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Different approaches and methods

All sbout approaches and methods in principles of teaching -Profesional Education 4

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Different approaches and methods

  1. 1. DIFFERENT APPROACHES AND METHODS Presented by : Crisanta Montejo III- General Science
  2. 2. “ A thousand teachers, a thousand methods” - Chinese Proverb
  4. 4. TEACHING APPROACH It is a set of principles, beliefs, or ideas about the nature of learning which is translated into the classroom.
  5. 5. TEACHING STRATEGY It is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal.
  6. 6. TEACHING METHOD It is a systematic way of doing something. It implies an orderly logical arrangement of steps. It is more procedural.
  7. 7. TEACHING TECHNIQUE It is a well-defined procedure used to accomplish a specific activity or task.
  9. 9. • TEACHER-CENTERED APPROACH The teacher is perceived to be the only reliable source of information in contrast to the learner-centered approach. • LEARNER-CENTERED APPROACH In which it is premised on the belief that the learner is also an important resource because he/she too knows something and is therefore capable of sharing something.
  10. 10. • SUBJECT MATTER-CENTERED APPROACH Subject matter gains primacy over that of the learner. • TEACHER DOMINATED APPROACH In this approach, only the teacher’s voice is heard. He/she is the sole dispenser of information.
  11. 11. • INTERACTIVE APPROACH In this approach, an interactive classroom will have more student talk and less teacher talk. Students are given the opportunity to interact with teacher and with other students. • CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH The students are expected to construct knowledge and meaning out for what they are taught by connecting them to prior experience.
  12. 12. • INTEGRATED APPROACH It makes the teacher connects what he/she teaches to other lessons of the same subject (intradisciplinary) or connects his/her lessons with other subjects thus making his/her approach interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary. • DIRECT TEACHING APPROACH The teacher directly tells or shows or demonstrates what is to be taught.
  13. 13. Other teaching approaches cited in education literature are: • RESEARCH-BASED APPROACH As the name implies, teaching and learning are anchored on research findings. • WHOLE CHILD APPROACH The learning process itself takes into account not only the academic needs of the learners, but also their emotional, creative, psychological, spiritual, and developmental needs.
  14. 14. • METACOGNITIVE APPROACH The teaching process brings the learner to the process of thinking about thinking. The learner reflects on what he learned and on his/her ways of learning. • PROBLEM-BASED APPROACH As the name implies, the teaching- learning process is focused on problems. Time is spent on analyzing and solving problems.
  15. 15. In summary, approaches vary in the degree of teacher and learner engagement, focus, number of learners involved in the teaching-learning process as shown in the diagram below: Engagement Teacher Learner Focus Subject Matter Learner Number Individual Group
  16. 16. Two Types of Teaching Approaches Direct Approach Indirect/ Guided Approach Expository Method Deductive Directive Exploratory Method Inductive Exploratory Inquiry Laboratory Problem Solving Metacognition Reflective Constructivism Demonstrative
  18. 18. DIRECT INSTRUCTION/ LECTURE METHOD  Direct instruction is aimed at helping students acquire procedural knowledge exercised in the performance of some task. Procedural knowledge refers to skills needed in the performance of a task.
  19. 19. Direct instruction is a way of teaching which is aimed at helping students acquire some basic skills and “procedural knowledge.” It is straight forward and is done in “a step- by-step manner.” The emphasis is on how to execute the steps of the entire procedure DIRECT INSTRUCTION/ LECTURE METHOD
  20. 20. Steps of the Direct or Lecture Method To employ the methodology in teaching skill/s, follow these steps: a) Provide the rationale, b) Demonstrate the skill, c) Provide guided practice until mastery, d) Check for understanding and provide feedback, e) Provide extended practice and transfer, and f) Assess learning at the end. (This is what we call summative assessment.)
  21. 21. SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT The goal of summative assessment is to evaluate student learning at the end of an instructional unit by comparing it against some standard or benchmark. Summative assessments are often high stakes, which means that they have a high point value. Examples of summative assessments include: • a midterm exam • a final project • a paper
