععععع‬ ‫عع‬ ‫ععععع...عععع‬ ‫عععععع‬ ‫عععععع‬ ‫ععععععععع‬ ‫ععععععع‬ ‫ععععع‬ ‫عععع‬ ‫عععع‬ ‫ععععععععععع‬ ‫عععععع‬ ‫ععع‬ ‫ععععع‬ ‫ععع‬ 5
  4. 4. PTJD: Discover Place of Q TQ? 17143062009 6
  5. 5. )PT & PA: Pharmacy technician NHS, UK This page describes the role of pharmacy technicians and where they work. Types of pharmacy technician  Pharmacy technicians in the NHS work mainly in one of two areas, hospital pharmacy and community pharmacy although opportunities also exist in other areas such as GP practices and in primary care trusts. Pharmacy technicians are part of the pharmacy team and work under the supervision of a pharmacist. They are involved in the supply of medicines and products to patients. The opportunities for specialization and increased responsibility extend with experience. There are a number of management, administration and specialist roles undertaken by pharmacy technicians. Click on the links in the "Related Information.." section for more information on the work of hospital and community pharmacy technicians, and pharmacy assistants (who work with technicians and pharmacists as a part of the pharmacy team).  Career prospects In the hospital service, there are several grades for qualified pharmacy technicians. Senior technicians can specialize in areas such as medicines management, manufacturing, quality control, staff training, information technology, supplies procurement, clinical trials or medicines information services. An expanding role is that of clinical technician, which involves working on wards, liaising with other healthcare professionals and closer contact with patients. A chief technician is often responsible for managing a section of the pharmacy department.  7
  6. 6. 17  PT Entry requirements:  There are no minimum entry requirements, although you will usually be expected to have four GCSEs at Grade C or above, or the equivalent, including English, science and maths. You will then need to obtain a trainee post either at a hospital or in a community pharmacy. Some trusts may offer the chance to train through an apprenticeship for pharmacy technicians. For general information about apprenticeships, please click here  PT Training programmes and registration:  To register as a pharmacy technician you need an NVQ level 3 in pharmacy services. The training involves both practical experience and study at a college or by open learning. It usually takes two years to complete. Pharmacy technicians with appropriate qualifications can register with the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain*. Currently, registration is voluntary, but from 1 July 2011, registration will be mandatory and only pharmacy technicians with acceptable qualifications will be able to join. Eligibility to join the register will be based on the candidate holding the Pharmacy Services S/NVQ level 3 and will include a requirement for the training programme to include an accredited underpinning knowledge programme and completion of work experience in a pharmacy. For a transitional period, the Society will recognise a range of other pharmacy technician qualifications. More information about registration is available from the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain
  7. 7. NHS- UK Pharmacy assistants  Pharmacy assistants and dispensing assistants work alongside pharmacy technicians and under the supervision of a registered pharmacist. They work in hospital and community settings. Staff falling into this category will have a range of roles and responsibilities and therefore different job titles will apply. In the community sector these will include dispenser, dispensing assistant, pharmacy assistant and healthcare assistant. Within the hospital sector the titles pharmacy assistant and assistant technical officer are more commonly used.  The range of duties is broad and varies depending on the post, but would typically include the following:  selecting specific pharmaceutical items from within a store area, according to a list, for assembly for delivery towards, departments, clinical areas or community sites  answering queries on supply and availability of medicines, where it is within their competence  drawing to the attention of clinical pharmacists or pharmacy technicians, problems or queries raised  ordering items for use within a department  receiving, loading, unloading incoming goods from wholesalers, manufacturers and elsewhere  delivering pharmaceuticals and other goods to sites within a pharmacy department, and wards/departments/clinical areas. 9
