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locomotive training report charbagh,lucknow for electrical engg.

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locomotive training report charbagh,lucknow for electrical engg.

  1. 1. 1 LOCOMOTIVE WORKSHOP NORTHEN RAILWAY, CHARBAGH LUCKNOW A INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT ON TYPES OF GENERATORS AND ITS CHARACTERISTICS SUBMIETTED TO : SUBIMITTED TO: PRINCIPAL : SK . SHARMA MUKESH MAURYA STC /CB , ELECTRICAL ENGG. (III year) LUCKNOW ROLL N. 1505420901 REGD. N.: B-893
  2. 2. 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I take this opportunity my sincere thanks and deep gratitude to Dr. MONIKA MEHROTRA (HEAD OF ELECTRICAL DEPARTMENT) all these people who extended their whole hearted co-operation and helped me in completing this project successfully. First of all I would like to thanks all the S.S.E. and J.E. of the all the sections for creating oppurtunities to undertake me in this esteemed organization. Special thanks to all the department for all the help and guidance extended to me by them in every stage during my training. His inspiring suggestions and timely guidance enabled me to perceive the various aspects of the project in the new light. In all I found a congenial work environment in DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE WORKSHOP, CHARBAGH LUCKNOW and this completion of the project will mark a new beginning for me in the coming days. SUBMIETTED TO : SUBIMITTED TO: PRINCIPAL : SK . SHARMA MUKESH MAURYA STC /CB , ELECTRICAL ENGG. (III year) LUCKNOW ROLL N. 1505420901 REGD. N.: B-893 Date: 20 july 2017
  3. 3. 3 Content Page n. 1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………3 1.1 Introduction to locomotives…………………………………………………....3 1.2 Diesel electric…………………………………………………………………..4 1.3 History……………………………………………………...…………………..6 2. Block diagram……………………………………………………………………….9 2.1 Block diagram of locomotive ………………….……………………………….9 2.2 Basic structure of LOCOMOTIVE ……………………………………………10 3. Power Distribution system in locomotives………………………………………..12 3.1 Main generator (traction alternator)…………………………………………….12 3.2 Companion alternator…………………………………………,…………………12 3.3 Auxiliary generator…………………………………………….…………………13 3.4 DC link voltage…………………………………………………………………..14 3.5 Dynamic braking………………………………………………………………….14 3.6 EM2000 computer………………………………………………………………..15 4. ELECTRICAL CONTROL CABINETS…………………….………………….16 5. MAJOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS OF LOCOMOTIVES……………..20 5.1 Main Alternator……………………………………………………….…………20 5.2Companion Alternator ……………………………………………………..……22 5.3Inertial Blower (Dustbin Blower)………………………………..……….……..23 5.4 RADIATOR COOLING FAN MOTORS…………………..…………….…….23 5.5 BATTERY……………………………………………….………………………24 5.6 AC Traction Motors……………………………………………..………………25 5.6.2 Traction motor run test…………………………………………………………27 5.7 Traction Motor Blower………………………………………….……………….27
  4. 4. 4 Page n. 5.8 TCC1 and TCC2 Inverters……………………………………………………………27 5.9 TCC Blower………………………………………………………………………….28 5.10 Radiator Cooling Fan Motors………………………………………………………..28 5.11 Computer EM 2000………………………………………………………………….29 5.12 Computer Control Brake………………………………………………………..…..29 5.13 Dynamic Brake Traction Control Computers………………………………......…..29 5.14 Under Truck………………………………………………………….……….…......30 6. Conclusion………………………………………………………………,…………….31 7. Refrences………………………………………………………………….………...…32
  5. 5. 5 CHAPTER-1 Introduction 1.1 Introduction to Indian railways Indian Railways is the state-owned railway company of India. It comes under the Ministry of Railways. Indian Railways has one of the largest and busiest rail networks in the world, transporting over 18 million passengers and more than 2 million tonnes of freight daily. Its revenue is Rs.107.66 billion. It is the world's largest commercial employer, with more than 1.4 million employees. It operates rail transport on 6,909 stations over a total route length of more than 63,327 kilometers(39,350 miles).The fleet of Indian railway includes over 200,000 (freight) wagons, 50,000 coaches and 8,000 locomotives. It also owns locomotive and coach production facilities. It was founded in 1853 under the East India Company. Indian Railways is administered by the Railway Board. Indian Railways is divided into 16 zones. Each zone railway is made up of a certain number of divisions. There are a total of sixty-seven divisions.It also operates the Kolkata metro. There are six manufacturing plants of the Indian Railways. The total length of track used by Indian Railways is about 108,805 km (67,608 mi) while the total route length of the network is 63,465 km (39,435 mi). About 40% of the total track kilometer is electrified & almost all electrified sections use 25,000 V AC. Indian railways uses four rail track gauges Indian Railways operates about 9,000 passenger trains and transports 18 million passengers daily .Indian Railways makes 70% of its revenues and most of its profits from the freight sector, and uses these profits to cross-subsidies the loss-making passenger sector. The Rajdhani Express and Shatabdi Express are the fastest trains of India. 1.2 Diesel locomotive shed charbagh , Lucknow Diesel locomotive shed is an industrial-technical setup, where repair and maintenance works of diesel locomotives is carried out, so as to keep the loco working properly. It contributes to increase the operational life of diesel locomotives and tries to minimize the line failures. The technical manpower of a shed also increases the efficiency of the loco and remedies the failures of loco.
