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Start Of Presentation

 Muhammad Raheel
 BS 3rd Year 2015 (Morning Program)
 Department of Food Science & Technology
 University of Karachi...

 Also referred to as the Hagberg’s Number.
 Measures the level of alpha-amylase activity that has
occurred within a gr...

 1960 Sven Hagberg developed a rapid, original method for
determining alpha-amylase activity in sprout damaged grain.
...

Working Principle

 Sample Preparation
 Weighing
 Dispensing
 Shaking
 Stirring
 Measuring
 The Falling Number
Major Steps

How is FN calculated?
Falling Number= (5sec stand) + (55 sec stirring )+ (time taken to fall in sec)
Example: 5 + 55 + 2...

 When tubes are in water bath, starch begins to gelatinize and the
slurry becomes viscous.
 The alpha-amylase enzyme s...

Why measure the alpha-amylase activity??
Rainy, adverse weather conditions during harvest can
cause sprouting. When spro...

Falling Number in Pasta and Noodle
manufacturing

Producing noodles from flour with a low falling
number is difficult with dough handling and cutting
problems and product...

Falling Number in flour milling
and baking

A certain amount of alpha-amylase is necessary for proper baking to
occur. The alpha-amylase breaks down starch to provi...

 Temperature of water bath should be 100C
 The FN instrument analyses viscosity by measuring the resistance of a
flour...

Machine develop by a North American Company;
Related to Instrument

Model= FN 1500 Model=FN 1310
Instrument Models

Model= FN 1000 Model= FN 1700/1900
Continue…

Dispenser Lab Mills
Accessories Used

Late maturity a-amylase: Low falling number in wheat
in the absence of pre-harvest sprouting.
(Australia, 30 Jan 2007)
K...

 www.living-foods.com/articles/sprouting.html
 www.wheatflourbook.org/main.aspx?p=67
 www.sites.ext.vt.edu/newletter-...

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Basic Science and methodology behind Falling Number along with its mechanical use.

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Falling number

  1. 1. Start Of Presentation
  2. 2.   Muhammad Raheel  BS 3rd Year 2015 (Morning Program)  Department of Food Science & Technology  University of Karachi  Pakistan Prepared By
  3. 3.   Also referred to as the Hagberg’s Number.  Measures the level of alpha-amylase activity that has occurred within a grain sample.  Alpha-amylase ??? It is an enzyme that degrades starch within the seed greatly reducing flour quality. Introduction
  4. 4.   1960 Sven Hagberg developed a rapid, original method for determining alpha-amylase activity in sprout damaged grain.  1961 Sven Hagberg named the method “Falling number” with a simple modification.  1962 Harald Perten founded Perten Instruments and commercialized falling number apparatus.  1968 International Association of Cereal Science and Technology approved the method as ICC Standard No. 107/1  1972 The method was implemented as an official AACC method 56- 81B.  1982 The International Organization for Standardization approved the method as ISO 3093. History
  5. 5.  Working Principle
  6. 6.   Sample Preparation  Weighing  Dispensing  Shaking  Stirring  Measuring  The Falling Number Major Steps
  7. 7.  How is FN calculated? Falling Number= (5sec stand) + (55 sec stirring )+ (time taken to fall in sec) Example: 5 + 55 + 240 = 300FN
  8. 8.   When tubes are in water bath, starch begins to gelatinize and the slurry becomes viscous.  The alpha-amylase enzyme starts to breakdown starch and the viscosity thus decreases.  The amount of starch break down dependent on alpha-amylase activity which means the higher the activity of amylase the lower is the viscosity.  The more sprouted the grain, the higher the alpha-amylase activity.  The higher the alpha-amylase activity, the lower the viscosity of slurry.  The lower the viscosity of slurry the faster the stirrer will fall.  More sprouted grain results in low FN, as FN is the time it takes the stirrer to fall to the bottom. Chemistry behind FN
  9. 9.  Why measure the alpha-amylase activity?? Rainy, adverse weather conditions during harvest can cause sprouting. When sprouting occurs the alpha- amylase enzyme develops. Alpha-amylase activity has direct impact on bread, pasta quality and adversely affects the malting process. As little as 5% sprouted grain mixed with 95% sound grain can render the entire mixture unacceptable. Applications
  10. 10.  Falling Number in Pasta and Noodle manufacturing
  11. 11.  Producing noodles from flour with a low falling number is difficult with dough handling and cutting problems and product sticking to machinery. It also result in an off-color end consumer product which will be sticky after it is boiled. Using flour with the correct FN will result in saving through improved processing as well as a higher quality end product. Continue…
  12. 12.  Falling Number in flour milling and baking
  13. 13.  A certain amount of alpha-amylase is necessary for proper baking to occur. The alpha-amylase breaks down starch to provide sugar to help fuel the fermentation process. The presence of enzyme depend upon the quality of bread produced.  FN=250; When the alpha-amylase activity is right, a high volume bread with firm and soft texture is achieved.  FN=62; If the activity is too high, a sticky bread crumb and low volume may result.  FN=400; If the activity is too low, a dry bread crumb with diminished volume may result. The FN value has an inverse relationship with the alpha-amylase activity meaning the higher the amylase activity the lower the FN value. Continue…
  14. 14.   Temperature of water bath should be 100C  The FN instrument analyses viscosity by measuring the resistance of a flour-and-water paste to a falling stirrer.  FN result are recorded as an index of enzyme of enzyme activity in a wheat or flour sample and the result are expressed in time as seconds.  A high FN (above 300 sec) indicates minimal enzyme activity and sound quality wheat or flour.  A low FN (below 250 sec) indicates substantial enzyme activity and sprout damaged wheat or flour.  When grinding a wheat sample to perform a FN test, it should be at- least 300gm to assure a representative sample.  Values below 300 sec are indicative of poor quality for milling and baking purposes. Need to know!
  15. 15.  Machine develop by a North American Company; Related to Instrument
  16. 16.  Model= FN 1500 Model=FN 1310 Instrument Models
  17. 17.  Model= FN 1000 Model= FN 1700/1900 Continue…
  18. 18.  Dispenser Lab Mills Accessories Used
  19. 19.  Late maturity a-amylase: Low falling number in wheat in the absence of pre-harvest sprouting. (Australia, 30 Jan 2007) Key points;  Late maturity and pre-harvest a-amylase.  Effect on a-amylase activity in wheat grain.  Effect of temperature on wheat grain.  Effect on end-product. Research
  20. 20.   www.living-foods.com/articles/sprouting.html  www.wheatflourbook.org/main.aspx?p=67  www.sites.ext.vt.edu/newletter- archive/cses/2007/falling_number.html  www.perten.com>Products  http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/36070500/Info Dianehasuploaded/2010ResearchReviewAnnualReport/MKwe on-FN-012810.pdf  www.elsevier.com/locate/jcs  1-s2.0-S0733521007000276-main References
  21. 21.  End Of Presentation
  • ComfortCarthy

    Sep. 28, 2018
  • lkelik

    Nov. 29, 2017
  • osamabadr555

    Oct. 11, 2017
  • AlloTemitayo

    Dec. 16, 2016

Basic Science and methodology behind Falling Number along with its mechanical use.

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