  8. 8. PA with P D & PT Duties: assisting in the maintenance of reasonable stock levels  pre-packing, assembling and labelling medications  aseptic preparation of medicines (preparations of medicines in a very clean environment using special techniques)  using dispensary and stores computer systems to generate stock lists and labels  liaison with appropriate healthcare professionals to ensure the effective use of resources across the primary/secondary care interface as delegated.  responding to telephone and face to face enquiries of a routine nature from patients, their representatives and a wide range of staff groups, either in a pharmacy or in a ward, and refer appropriate queries to the relevant member of the pharmacy team when necessary.  Entry requirements Applicants will usually need to have a good standard of education and some GCSEs at grade C or above (or equivalent) can be an advantage. Some posts may require specific GCSE grades or (equivalent) - such as A-C in English, maths and a science subject. Applicants would also usually need: good communication skills; the ability to read and carry out instructions; pay attention to detail; manual dexterity. Some trusts may offer the chance to train through an apprenticeship for pharmacy assistants. For general information about apprenticeships, please click here Career prospects  Normally within posts as pharmacy assistants, there is the opportunity to work towards an NVQ level 2 Qualification in Pharmacy Services. With experience and achievement in relevant qualifications, it is possible to progress to senior pharmacy assistant roles and onto pharmacy technicians positions. 17143062009 10
  9. 9. Probe Quality  Quality means: Excellence; Superiority; Eminence; Value; Worth; Ideal; ideal way of life… : ”‫”ييييي‬ ‫ييييي‬ ‫يي‬ ‫يييييي‬ ‫يييييي‬ ‫ييي‬“Total‫ي‬1‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةة‬” 11
  10. 10. Reflective Activity 1 17143062009 12 ‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬ ‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬ ‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬ ... ‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬  Mention one example of good quality and another of poor quality you faced at any health care center and list the service features and deficiencies you found.
  11. 11. Reflective Questions )( )( )( )( )( )( 3143111102010 13
  12. 12. Concise TQM Historical Development 14
  13. 13. 17143062009 15 Terms Tomorrow Day after TQM 1992 TQ 1990 JQC Control Monitor 1987 Improve 1979 JQC to USA JQC 1970 Japan Q Circles JQC 1962 1950Deming Assurance Quality 501951 1948 Perform 1900 1900
  14. 14.   )TQI TQC TQL SQC CTQI PTTQM & PTQM; PPTQM; PITQM “( ===== TQC= - 16
  15. 15. Creation & Humankind Religions Hammurabi era Pre Islamic Greece, Indian, Persian & Roman Civilization‫ععععع‬ ‫ععع‬6‫ع‬ 600–1700Islamic Civilization 1800Modern Civilization
  16. 16. Historical Overview (spiritual leaders ) Concise of Quality Gurus Western Quality Gurus Islamic Quality Gurus  Philip Crosby, Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran ( ) have shaped the dimensions, practices and mechanism which underpin the concept, but it is noted that none of these three actually uses theTQM term.  Feigenbaum and Ishikawa are the greatest contributors to the development of the term TQM  Others; Shigeo Shingo; G Taguchi; and, recently: Avedis Donabedian (burn in Beirut 1919, USA, UK, Spain.. MD - Prof Harvards U., produce huge numbers of Books, Researches, articles … in Quality of Health Care  The Term TQM started to be used in the mid-1980s and only became a recognized part of the quality-related language in early 1990s. it became global 1992.  The medical writings of Ibn Sina (Avicenna) have been explained about the close of the last century in Monabiliah  Imam Chuck Hagel al-Ghazali, who was popular educational philosopher (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imam_Al-Ghazali)   Al-Razi, who was a philosopher and a mathematician as well as a physician.  Ibn- Khaldun: http://www.wikipedia.org/IbnKhaldum  AL Farabi:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Farabi Ibn_Rushd: http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ibn_Rushd&redirect=no “ 18
  17. 17. For I once saved one group by it, while I intentionally neglected another group. By doing that, I wished to reach a conclusion . Al-Rhazi 900AD 1780 1840 1937/48 1967 1970’s Alvan Feinstein publishes his book Clinical Judgement James Lind publishes review & clinical trial in Treatise on Scurvy Pierre Louis Develops his “numerical method” and changes blood letting practice in France Bradford-Hill publishes Principles of Medical Statistics& MRC trial of streptomycin New Evidence Nov. 2009 Some milestones in the history of EBM
  18. 18.  {}3( {}38(. {}. 