  6. 6. 6 The shed consists of the infrastructure to berth, dismantle, repair and test the loco and subsystems. The shed working is heavily based on the manual methods of doing the maintenance job and very less automation processes are used in sheds, especially in India. The diesel shed usually has:-  Berths and platforms for loco maintenance.  Pits for under frame maintenance  Heavy lift cranes and lifting jacks  Fuel storage and lube oil storage, water treatment plant and testing labs etc.  Sub-assembly overhauling and repairing sections  Machine shop and welding facilities. DIESEL SHED, CHARBAGH ,LUCKNOW of NORTHERN RAILWAY is located in LUCKNOW The shed was established on 22nd April 1857. It was initially planned to home 75 locomotives. The shed cater the needs of Northern railway. This shed mainly provides locomotive to run the mail, goods and passenger services. No doubt the reliability, safety through preventive and predictive maintenance is high priority of the shed. To meet out the quality standard shed has taken various steps and obtaining of the ISO-9001-200O& ISO 14001 OHSAS CERTIFICATION is among of them. The Diesel Shed is equipped with modern machines and plant required for Maintenance of Diesel Locomotives and has an attached store depot. To provide pollution free atmosphere, Diesel Shed has constructed Effluent Treatment Plant. The morale of supervisors and staff of the shed is very high and whole shed works like a well-knit team. 1.3 Introduction to locomotive A diesel locomotive is a type of railway locomotive in which the prime mover is a diesel engine. Several types of diesel locomotive have been developed, differing mainly in the means by which mechanical power is conveyed to the driving wheels (drivers).
  7. 7. 7 1.3 Diesel-Electric A diesel–electric locomotive's power output is independent of road speed, as long as the unit's generator current and voltage limits are not exceeded. Therefore, the unit's ability to develop tractive effort (also referred to as drawbar pull or tractive force, which is what actually propels the train) will tend to inversely vary with speed within these limits. (See power curve below). Maintaining acceptable operating parameters was one of the principal design considerations that had to be solved in early diesel–electric locomotive development and, ultimately, led to the complex control systems in place on modern units. Originally, the traction motors and generator were DC machines. Following the development of high-capacity silicon rectifiers in the 1960s, the DC generator was replaced by an alternator using a diode bridge to convert its output to DC. This advance greatly improved locomotive reliability and decreased generator maintenance costs by elimination of the commutator and brushes in the generator. Elimination of the brushes and commutator, in turn, disposed of the possibility of a particularly destructive type of event referred to as a flashover, which could result in immediate generator failure and, in some cases, start an engine room fire. The important components of diesel–electric propulsion are the diesel engine (also known as the prime mover), the main generator/alternator-rectifier, traction motors (usually with four or six axles), and a control system consisting of the engine governor and electrical and/or electronic components, including switchgear, rectifiers and other components, which control or modify the electrical supply to the traction motors. In the most elementary case, the generator may be directly connected to the motors with only very simple switchgear. In a diesel–electric locomotive, the diesel engine drives either an electrical DC generator (generally, less than 3,000 horsepower (2,200 kW) net for traction), or an electrical AC alternator-rectifier (generally 3,000 horsepower (2,200 kW) net or more for traction), the output of which provides power to the traction motors that drive the locomotive. There is no mechanical connection between the diesel engine and the wheels. Besides steam- and diesel-powered locomotives, many trains operate solely on electrical power. They get the electricity from a third rail, or electrical line, along the track. Transformers transfer the voltage from the lines, and the electrical current drives the motors (AC or DC) on the wheels.
