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Session 2 General Safety Requirements

Our VISION - Health, Safety & Environment
General site safety rules, Personal behavior and conduct.
Duty of Care – Employer Responsibilities , Employee obligation
Personal Protective Equipments ( P.P.E.)
Smoking Regulation, Traffic rules, Site Access & Security
Welfare & First Aid Facilities.
Reporting Incidents
Emergency Procedure - In case of accidents, FIRE
Safety Inspections. Safety Monitoring Meeting.
Safety Trainings
Safety Motivation - Safety Incentive Scheme, Disciplinary Action.
Workplace Hazard & Solutions (Housekeeping, Working at height, FIRE etc)

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Session 2 General Safety Requirements

  1. 1. SESSION : 2 General Safety Requirements
  2. 2. General Safety Requirements 1. Our VISION - Health, Safety & Environment 2. General site safety rules, Personal behavior and conduct. 3. Duty of Care – Employer Responsibilities , Employee obligation 4. Signs 5. Personal Protective Equipments ( P.P.E.) 6. Smoking Regulation, Traffic rules, Site Access & Security 7. Welfare & First Aid Facilities. 8. Reporting Incidents 9. Emergency Procedure - In case of accidents, FIRE 10. Safety Inspections. Safety Monitoring Meeting. 11. Safety Trainings 12. Safety Motivation - Safety Incentive Scheme, Disciplinary Action. 13. Workplace Hazard & Solutions (Housekeeping, Working at height, FIRE etc) Objectives
  3. 3. General Safety Requirements Our VISION - Health, Safety & Environment 1. All accidents, illnesses, property damage and pollution are avoidable and are to be prevented 2. No job is so urgent or demanding that it can not be done safely 3. Adhering to HSE rules is a condition of employment 4. Setting examples through our behaviour 5. Nobody Gets Killed, Nobody Gets Seriously Injured 6. No High Risk Incidents 7. No harm to Environment Every person returns home safely to his family at the end of the day.
  4. 4. General Safety Requirements 1. Prohibited Items - Radios, Cassette players, CD player, Music Systems 2. Possession, use and sale of alcohol and drugs as well as entry to the Site under the influence of alcohol or drugs should be forbidden. 3. Fighting and Running should be strictly forbidden; 4. Abusive or aggressive behavior is not permitted; 5. Tampering with safety equipment is forbidden; 6. Causing damage on purpose or misuse of facilities on the job site is forbidden; General site safety rules, Personal behavior and conduct.
  5. 5. General Safety Requirements Duties of Employer to Protect Employees Every employer shall provide adequate preventive equipment to protect workers against the dangers of employment accidents and occupational diseases that may occur during the work, and also against fire hazards and other hazards (working at height, Chemical etc) that may result from the use of machines and other equipment.
  6. 6. General Safety Requirements Every worker shall use the protective equipment and the clothing supplied to him for this purpose, shall comply with all instructions given by the employer to protect him against hazards and shall not take any action liable to hamper compliance with such instructions. Employees obligation on safety
  7. 7. General Safety Requirements 1. Follow correct instructions, don’t take chances, if they don’t know, they should ask. 2. Correct/report unsafe conditions and help to keep everything clean and orderly. 3. Use right tools and equipment for the job, use them safely. 4. Report all injuries, get first aid promptly. 5. Use, adjust and repair equipment only when authorized. 6. Use prescribed equipment, wear safe clothing and keep them in good condition. 7. Don’t horseplay, avoid distracting others. 8. Comply with all safety rules and signs. 9. Not to intentionally or recklessly interfere with anything provided in the interest of health and safety – PPEs, Fire Extinguishers, Signages etc. Employees are obliged to …
  8. 8. General Safety Requirements Safety signs are useful tools to help protect Health & safety of us and workplace visitors. Therefore, meaning and purpose of signs to be understood and complied with. Everyone should abide by the safety signs displayed. Warning Signs Draw attention to health and safety hazards – Point out hazards that may not be obvious Prohibition Signs Indicates where certain actions are prohibited Safe Signs Provide general information and direction. Shows the location of emergency equipments SIGNS Remind us where PPEs must be used, Indicates mandatory actions Mandatory Signs
  9. 9. General Safety Requirements Personal protective equipment is a safeguard against job hazards. When used as intended along with other preventative measures, PPE minimizes or eliminates risks to employees. Other PPE shall be used as per the hazards present in your work area – Safety glasses / Face shields – Flying particles – Hand Gloves – Protection from sharp objects and chemicals – Ear muffs/ plugs – Protection against hearing loss – Dust Mask / Escape Mask – Dust, Mist, Gas Hazards – Harness – Protection from falling PPE SAFETY HELMET & SAFETY SHOES are Mandatory PPE Remember! PPE is the last line of defense before “contact.”, hence should not be considered as first option for protection
  10. 10. General Safety Requirements SMOKING REGULATION  NO SMOKING POLICY SHOULD BE ADOPTED FOR THE ENTIRE CONSTRUCTION AREA Smoking Zone:  If Reasonable & Practicable a designated SMOKING ZONE with suitable Fire Fighting equipments, Ash Drum for stubbing cigarettes butts to be provided  This SMOKING ZONE must be away from any sources of ignition. CARELESS SMOKING IS ONE OF THE MAJOR CAUSE OF FIRE