  19. 19. ‫ي‬ ‫يييييي‬ ‫يييييييي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ييي‬ ‫يييي‬ ‫يييي‬ ‫يييييي‬ ‫يي‬ ‫يييييي‬ ‫ييييييييي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫يييييي‬ ‫يييييي‬ ‫يييييي‬ ‫ييييي‬‫ييييي‬ ‫يييييي‬ ‫يي‬ ‫يييييي‬ ‫يييي‬ ‫يييي‬ ‫ييييييي‬ ‫يي‬ ‫يي‬ ‫ييييييي‬ “‫يييييي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫يييييي‬ 2{}.  [} {} 21
  20. 20. 2000") "Valueof every Associate(1960)Quality Circles()Team work(.t ":).  22
  21. 21. 23 2005200 : • • • • • • • •
  22. 22. ‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬‫ع‬ EDWARD DEMING .
  23. 23. 14 1. 2.TQM(- 3.- 4.. 5.. 6.- 7.-TQM
  24. 24. 8.TQM 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.( 14.TQM
  25. 25. 1◄ 2◄ 3◄ 4◄ 5◄ 6◄ 7◄ )4(
  26. 26. Juran 5=4: ( . .  )1( )2( )3( : External Consumer Internal Consumer
  27. 27. Juran Quality Trilogy ◄5)5:( 1Internal Customers ). 2External Customers ). 3 4 5
  28. 28. Juran ◄ : 1 2 3 ◄ ‫ةةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ةةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةة‬.
  29. 29. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬Philip Grosby 1926195219651979‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬1979‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ )Quality is Free‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬20‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ % ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬)Zero Defect(‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬.‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬  ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬,‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬
  30. 30. 1 2 3 4.
  31. 31. 1-‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 2-‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 3-:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 4-:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 5-:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 6-:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬
  32. 32. 7-‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬)Zero Defects(‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ -‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬.“ 08-‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 9-‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬." 10:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ - 11-‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 12-‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 13-‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 14-‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬:‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةة‬ 14( 34
  33. 33. Turns Crosby 14 Ps to PTTQM Model 17143062009 35 ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ Zero Defect s ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬
  34. 34. Armand feigenbanm )‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬TQC1983 ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬)‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬(‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬. ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬.
  35. 35.  1. 2-. 3. 4. 5-. 6. 7 8- 9-95. 10.
  36. 36. Kaoru Ishikawa ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬4-8 :‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 1-:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 2-:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 3-:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬
  37. 37. 1.) 2.) 3.)‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 4.) 1) 1.)( 2.)( 3.)( 4.)(
  38. 38. (1820-1910)Florence Nightingale (1869-1940)Ernest Codman outcomes management in patient caremortality & morbidity reviews Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.. (1910-2000)Avedis Donabedian Nathan Sinaistructure-process-outcome" 40
  39. 39.  Department of Health Policy and ManagementChief Executive OfficerInstitute for Healthcare Improvement (IHIrapid cycle improvement"130  health care improvement leadership development HCILDEvaluative Clinical SciencesErnest BreechDepartment of Health Care Quality Improvement Education and Research at the Henry Ford Health Sciences Center   Intermountain Healthcare's Institute 41
  40. 40. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬TQM‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬: ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬" :‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬." ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬TQM" :‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬."   ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬)CrosbyTQM‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬1992”‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬.‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬
  41. 41. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ةة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ةة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ .‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ TQM)‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬/ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬.( ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬”‫بب‬ ‫ببب‬ ‫بببب‬ ‫بببببببب‬ ‫ببببب‬ ‫بببببب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫بببببب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ببب‬ ‫بب‬ ‫بب‬ ‫بببببب‬ ‫ببببب‬ ‫ببب‬ ‫بب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ب‬ ‫بببببب‬ ‫ببببب‬ ‫بببببب‬ ‫ببببببب‬“‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬/Quality Culture.