  8. 8. 8 1.4 History Earliest recorded examples of an internal combustion engine for railway use included a prototype designed by William Dent Priestman, which was examined by Sir William Thomson in 1888 who described it as a "[Priestman oil engine] mounted upon a truck which is worked on a temporary line of rails to show the adaptation of a petroleum engine for locomotive purposes.".[3][4] In 1894, a 20 h.p. two axle machine built by Priestman Brothers was used on the Hull Docks.[5][6] In 1896 an oil-engined railway locomotive was built for the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, England, in 1896, using an engine designed by Herbert Akroyd Stuart.[7] It was not, strictly, a diesel because it used a hot bulb engine (also known as a semi-diesel) but it was the precursor of the diesel Following the expiration of Dr. Rudolf Diesel's patent in 1912, his engine design was successfully applied to marine propulsion and stationary applications. However, the massiveness and poor power-to-weight ratio of these early engines made them unsuitable for propelling land-based vehicles. Therefore, the engine's potential as a railroad prime mover was not initially recognized.[8] This changed as development reduced the size and weight of the engine. The world's first diesel-powered locomotive was operated in the summer of 1912 on the Winterthur–Romanshorn railroad in Switzerland, but was not a commercial success.[9] In 1906, Rudolf Diesel, Adolf Klose and the steam and Diesel engine manufacturer Gebrüder Sulzer founded Diesel-Sulzer-Klose GmbH to manufacture diesel-powered locomotives. Sulzer had been manufacturing Diesel engines since 1898. The Prussian State Railways ordered a diesel locomotive from the company in 1909, and after test runs between Winterthur and Romanshorn the diesel–mechanical locomotive was delivered in Berlin in September 1912. During further test runs in 1913 several problems were found. After the First World War broke out in 1914, all further trials were stopped. The locomotive weight was 95 tonnes and the power was 883 kW with a maximum speed of 100 km/h.[10] Small numbers of prototype diesel locomotives were produced in a number of countries through the mid-1920s. General Electric (GE) entered the railcar market in the early twentieth century, as Thomas Edison possessed a patent on the electric locomotive, his design actually being a type of electrically propelled railcar.[12] GE built its first electric locomotive prototype in 1895. However, high electrification costs caused GE to turn its attention to Diesel power to
  9. 9. 9 provide electricity for electric railcars. Problems related to co-coordinating the Diesel engine and electric motor were immediately encountered, primarily due to limitations of the Ward Leonard electric elevator drive system that had been chosen In 1917–18, GE produced three experimental diesel–electric locomotives using Lemp's control design, the first known to be built in the United States.[14] Following this development, the 1923 Kaufman Act banned steam locomotives from New York City because of severe pollution problems. The response to this law was to electrify high- traffic rail lines. However, electrification was uneconomical to apply to lower-traffic areas. The first regular use of diesel–electric locomotives was in switching (shunter) applications. General Electric produced several small switching locomotives in the 1930s (the famous "44-tonner" switcher was introduced in 1940) Westinghouse Electric and Baldwin collaborated to build switching locomotives starting in 1929. However, the Great Depressioncurtailed demand for Westinghouse's electrical equipment, and they stopped building locomotives internally, opting to supply electrical parts instead Early diesel locomotives and railcars in Asia Japan In Japan, since the 1920s, some petrol-electric railcars were produced. The first diesel–electric traction and the first air-streamed vehicles on Japanese rails were the two DMU3s of class Kiha 43000. Japan's first series of diesel locomotives was class DD50 twin locomotives, developed since 1950 and in service since 1953. China One of the first home developed diesel vehicles of China was the DMU Dongfeng , produced in 1958 by CSR Sifang. Series production of China's first diesel locomotive class, the DFH 1, began in 1964 following construction of a prototype in 1959. A system which causes the propulsion of vehicle in which tractive or driving force is obtained from various devices such as diesel engine drives, steam engine drives,electric motors, etc. is called as traction system. ... This traction power can be diesel, steam or electric power The cost of electronic devices in a modern locomotive can be up to 50% of the cost of the vehicle. Electric traction allows the use of regenerative braking, in which the motors are used
  10. 10. 10 as brakes and become generators that transforms the motion of the train into electrical power that is then fed back into the lines. Series-wound DC motors. That means current flows through the armature, then through the fields. They have high starting torque, favorable for starting a train. Nowadays the trend is toward AC motors, typically a 3-phase induction motordriven by a DC->AC inverter control. The ignition of diesel fuel pushes pistons connected to an electric generator. The resulting electricity powers motors connected to the wheels of the locomotive. A “diesel” internal combustion engine uses the heat generated from the compression of air during the upward cycles of the stroke to ignite the fuel.
  11. 11. 11 Chapter-2 2.1 Block diagram of diesel electric (a) (b) Fig:2.1 a,b (Block diagram of diesel electric )
  12. 12. 12 2.2 Basic structure of LOCOMOTIVE Fig 2.2 (Basic structure of LOCOMOTIVE) The Electro-Motive GT46PAC diesel-electric locomotive is equipped with a turbocharged 16 cylinder diesel engine, which drives the traction alternator. (The traction alternator is an important component of the main generator assembly.) The traction alternator converts diesel engine mechanical power into alternating current electrical power. Internal rectifier banks in the main generator assembly convert traction alternator output alternating current to direct current. Rectified DC power produced by the traction alternator is distributed through the DC link to DC/AC inverters in the Traction Control (TC) cabinet. Based on inputs from the locomotive computer (EM2000), traction inverters supply 3-phase AC power to four traction motors. The EM2000 responds to input signals from operating controls and feedback signals from the power equipment. The traction control converter (TCC) is an electrical device that can convert AC to DC and invert DC into AC (traction power). The terms converter and inverter are used interchangeably in this manual. Each traction motor is
  13. 13. 13 geared directly, with a single pinion, to a pair of driving wheels. The maximum speed of the locomotive is set by locomotive gear ratio (ratio of traction motor revolutions to wheel revolutions) and wheel size. Although each GT46PAC locomotive is an independent power source, a number of locomotives may be combined in a multiple-unit (MU) tandem to increase total load capacity. The locomotives in tandem may be equipped with either AC or DC traction motors. Operating control functions are trainlined through a 27-conductor MU cable. This enables the lead unit to simultaneously control other locomotives in tandem
  14. 14. 14 Chapter- 3 3. Power Distribution system in locomotives Supply system The diesel engine is the source of locomotive power, when the engine is running it directly drives three electrical generators: 1. Main generator (traction alternator) 2. Companion alternator 3. Auxiliary generator 3.1 Main generator (traction alternator) The main generator (traction alternator) rotates at engine speed generating AC power. Rectifiers are covered within the generator assembly. The rectifiers convert the AC power to DC, and the DC output is applied to DC link. Switch gear and contractors supply DC voltage to traction inverter circuits. The traction inverters convert the DC link voltage to 3-phase AC power for the traction motors. There are two separate computers TCC1 and TCC2 which control the traction motors by varying the voltage and frequency which is fed to traction motors to get the proper torque and speed i.e., the output from traction motors. 3.2 Companion alternator The companion alternator is directly coupled to the traction alternator and is within the main generator assembly itself. Output is utilized for the following: • To excite the main generator (traction alternator) field. • To drive the two rectifier cooling fan motors. • To drive the inertial blower motors. • To drive the traction inverter blowers. • Various transducers and control devices.
