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Indian Vocal Music

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Indian Vocal Music

  1. 1. Indian Vocal Music
  2. 2. Types of Indian Vocal Music
  3. 3. Classical Vocal Music Origins of Indian classical music can be found in the Vedas, which are the oldest scriptures in the Hindu tradition. Derived from Samveda. Chanting style evolved into Ragas. Bharat Muni’s Naatyashastra is the first book of Music. Divided into 12 semitones, of which 8 basic notes are Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Da Ni Sa (In ascending tonal order) Singing is based melodically on particular Ragas and rhythmically on Talas. Notation system is created by Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande in 20th century.
  4. 4. Hindustani Classical MusicMainly found in North India. Three main forms – Khyal, Tarana and Dhrupad. Instruments typically used in Hindustani music include the sitar, sarod, surbaha r, veena, tanpura, bansu ri, shehnai, sarangi, violi n, santoor, pakhavaj an d tabla. Khyal Bada Khyal (in Vilambit Laya) Chota Khyal (in Madhay Laya/ Drut Laya) Tarana (in Drut Laya) Aalap: Slow elaboration of the raga along with Aaroh, Avroh and Pakad. Bandish: Lyrics part, accompanied by tabla, around which the raga is improvised. Taan: Fast elaboration of the raga Tihaayi- Bandish ends with tihaai Performed with tabla and tanpura (other sarangi and harmonium)
  5. 5. Tarana medium- to fast-paced songs that are used to convey a mood of joyfulness usually performed towards the end of a concert. Have meaningless words, such as ‘Ta Na’, ‘Dir- Dir’ ‘Dere Na’, etc. Performed with tabla and sitar. Dhrupad Old style of singing. traditionally performed by male singers. performed with a tambura and a pakhawaj. Tansen invented it. A lighter form of dhrupad, called dhamar, is sung primarily during the festival of Holi.
  6. 6. Carnatic Music Classical music from South India. More rhythmically intensive and structured than Hindustani music. Raga elaborations are generally much faster in tempo and shorter than their equivalents in Hindustani music. Accompanists have a much larger role in Carnatic concerts than in Hindustani concerts.
  7. 7. The opening piece is called a varnam, a warm-up for the musicians. A series of interchanges between ragams (unmetered melody) and thaalams (the ornamentation, equivalent to the jor). This is intermixed with hymns called krithis. Instruments typically used in Carnatic music include venu, gottuvadyam, harmonium, veena, mrid angam, kanjira, ghatam and violin.
  8. 8. Thumri Semi-classical vocal form said to have begun in Uttar Pradesh with the court of Nawab Wajid Ali Shah Three types of thumri: poorab ang, Lucknavi and Punjabi thumri. Lyrics are typically in a proto-Hindi language called Brij Bhasha and are usually romantic. Some recent performers: Abdul Karim Khan, the brothers Barkat Ali Khan and Bade Ghulam Ali Khan, Begum Akhtar, Girija Devi, Beauty Sharma Barua, Nazakat-Salamat Ali Khan, Pt Ajoy Chakrabarty, Prabha Atre, Siddheshwari Devi, and Shobha Gurtu.
  9. 9. Tappa A form of Indian semi-classical vocal music whose specialty is its rolling pace based on fast, subtle, knotty construction. Originated from the folk songs of the camel riders of Punjab and was developed as a form of classical music by Mian Ghulam Nabi Shori or Shori Mian, a court singer for Asaf-Ud-Dowlah, the Nawab of Awadh. Performers: Laxmanrao Pandit, Shanno Khurana, Manvalkar, Girija Devi, Ishwarchandra Karkare, and Jayant Khot.
  10. 10. Ghazal Originally Persian form of poetry. Became the most common form of poetry in the Urdu language. Popularized by classical poets like Mir Taqi Mir, Ghalib, Daagh, Zauq and Sauda amongst the North Indian literary elite. Vocal music set to this mode of poetry is popular with multiple variations across Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia, Turkey, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
  11. 11. Folk Song Diverse because of India's vast cultural diversity. Dance-oriented. Lyrics are dialects/ regional languages based. Sung in groups. Represents the particular society or region. Famous performers: Ila Arun, Malini Awasthi, Hemant Chauhan, Hans Raj Hans, Sharda Sinha, S. D. Burman, etc.
  12. 12. Baul Sangeet Devotional songs sung by a group of mystic minstrels from Bengal. They can often be identified by their distinctive clothes and musical instruments (ektara). Baul music had a great influence on Rabindranath Tagore's poetry and on his music (Rabindra Sangeet). It is said that Lalon Fokir (1774 -1890), the greatest of all Bauls, continued to compose and sing songs for decades without ever stopping to correct them or put them on paper. It was only after his death that people thought of collecting and compiling his repertoire. In 2005, the Baul tradition was included in the list of "Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity" by UNESCO.
  13. 13. Bhajan Any type of Hindu devotional song. Has no fixed form: it may be as simple as a mantra or kirtan or as sophisticated as the dhrupad or kriti with music based on classical ragas and talas. The Dhrupad style, Sufi, qawwali and the kirtan or song in the Haridasi tradition are related to bhajan. Nanak, Kabir, Meera, Narottama Das, Surdas and Tulsidas are notable composers.
  14. 14. Rabindra Sangeet Also known as Tagore Songs Songs written and composed by Rabindranath Tagore. Characterized by its distinctive rendition while singing which includes a significant amount of ornamentations like meend, murki, etc. and is filled with expressions of romanticism. Singers: Kishore Kumar, Asha Bhosle, Kavita Krishnamurthy, Debabrata Biswas, Malati Ghosal, etc.
  15. 15. Dadra A light classical vocal form in Hindustani classical music, mostly performed in Agra and in Bundelkhand region. Originally accompanied by dadra tala (from where the term for the genre was borrowed). Lag jaa gale by Lata Mangeshkar Humri Atariya pe by Begham Akhtar.
  16. 16. Qawwali Popular in South Asia, particularly in the Punjab and Sindh regions of Pakistan, also in Hyderabad, Delhi and other parts of India. Performed mainly at Sufi shrines or dargahs. It has also gained mainstream popularity. Singers: Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, Sabri Brothers, Bahauddin Qutbuddin, Aziz Mian etc.
  17. 17. Chaiti A semi-classical songs sung in the Hindu calendar month of Chait, during the Holy month of Sri Rama Navami in March/April. The songs typically has the name of Lord Rama. Traditionally sung in the villages and towns of Uttar Pradesh: around Banaras, Mirzapur, Mathura, Allahabad and the Bhojpur regions of Bihar.
  18. 18. Kajari Also known as Kohl. Popular in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Often used to describe the longing of a maiden for her lover as the black monsoon cloud come hanging in the summer skies, and the style is notably sung during the rainy season. Exponents of Kajari are Pandit Channulal Mishra, Shobha Gurtu, Siddheshwari Devi, Girija Devi, and Rajan and Sajan Mishra.
  19. 19. Sufi Songs • Devotional songs of the Sufis, inspired by the works of Sufi poets, like Rumi, Hafiz, Bulleh Shah and Khwaja Ghulam Farid. • Mostly common in parts of Pakistan and India. • Singers: Abida Parveen, Nusrat Fateh Ali Khan, A. R. Rahman, Lalan Fakir, Kazi Nazrul Islam, etc.
  20. 20. Presented By Moumita Das 2nd Sem

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