  42. 42. TQM 1. 2. 3..   ‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬
  43. 43. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬
  44. 44. ‫ةةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬TQM ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬PTTQM ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬TQM‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ –‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ –‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ =
  45. 45. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬PTTQM ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬PTTQM ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬TQM‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ –‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ –‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ =
  46. 46. TQM Objectives & Benefits ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةة‬‫ةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةة‬ ‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةةةةةة‬. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬: 1.‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬:‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬‫ب‬. 2.‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬/‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 3.:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 49
  47. 47. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬1‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫:ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬.‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ·‫ة‬ ‫ةةةة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ةةةة‬ ‫ةةة‬ ‫ةة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ةةة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ةة‬‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةة‬ ‫ةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةةة‬Vision & Mission ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ةةةة‬ · .‫ةةةةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةة‬ ‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ةةةة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ةة‬ · .‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةة‬ ‫ة‬‫ةةةة‬ ‫ةة‬‫ةةةةةةةة‬ ‫ة‬‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ة‬‫ةة‬ ‫ة‬‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ة‬‫ةةةة‬ · ..‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ةةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةة‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ة‬ · .‫ةةةةةةةة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬2:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ : ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 50
  48. 48. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬3:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ : ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬4‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ : ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬/‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ .‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ =‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ =‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ 51
  49. 49. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬5:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ : ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬SQCSPC ))automationmechanizationcomputerization‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬/‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬6‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ : ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬7:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬. ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬“ ===== ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬/‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬ ===== 52
  50. 50. Most Common Management Theories & The Place of TQM Classic Scientific-Pragmatic Totalitarianism DictatorshipAuthoritarianism Bureaucracy Autocracy Autocratic Humanitarian DemocracyLiberal 53
  51. 51. 54 HEALTH CARE TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT HCTQM PCTQM
  52. 52. ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،.. ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،)،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،)19881988(( ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،.”.”،،،،،،،،،،)،،،،،،،،،،)19801980(( ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ) ."،،،،،،،،،،،،،،) ."،،،،،،،،،،،،،،(،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،(،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، :،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،:،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ””“،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،“،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، Do Right Dietitian First Time, Every Time & ForeverDo Right Dietitian First Time, Every Time & Forever
  53. 53. ،،،،،، ،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،، ،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، 1،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، . ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، :،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، 2،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، . .،،،،،،،،،،،، 3،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، . ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، 4:،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،، . ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،، ...،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،
  54. 54. 5،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، . ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، 6،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، . ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،، 7،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، . .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، 8)،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬( .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، 9،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، . .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، 10.،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،