  15. 15. 15 3.3 Auxiliary generator The auxiliary generator is driven by engine gear train. The output of aux. Gen. is converted to74V DC in a rectifier &output from the rectifier is utilized for the following: The auxiliary generator is driven by engine gear train. The output of aux. Gen. is converted to74V DC in a rectifier &output from the rectifier is utilized for the following: • To excite the companion alternator fields. • Control systems. • Battery charging. • F. P. Motor. • Turbo charger soak-back pump. • Lighting and Misc. equipment. The AC auxiliary Generator consists of a pilot exciter assembly and a three phase AC Auxiliary Generator Field and armature assembly. The pilot exciter assembly consists of a Stationary field, a rotating armature and rotating rectifier assembly. The AC Auxiliary
  16. 16. 16 Generator has a rotating field and stationary armature. The pilot exciter rotating armature and rotating rectifier assembly and the AC Auxiliary Generator rotating field are installed on a common shaft. During start up, residual magnetism of the pilot exciter stationary field induces voltage on the pilot exciter rotating armature. This AC voltage is rectified by the pilot exciter rectifier assembly and applied to the AC Auxiliary Generator rotating field. This rotating field induces voltage in the AC auxiliary generator stationary armature (stator). The small AC output voltage of the auxiliary generator is applied to the DVR (Digital Voltage Regulator Module). The Low AC Signal is used by DVR to determine if the Aux. Generator is turning, if it does, DVR will allow current from the batteries to flow in the exciter field of the Aux. Generator in order to produce the 3 phase 55V AC output. Model – 5A – 8147 Output – 18 KW The Aux. Generator supplies voltage to the 2 GTO power supplies, panel mounted module FCD (Firing control driver) and also to the full wave 3 phase rectifier (Battery Charger) assembly to obtain 74V DC for battery charging, companion alternator excitation and low voltage DC control power. 3.4 DC link voltage During motoring the DC output from the main generator is called the DC link voltage & is supplied to traction inverters. DC link voltage varies with throttle position from 600 V DC to 2600 V DC at 8th notch. There is one traction inverter for each set of three parallel traction motors. The two traction inverters TCC1 and TCC2 invert the DC link voltage in to variable voltage and variable frequency 3 phase AC voltage. Both inverters are in turn controlled by EM2000 computer. 3.5 Dynamic braking During dynamic braking the energy of the moving train is transmitted into rotating energy in the Traction motors. AC supply generated by all TMs will be fed back to traction inverters TCC1 and TCC2 and is converted to DC. The converted DC supply is now fed to dynamic braking grids which dissipate the electrical power in the form of the
  17. 17. 17 heat. This loss of energy causes train to slow down. EM2000 maintains the braking efforts required by the driver. 3.6 EM2000 computer Both inverters are directly controlled by EM 2000 locomotive control computer, which displays control system information on the screen. Most control and protective functions are programmed into the EM2000 computer that monitors critical functions in the locomotive power system provides a display message if a fault occurs. For serious faults the EM 2000 also sounds the alarm bell and & takes corrective action. Fig 3.6( single line diagram )
  18. 18. 18 Chapter-4 4. ELECTRICAL CONTROL CABINETS 4.1.1 ELECTRICAL CONTROL CABINET # 1 This cabinet located at the back side of the driver cab with the display to the front of ECC1. It houses some of the electrical and electronic equipments needed to control the locomotive. These equipments include:- i. Locomotive control computer (EM 2000). ii. Panel mounted modules (ASC, TLF, FCD, FCF, DVR). iii. Braking contactors (B1, B2, B3, B4) iv. DC Link transfer switch v. SCR assembly vi. GTO power supply (GTO PS1 & 2) vii. Current and voltage transducers viii. Contactors and Relays ix. Ground Relay Circuitry x. Various circuit resistances xi. Diode input panels (DIP 30, 31 & 32) xii. Power Distribution Panels (PDP) xiii. Circuit breaker panel. This cabinet is subjected to high voltages and currents; hence it should not be opened without following proper safety precautions: 4.1.2 ELECTRICAL CONTROL CABINET #2: ECC2 is located in the underframe of the locomotive between Truck 1 and the Fuel tank. It houses: i. ST& STA contactors ii. Battery charging assembly iii. Auxiliary Generator circuit breaker (250A) iv. Terminal Board for connecting ECC2 components to external system v. DC link reactor core 4.1.3 ELECTRICAL CONTROL CABINET #3: It is located near the equipment rack. It is also called AC cabinet. It contains:-