  22. 22. If you teach facts, principles, or laws, your steps are similar with those of teaching a skill. a) Give a short introduction by providing the rationale, b) Present your lesson, c) Develop the lesson by explaining, illustrating, it with diagrams if appropriate and/or giving concrete examples, d) Give application of the lesson, and e) Check for understanding and provide feedback. (This is what we call formative assessment.)
  23. 23. Instructional Characteristics 1. The strategy is teacher-directed. 2. The emphasis is on the teaching of skill. 3. Taught in a step-by-step fashion, it ensures the learning of the entire procedure with no step missed. 4. Lesson objectives include easily observed behaviors that can be measured accurately.
  24. 24. 5. This is a form of learning through imitation, sometimes termed “ behavioral modeling”. 6. This can also be used to teach facts, principles and laws.
  25. 25. Guidelines for Effective Use • Teaching Skill 1. The students must be given ample time for practice. 2. They must be included in the planning stage since this technique is highly task-oriented and aimed at mastery of every step. 3. Describe the testing situation and specify the level of performance expected.
  26. 26. 5. Design your own strategy in teaching each skill. 6. Before the demonstration, carefully rehearse all steps. 7. Assign practice for short periods of time, then continue learning by imitating others. 8. Provide feedback and encouragement. 9. Be able to construct good performance-based tests.
  27. 27. Teaching declarative knowledge – facts, principles and laws 1. Be sure the facts, principles and laws are correctly, clearly, and adequately explained. 2. Use visual aids to concretize abstract principles and laws. 3. Illustrate laws and principles with concrete examples. 4. Present facts meaningfully.
  28. 28.  Sample Lessons with Step-By-Step Tasks  Executing steps of a folkdance  Steps in preparing a meal  Writing a letter  Solving Math problems Examples:
  29. 29. Performance-based subjects such as Science, Mathematics, Music and Physical Education are taught by this technique. Strategies use in Direct Instruction: 1.Lecture and Student Recitation 2.Deduction 3.Expository/didactic method 4.Demonstration method
  30. 30. “I may know many things but I do not know everything.”
  31. 31. Demonstration Method
  32. 32. Demonstration Method • the teacher or assigned student or group shows how a process is done while students become observers. • This approach is employed in presenting lessons that use sophisticated equipment and technical know-how.
  33. 33. Guidelines For Effective Use BEFORE DURING AFTER
  34. 34. 1. The demonstrator must be well-selected. 2. When planning the activities make sure that the materials are easily available. 3. Get ready with the equipment and tools to be used. 4. The demonstrators must try the activity several times before the real demonstration. 5. be prepared and motivated to ensure concentration throughout the activity. 6. The demonstrators must be ready with on- the-spot revisions.
  35. 35. 7. Arrange the observers around the demonstration area or at a distance where they will be able to observe fully what is going on. 8. Depending on the kind of demonstration to be undertaken; avoid irrelevant observations. BACK
  36. 36. 1. The place must be quiet in order to sustain the observers’ attention and interest during the activity. 2. Extreme care must be taken in performing some delicate steps. 3. The activity must not be interrupted by unnecessary announcements or noise in the surroundings. 4. They are allowed to take down short notes or record some data which may be analyzed.
  37. 37. 1. Allow some questions which bothered them during the demonstration. 2. A n examination of the observed data and all information recorded follows. 3. Have an analysis of trends, patterns or uniform occurrences that can help in arriving at a conclusion. 4. The conclusion or summary must be cooperatively undertaken the whole class. 5. Assess learning by way of a short test, an oral evaluation or a performance test.
  38. 38. Advantages 1. The demonstration method follow a systematic procedure. 2. The use of expensive equipment and machines will be maximized. 3. Possible wastage of time, effort and resources will be avoided. 4. It will not result to trial and error learning. 5. The findings are reliable and accurate since the procedure has been tried before.
  39. 39. 6. The value of confidence is developed among the demonstrators for such a hands-on demonstration. 7. Curiosity and keen observing ability are instilled among the observers.
  40. 40. Performance-based subjects such as Science, Mathematics, Music and Physical Education are taught by this technique. Strategies use in Direct Instruction: 1.Lecture and Student Recitation 2.Deduction 3.Expository/didactic method 4.Demonstration method
  41. 41.  Sample Lessons with Step-By-Step Tasks  Executing steps of a folkdance  Steps in preparing a meal  Writing a letter  Solving Math problems Examples:
  42. 42. “I may know many things but I do not know everything.”