  55. 55. ،،،،،،،،،،، :،،،،،،،،،،،،،)empowerment ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، :،،،،،،،،،،،،،،Belong & Participation، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،:،،،،،،،،،،،،،،Critical Thinking & Creativity,”“ ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، :،،،،،،،،،،،،،،OutcomesResults Based M, :،،،،،،،،،،،،،،,،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،:،،،،،،،،،،،،،،
  56. 56. Organizations should be aware that there are many different aspects to quality; As being the most important, has selected 8 major HCTQM Dimensions have being selected: 1،،،،،، ،،،،،، ،،، ،،،،،،، :،،،،،،، ،،،،،،، . ،،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،، 1. Competence – providers have the necessary skills, attitudes and knowledge 2،، ،،،،،،، ،،، ،،،، ،،،، :،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،، . ،،،،،،، ،،،،، 2. Acceptability – meeting clients expectations 3،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،، ،، ،، ،،، : ،،،،،،،، . ،،،،،،، ،،،،،، 3. Effectiveness – extent to which intervention achieves desired outcome 4:،،،،،،، . 4. Appropriateness – relevant to client and based on established standards 5،،،،، ،،،،، ، ،،،،،، ،،،،، ،،،،، :،،،،،،، . ،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،، ،،،، ،،،،،، ،،،،،،، 5. Efficiency – cost-effective use of resources 5:،،،،،،،، ،،،،، .،،،،،، ،،،،،، ،، ،،،،،، ،،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،،، ،، ،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،، 6. Accessibility – service provided at right time, place etc. 6:،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،، ،،،،،، ،،،، ،،،،، ،، ،،،،، ،،، ،، ،،،،،، ،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،، ،، ،، ،،،، ،، ،، ،،،، 7. Continuity – uninterrupted coordinated services 8:،،،،،،، .،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،، ،،،،، ،،،، ،،،،، ، ،،،،،،، ،، ،،، ،،،،، ،،،،، ،،، ،، 8. Safety – risks are avoided or at least minimized to ZD HCTQM PTQM Dimensions the CcPTTQM
  57. 57. HCTQM – the CcPTTQM Dimensions Appropriateness Effectiveness Acceptability CompetenceSafety Continuity Accessibility Efficiency Patient/ Client ،،، ،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ، ،،،،،، ،،،،،، ،،،،، ،،،، ،،،، :،،،،، ،،، ،،، ،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،CcPTTQM
  58. 58. The CCHCTQM Client Process & Outcomes Teams Leadership Quality Improvement Know who we serve Concentrate on what we do to achieve the intended results Involve those who carry out processes Encourage, facilitate, guide Keep making it better - continuous Client-centred Approach The CCPTTQM ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬:‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬
  59. 59. The Client Centered PTTQM - The CcPTTQM Model ?  ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،  ----------- ،،،،،،،”،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،Sigerist،،، ”1941،، :،،،،، ”‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬“ .
  60. 60. ‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬Self Health Care19771978Promotion،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،”،،،،،،ZD“،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،، The CcPTTQM
  61. 61. CcPTTQM:،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،،، ،،،،،،،، ،،،، :،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، 2،،،،،،،،. ،، 1.،،،،،،، 4،،،،،،،. ،،،،،،، 3،،،،،. ،،،، ،،،،، ،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،“،،،،،،،”،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،،، ،،،،،، ،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، C ،،،،،،/،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،?CcPTTQM،،،،،،،،،،،،،5.،،،،،،،،6،،،،،،،.،
  62. 62. TQM Approaches; Tools & Technologies http://store.isixsigma.com/product.asp 65
  63. 63. Copyright 2008 Health Administration Press. All rights reserved. 66 Seven Basic Quality Tools Run Chart Scatter DiagramHistogram Fishbone Diagram Check Sheet Pareto Chart Flow Chart
  64. 64. ،،،،،، ،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،،Cause & Effect Diagram: ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،"Ishikawa:،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، " .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،    ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،، )،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، (،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،. )Time Chart or Run Chart( )Process Control Chart( Fishbone Diagram
  65. 65. )Process Control Chart:( . ،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،، ،، ،،،،Scatter Diagrams: ،،،‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،،،Histograms: ،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،
  66. 66. ،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،Flowcharts: ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،، ،،،،،Control Charts: ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،،Checklists: ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،
  67. 67. )Affinity Diagram:( .  ،،،،،، ،،،،، ،، ،،،،Pareto Chart: ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،)،،،،،،،،1848–1923،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ( )20،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، (% )80،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، (% :،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، 70 TQM Tools
  68. 68. Six SigmaSix Sigma Two meaningsTwo meanings  Statistical definition of a process that isStatistical definition of a process that is 99.9997% capable, 3.4 defects per99.9997% capable, 3.4 defects per million opportunities (DPMO)million opportunities (DPMO)  A program designed to reduce defects,A program designed to reduce defects, lower costs, and improve customerlower costs, and improve customer satisfactionsatisfaction
  69. 69. ،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،Six Sigma (،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،) 1. )Green, 2006.( CrosbyZero Defects“ 2. :،،،،،، ”‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬3.4“‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬ 3.43.4DPMO((،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،99.99966.% 72