  19. 19. 19 i. Radiator Fan contactors ii. 300 Amps radiator fan fuses or circuit breakers iii. Main Reservoir pressure transducer iv. Diode input panel DIP 80 All the three electrical control cabinets are pressurized cabinets. It contains one 800 Amps starting fuse and Battery knife switch. The battery switch should be kept closed and never opened when the loco is in cranked condition. 4.2 COMPUTERS CONTROL OF LOCOMOTIVE The GM locomotives are equipped with four interrelated computers to provide electronic control of the various functions involved in locomotive operation. These individual computers are: 1. The locomotive control computer, designated as EM2000. i. The primary control system device is the EM 2000 locomotive control computer (LCC). ii. The locomotive operating controls provide inputs to the control computer, which then directs electrical power equipment and the diesel engine to operate within the constraints of the power and brake requirements. iii. The EM 2000 exerts over all control over the other computers. Thus the other three computers are is some way dependent on the EM 2000. 2. The Knorr CCB computer -This controls the air brake system based on control inputs from the electrical brake valve and feedback from the active brake elements. 3. The Siemens SIBAS 16 computers- (02 Nos) i. The EM 2000 manages the entire traction system through 02 Siemens SIBAS 16 computers and the traction control converters (TCC1, TCC2). ii. SIBAS 16 monitors feedback signals and protective functions for each Traction Control converters(TCC1, TCC2). iii. The EM 2000 locomotive computer controls the main locomotive functions based on inputs from the two traction control computers SIBAS 16. iv. Each SIBAS 16 uses an Intel 8086 microprocessor with an Ultra-Violet Erasable /Programmable Read Only Memory (UVEPROM).
  20. 20. 20 Fig 4.3 (block diagram of computer control) EM2000 Computer interaction 4.4 The EM2000 locomotive computer 1. The EM2000 locomotive computer controls- • Generation of traction. • Brake reference signals. • Display/Diagnostic System (computer display). • Locomotive Cooling System - cooling fans, radiator shutters. • Diesel Engine - governor speed settings, turbo. lube pump, fuel pump. • Engine Starting Circuit. • Dynamic Brake System -braking contactors/braking effort. • Excitation - monitors companion alternator (CA6B) output and controls main generator excitation. • Vigilance and wheel flange lubrication systems. 2. All communication with EM 2000 is through the key board on the display panel. 3. The microprocessor display panel is made of 6 line 40 columns vacuum fluorescent display with a 16-button feedback key pad. The display panel combined with loco control computer is referred as to display diagnostic system. Thus the display diagnostic system is an interactive device that provides an interface between EM 2000-control computer and the driver.
  21. 21. 21 5. The computer provides massage for driver on the screen indicating loco control, maintenance and trouble shooting function. 6. The computer is shaving four function keys F1, F2, F3 & F4 which indicates to cutout traction motor or truck, reset a fault or request more information about other stored data. 7. The display screen displays crew messages under normal operating conditions as well as problems occur on loco such as: ♦ Engine speed up for low water temperature. ♦ Loco is not set up for the requested mode of operation. ♦ Power is limited. ♦ Some piece of equipment or system has failed and protective function is active. 8. Data can be downloaded.
  22. 22. 22 Chapter-5 MAJOR ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENTS OF LOCOMOTIVES The GM locomotive equipped with the following special features equipments in constitutional aspect- 5.1 Main Alternator  No of pole : 10  Terminal Voltage : 1075 V  Speed : 1050 RPM  Rated current : 1998A-3600 A  Output : 2083 KW The main alternator TA10102 is a 3-phase, 10 pole, 90 slots machine equipped with two independent and interwoven sets of stator winding. The main alternator construction is such that it is basically two alternators in one - two sets of stator windings, permanently connected in series, work with a rotating field common to both the windings in order to provide higher alternator output voltage, which is a basic requirement of a low current high voltage alternator used on AC-AC locomotives. The diesel engine drives the main alternator. The main alternator converts the mechanical power of diesel engine into electrical power. The internal rectifier bank of the main alternator converts alternating current into direct current there by providing a DC power output. The DC power output from the main alternator is called the DC link voltage and is applied to the traction inverters. DC link voltage varies with the engine speed from 600 V DC at idle to 2600 V DC at full speed. The inverter changes DC into variable AC power Alternator and Traction Motor Blower The Main Alternator Blower and Traction Motor Blower share a common housing mounted on the front side of the auxiliary generator. Although both the blowers are mounted on the auxiliary generator shaft an internal partition separates the two blower portions. Air is drawn from the central air compartment into the alternator blower close to the auxiliary generator and pass through a duct to the main alternator air box. Air from alternator blower first cools the main alternator rectifier banks then passes internally through the alternator and companion alternator to the engine room. This creates a slight positive pressure to keep the dirt from entering the engine room.