  70. 70. ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،”Six Sigma Principles ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،)TQM(،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،)Defects(،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، )Delays) (Arthur,2004(. ،،،،،،،،،)Pandeetal.2000( ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، Customer Focus Data and Facts driven management Process focus, management and Improvement Proactive management Collaboration without bound line Drive for perfection ==== /،،،،،،*،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، -،،،،،،،،،"،،،،،،،،،، .، :،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،"،،،،،،،2007.، .33-36http://aichouni.tripod.com/m 73
  71. 71. ،،،،، ،،،،، ،،،،، ،،،،، ،،،،، ،،، :،،،،،،، Lean Six Sigma Intuition = Perception; Insight Incremental = Add Value
  72. 72. National & International PTTQM Accreditation Standards 75 http://www.sfda.gov.sa/Ar/Drug
  73. 73. Accreditation.‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬ Accreditation: .‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬ :،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬ :،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬.‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬ ،،،،،،،،Accreditation ،،،،،،،،Standard
  74. 74. ،،،، ،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،Joint Commission of International Accreditation (JCIA(،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، )Joint Commission of Accreditation Health Organizations (JCAHO.( .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،20،000،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،JCAHO،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، : ،،، ،،،،،،،، ،،،،،، ،،،،،، ،،،،، ،،،،،، ،،،،،، ،،،،،، ،،،، ،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،،، ،،،،،،،، ،، ،،،،،،،، ، ، ،،،،،، ،، ،،،،، ، ،،،،،، ، ،،،، ،،، ،،،،،، ،،،،،،،، ،، ،،،،،،،،ZD ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،JCIA،،،،،،،،،،1999،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، :،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ، ،،،،،، ،،،،،، ،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ،،،،، “،،،،،، ،،،،،،، ، ،،،،،،،،،
  75. 75. ”‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬9001 /2000.‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬)‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬HACCP‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬(CODEX ALIMENTARIUS “‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬ :‫نن‬ ‫نننن‬
  76. 76. ISO )ISO: ( ‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬International Organization for Standardization‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬90‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬)ISO(‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬"ISOS "‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬Equal"‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬" ‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬)‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬(‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬)‫م‬).  ".‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬/‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬ ”‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬.‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬“. 79
  77. 77. Types of International TQ Standardization & Accreditation 9000،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، :،،،،،، ،، ،،،،،،،،،،9000 ISO 9000/،،،،،، :،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬9001ISO 9001/‫م‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬20‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬.‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬ :،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬9002ISO 9002/‫م‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫م‬‫ة‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬18.‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫م‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬‫ة‬.
  78. 78. :،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،9003 ISO 9003/،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، :،،،،،،، ،، ،،،،،،،،،، 9004 ISO 9004/:،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، .،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،9003.9002.9001،،،، ،،،،،،،،9004.،،،،،،،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،ISO9000،،،،،،، ،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،ISO 22000 ======= ، ...،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،2،،،، :9004...،،، (،،،،/،،)،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،،، Types of International TQ Standardization & Accreditation
  79. 79. ISO 22000: 2005 Food Safety Management System … Look PT/Drugs  Introduction:- Food reaches consumers via supply chains that may link many different types of organizations and may stretch across multiple borders. One weak link may result in unsafe food that is dangerous to health and if this happens, the hazards to consumers may be serious.  ISO 22000 is therefore designed to allow all types of organizations within the food chain to implement a Food Safety Management System. These include:  feed producers, primary producers, and food manufacturers,  transport and storage operators and sub contractors,  retail service outlets,  producers of equipments, and packaging materials,  Cleaning agents,  additives and ingredients.  ISO 22000 will make it easier for organizations to implement HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) system for food hygiene as it incorporates the principles of HACCP.  Another benefit of ISO 22000 is that it extends the successful management system approach of ISO 9001:2000 quality management system standard which is widely implemented in all sectors but does not itself specifically address food safety.  ISO 22000 can be implemented on its own, it is designed to be fully compatible with ISO 9001:2000. Companies already certified to ISO 9001 will find it easy to extend their certification to ISO 22000. 82
  80. 80.  JHCI(1997JCR(‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةة‬ ‫ةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةةةةة‬80.‫ةةةةةة‬ ‫ةةة‬ ‫ةةةة‬ JCI( . 17143062009 83

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