  23. 23. 23 Fig 5.1 ( main generator of diesel electric locomotive) fig 5.1.2 ( curve voltage between current )
  24. 24. 24 5.2 Companion Alternator Companion alternator is a three phase AC steady state alternator of 250 kVA rating, which is physically connected but electrically independent of the main alternator. The companion alternator rotor field is excited directly by auxiliary supply of the locomotive. It receives the excitation current from the auxiliary alternator through a pair of slip rings, which are located adjacent to the slip rings of the main alternator. The companion alternator develops power whenever the diesel engine is running. The output voltage is directly proportional to the speed of rotation but varies to some extent with change in alternator temperature and load. It is used for excitation of the main alternator as well as for supply to Inertial (dustbin) blower, TCC1 and TCC2 blower motor, TCC electronic blower, 55- 220 V AC for radiator fans and various control circuits. An AC auxiliary alternator of 18 kW rating is used for meeting the auxiliary and control system load. The companion Alternator is physically connected but Electrically independent of the Traction Alternator. The Companion Alternator field (rotating field) is excited by a low voltage current output from Aux. Generator through a pair of slip rings adjacent to the slip rings of the main alternator. The 3 phase AC output of the Companion Alternator coming from the stationary armature (stator) is connected to a terminal board on the left bottom of the Companion Alternator. Type – CA 6B Power – 250KVA at 0.8 PF. Voltage – 45-220V 3 Ph AC. Max. Frequency – 120 Cycles/Sec at 900 rpm. Max. Current – 600 amps. Brush grade – AY. No. of Brushes – 4 (+ 2 Nos. –ve 2 Nos.)Condemning Length – 38mm. Fig (companion alternator )
  25. 25. 25 5.3 Inertial Blower (Dustbin Blower) Outside air is cleaned by Inertial (dustbin) Blower, before it enters central air cabinet. In the Inertial Blower there are two inertial filter panels, one mounted on either side of the locomotive. Outside air is drawn rapidly through the tubes which contains specially designed vanes that induce a spinning motion to the contaminated incoming air. Dirt and dust particles, because they are heavier than air are thrown to the outer wall of the tube and carried to the bleed duct where it is removed by the scavenging action of the Inertial blower and expelled through the roof of the locomotive. The resulting clean air continues on through the smaller diameter portion of the tube where the air is again caused to swirl by internal vanes. The particles are carried to the bleed duct and the resulting clean air enters the central air compartment. Model – DC Series Motor. No. of Poles – 4 Capacity – 36 HP Brush Condemn Length – 25.4 mm (1”) Each Dynamic Brake Grid cooling blower assembly consists of a 48” 10 blade fan powered by a series wound DC motor. During Dynamic Braking the locomotive Traction Motors operate as Generators supplying AC power to inverters. The inverters convert AC power into DC voltage and supply back to the DC link. The DC link is connected across the grids through contactors B1, B2, B3 & B4 and the Braking energy is dissipated as heat. A portion of the electrical grid is used to power grid blower motor (36 HP).To dissipate grid heat to atmosphere. 5.4 RADIATOR COOLING FAN MOTORS: These motors are of inverted squirrel cage induction type and are an integral part of the cooling fan assembly. The term inverted indicates that they differ from the conventional squirrel cage motor in that the rotor is located outside the stator. Two 52” Cooling Fans (8 blades) which operate independently are located at the hood under the radiators and blow the cooling air upwards through the radiator cores. They are numbered 1 and 2 with No. 1 close to the cab.
  26. 26. 26 5.5 BATTERY The locomotive is fitted with 500 A lead acid batteries. Each loco contains 8 batteries each having 4 cells. These batteries supply power during cranking for the cranking motors and the low voltage control circuit. SCHEDULES: 1. Clean the batteries and blow with compressed air. 2. Visually examine the batteries for any terminal cracks, cable overheating marks, any leakage. 3. Remove the vent plugs and clean properly. 4. Record cell voltage (2-2.2V), specify gravity (1.40-1.60), cell temperature (27-38C) and electrolyte level (45 +/-5mm). 5. Ensure tightness of inter connection cables. 6.Ensure that batteries are properly packed in the battery box and there is no rubbing of cables. Note: Work on Removed Batteries:- 1. In case any cell is weak, the battery to be removed and new/reconditioned battery to be provided. The removed battery to be reconditioned as per MIS. 2. Whenever batteries are separately charged, ensure that cell temperature does not increase beyond 45 0C 3. Ensure proper electrolyte level during charging. 4. Ensure proper setting of charging current and voltage. 5. Keep the batteries clean & dry.
  27. 27. 27 5.6 AC Traction Motors Rated Power 425 kW Maximum rotational speed 3320 rpm Max. currentrating 350 A Application WDP4 and WDG4/ WDP4D Customer Indian Railw ays (DieselLocomotive Works) A system which causes the propulsion of vehicle in which tractive or driving force is obtained from various devices such as diesel engine drives, steam engine drives, electric motors, etc. is called as traction system. ... This traction power can be diesel, steam or electric power. Series-wound DC motors. That means current flows through the armature, then through the fields. They have high starting torque, favorable for starting a train. Nowadays the trend is toward AC motors, typically a 3-phase induction motor driven by a DC->AC inverter control. The ignition of diesel fuel pushes pistons connected to an electric generator. The resulting electricity powers motors connected to the wheels of the locomotive. A “diesel” internal combustion engine uses the heat generated from the compression of air during the upward cycles of the stroke to ignite the fuel. Traction motor refers to a type of electric motor. A traction motor is used to make rotation torque on a machine. It is usually changed into a straight line motion. Traction motors are used in electrically powered rail vehicles such as electric multiple units and electric locomotives. Traction motor refers to a type of electric motor. A traction motor is used to make rotation torque on a machine. It is usually changed into a straight line motion.Traction motors are used in electrically powered rail vehicles such as electric multiple units and electric locomotives. AC-AC transmission has the advantage of high adhesion and high tractive effort, maintenance free Siemens ITB – 2622 -0TA02 Three phase AC traction motors,
  28. 28. 28 high reliability and availability and higher energy efficiency. A specialty of this motor is that there is no separate stator frame resulting in reduction of weight. In braking mode, the three-phase motors act as generators and power is fed back to the DC link via the two inverters. Fig 5.6 (Traction motor mounting on axles ) Fig 5.6.2 (Traction motor)
  29. 29. 29 5.6.2 Traction motor run test 1. All of first check the IR of assemble motor and record . 2. Connect to the DC rectifier of traction motor . 3. First ,motor run at 40V . current should not be more than 50A and speed should be 600rpm & run at 30 min . 4. Change the motor supply voltage 10 V and at each changes run 30 min . and at each changes note the current and note the temperature of PI & CI . 5. At the end , motor should run at half hour . 6. In every changes temperature of CI and PI will be 80 centigrade not more than . 7. Motor should run 160 V for five min .the speed of motor should be 1200rpm to 2275 rpm. 8. Check the last RI of motor and record . 5.7 Traction Motor Blower The Traction Motor Blower is mounted on the auxiliary generator, supplies air for traction motor cooling, generator pit aspirator operation, main electrical cabinet pressurisation and traction computer cooling. Air is drawn through a movable inlet guide vane through the blower, and delivered into a duct to the traction motors. A portion of this air is diverted through a set of filters for delivery to the computer module portion of traction inverter cabinets for module cooling. Another set of filters cleans the air used to pressurise the main electrical cabinet. 5.8 TCC1 and TCC2 Inverters The locomotive has two inverters TCC1 and TCC2. The output converter, a pulse width modulated (PWM) inverter, is responsible for providing the variable frequency and the variable terminal voltage for the three-phase motor. The main alternator feeds electrical power to the DC link via two series connected diode rectifiers. Two identical PWM inverters TCC1 and TCC2 with GTO and their capacitors are connected electrically to the DC link via isolating switches. There is one traction inverter for each parallel set of three traction motors, which are responsible for supplying power to them. A protective
  30. 30. 30 circuit based on GTO is connected to the DC link to protect the inverters against any over- voltages. The TCC blower defuses heat produced by losses generated in TCC. 5.9 TCC Blower An electronic blower in each TCC cabinet driven by its own 3-phase AC motor draws the air from central air compartment in across the modules and expels it across the R2 snubber resistor. This air is used for cooling and pressurising in some parts of the inverter cabinet. This air keeps dirt from contaminating areas containing DC linkcapacitors, gate units and traction computers. The TCC blower motor is a dual speed 3-phase AC induction motor. It operates as a series-Y wound machine for lower speed (only low speed configuration is used on WDG4 locomotives). Power for the motors is taken from the companion alternator through the main contacts of TCC1SS and TCC2SS. EM2000 exercises control of the blower contactors at the request of the TCC via RS-485 serial link. 5.10 Radiator Cooling Fan Motors Radiator Cooling Fan Motors are of the inverted squirrel cage induction type and are integral part of the cooling fan assembly. Each cooling fan (total two per locomotive) is driven by a two-speed AC motor, which in turn is powered by the companion alternator. Cooling fans are powered through contactors, which are controlled by the EM2000 program. Each fan motor circuit consists of one slow-speed and two fast-speed contactors that are located in the AC cabinet. 5.11 Computer EM 2000 The WDG4 locomotive is equipped with a microprocessor based computer control system. It provides fault detection of components and systems, it contains 'self tests' to aid in trouble shooting locomotive faults. It has basic features like, significant reduction in number of control modules, better fault detection of components, memory archive and data snap shot. The microprocessor EM2000 is the locomotive control computer. EM 2000 utilises "Flash PROM" memory. It is a 32 bit computer based on Motorola 68020 microprocessor running at 16 MHz with a math co-processor communication through RS- 232 serial cable / port. EM 2000 controls the main locomotive functions based on inputs from two traction computers. This system is equipped with a diagnostic display system in the cab to provide an interface between the maintenance personnel and the computer. The
  31. 31. 31 computer is programmed to monitor and control locomotive traction power, record and indicate faults that have been incorporated into EM 2000 system. 5.12 Computer Control Brake The locomotive is equipped with KNORR/NYAB CCB (computer controlled braking) 1.5 system. This system is an electro-pneumatic microprocessor based system with 30A CDW type desktop controls. The overall purpose of using a computer (microprocessor) to control the air brake system is to eliminate as many of the electrical and mechanical devices as possible, there by reducing periodic maintenance, simplifying trouble shooting, fault diagnostics etc. It allows greater reliability and flexibility for future system upgrade. 5.13 Dynamic Brake Each unit of the Dynamic Brake Grid Blower Assembly consists of fan assembly powered by a 36 HP series wound DC motor. During dynamic braking, a portion of the current (rectified DC) from the traction motors is shunted around one of the resistor grids and used to power the grid blower motor. Air driven by the grid blower drives grid heat to atmosphere. 5.16 Traction Control Computers There are two SIBAS 16 traction control computers. Each computer is dedicated to one inverter. SIBAS 16 is a 16-bit computer based on an INTEL 8086 microprocessor running at 5.6 MHz. The TCC receives data via RS-485 serial link from the locomotive computer EM2000. The bi-directional bus carries data such as how much power for traction the TCC must develop as well as other information to control activation of devices like blowers and heaters. In addition to the RS-485 data, information constantly gets fed back into the TCC, to monitor various things such as status of relays and temperature of various components, voltages and currents. Based on this feed back data and information received via RS-485 serial link, the programs stored in the TCC work to drive the TCC as well as to protect it in the event of faulty operating conditions. Radar The locomotive is equipped with a K- BAND RADAR module. The mounting location of radar under the cab of the locomotive near the end plate. This particular type
  32. 32. 32 of RADAR system mounts at an angle of 37.5° with respect to the rail. It is particularly susceptible to signal error as a result of inaccurate mounting. 5.17 Under Truck The WDG4 locomotive is equipped with a high adhesion HTSC (High Tensile Steel Cast) truck or bogie. The bogie assembly supports the weight of the locomotive and provides the means for transmission of power to the rails. The HTSC bogie is designed as a powered 'bolsterless unit'. Although the bogie or truck frame itself is rigid, the design allows the end axles to move or "yaw" within the frame. This movement will allow the wheels to position themselves tangent to the rails on curves for reduced wheel and rail wear. Axles 1 and 3 can move or kink a little bit to negotiate a curve from 0-8 degree deflection, increases the tractive effort and improves the rolling resistance. Traction loads are transmitted from the truck or bogie to the locomotive under frame through the carbody pivot pin assembly. Each bogie is equipped with three unidirectional AC traction motors for better adhesion characteristics. The motors are geared to the driving axles, which in turn apply rotational force to the rails through the wheels. The driving force is transmitted to the bogie through tractive rod attached to the journal-bearing adapter in the frame. From the truck / bogie frame the driving force is transmitted to the locomotive car body through the car body pivot pin.
  33. 33. 33 CONCLUSION I have completed my training from the DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE WORKSHOP, LUCKNOW .I have observed many shop in the workshop I mainly performed my training in the TRACTION GENRATOR SECTION. In the locomotive workshop all the S.S.E & J.E. & SUPERVISIORS of all the shops helped very much. Without his or her supervision I was not able to perform the training in all the workshop. I am very grateful to him. We have learned too much in the workshop, DIFFERENT TYPE OF WORKSHOP TECHNOLOGY, TESTING OF THE PARTS OF THE LOCOMOTIVE AND THE PROPER FUNCTIONING of the different locomotive part as an , Dynamic Brake Traction Control Computers Main Alternator Auxillary alternator Companion Alternator Inertial Blower (Dustbin Blower RADIATOR COOLING FAN MOTORS BATTERY Battery ,Traction Motors, Traction Motor, Blower, TCC1 and TCC2 Inverters, Radiator Cooling Fan Motors, Computer Control Brake, Dynamic Brake, Traction Control Computers .
  34. 34. 34 REFRENCES  https://wikimedia.org.in  http://www.woodward.com/ApplicationsLocomotive.aspx  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turbocharger  https://www.dieselnet.com/tech/diesel_fi_ui.php  https://www.IRFCA.CO.IN  https://www.rdso.in  https://www.indianrailay.in  https://www.wikipedia.org  https://www.google.com

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