  11. 11. General Safety Requirements SITE TRAFFIC RULES SPEED LIMIT must be fixed as per the site requirements. TRAFFIC HAZARDS: TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS CLAIMS SEVERAL LIVES  No reverse policy at site (Making Round about / U Turn)  No overtake  Camel Hump – Speed Breaker  Drive defensively  Not using mobile phone while driving  Usage of Seat belts for driver as well as passenger  Never ride on construction vehicle (JCB, FLT, bobcat etc)  Following Local Traffic Rules Strictly  Care other road users while driving Other Traffic rules must be complied with. Over speeding, Unskilled drivers, Not following traffic rules etc
  12. 12. General Safety Requirements A competent security can protect property from loss by theft, fraud, fire (arson) and other form of damage. All security-men to be trained in fire fighting and emergency response. They have the right to frisk all employees, vehicles and equipment entering and leaving the site. -Verify the Employees ID card -Enforce drugs & alcohol policy, -No smoking policy at the premises. -Restrict unauthorized entry -Material incoming / outgoing Site Access & Security Visitor will have to Carry his visitor ID available with security guard.
  13. 13. General Safety Requirements Welfare Facilities at site 1. Sufficient Drinking water / Wash area 2. Adequate number of Toilet / Urinals as per legal req. 3. Dining /Rest area - well ventilated, lights, cleaned & maintained TOILET Dining area with food rack Welfare facilities at the project must be as per the total current and planned strength of the project and must meet legal requirements.
  14. 14. General Safety Requirements FIRST AID Facility  Ensure the availability of sufficient first aid medicines (First Aid Spray, Bandages, Antiseptic Solvent, eye wash, Ointments etc) and First aid equipments (Stretcher, examine table, trolleys, thermometer, eye wash station etc) as per the legal requirements  Trained and Experienced First Aid providers  First Aid Case Register (Date, Time, Name, Location, Nature of injury, Remarks etc) to be maintained for each case.  Insist and ensure that all minor / major injuries are reported to the first aid provider / Safety Dept.
  15. 15. General Safety Requirements  Never Hide any incident / accidents. Hiding incidents to avoid any blame can give chances to other similar and more severe accidents.  Never fix blame of accidents instead find the cause and take preventive actions to avoid recurrence. Types of incidents to be reported
  16. 16. General Safety Requirements 1. Stay calm, do not panic. 2. Inform your supervisor and the nearest first aid center. 3. Don’t touch the injured person if you suspect that he has been electrocuted. 4. If any material is lying on the injured person, assist others in removing it. 5. Don’t move the injured person unless it is VERY essential to do so; you may be hurting him by unnecessary movements 6. Move him only if there is further risk of injury to the casualty at the scene of accident. 7. Don’t give any drinks or food to the injured unless directed by competent persons. IN CASE OF ACCIDENT
  17. 17. General Safety Requirements 1. Daily site safety inspection 2. Weekly joint safety inspection 3. Lifting tools / tackles 4. Fire extinguishers 5. Scaffolds / ladders 6. PPE – safety harness 7. Power tools / ELCB 8. Mechanical equipment 9. Required 3rd party inspection SAFETY INSPECTIONS Safety Representative with coordination with supervisors conduct the following safety inspections which are an effective tools for proactive monitoring of OHS performance. All the inspections are to be recorded in prescribed formats and findings are being closed Line management should respond in time to close the findings of safety inspections.
  18. 18. General Safety Requirements 1. To find solutions for any HSE issues remaining unresolved during the previous months, 2. To identify the problem areas and to work out suggestions for improvement, 3. To investigate accidents incurred during the previous month and if any, to implement ways to prevent recurrence of the same in the future. 4. To decide any special safety requirements to be taken during running month arising out of the new site activities to be carried out. 5. To review the implementation of the HSE plan SAFETY MONITORING MEETING This is another proactive approach for monitoring OHS performance. It must organized on monthly basis, chaired by PM / CM. Safety Engineers / Officer should record the minutes of meeting, circulate the agenda well in advance and follow up the implementation of the minutes. Attendees: All Engineers / Foremen, Subcontractors’ Supervisors, Safety Officers Objectives
  19. 19. General Safety Requirements Training: A best techniques to motivate the employees towards safety for a positive H&S culture. General Types of trainings: 1. Safety Induction Training 2. Daily / Weekly Tool Box Talk 3. Job Specific Training 4. 3rd Party Approved Safety Training Training will give the employee a boost to his confidence while performing the task. Appropriate job skill & positive orientation of mind helps to reduce incident rate. Legal requirements – to inform significant workplace hazards and measures
  20. 20. General Safety Requirements 1. Safety Induction Training  Site location and general information of the project.  Information about key personnel at site.  Key Elements of H & S policy (A COPY TO BE DISTRIBUTED).  Duties and Responsibilities of Employers/Employees.  Safety Awareness talks/Tool box talks.  Importance of PPE (Safety Harness/Hard Hat/Safety Shoe/Hand Gloves/Ear Plugs/ Goggles etc).  Emergency Procedures and reporting system in case of FIRE/ACCIDENT.  Welfare facilities on site -FIRST AID ROOM/LUNCH ROOM/REST ROOM/CANTEEN/ WATER COOLERS/WASHING AREA/ TOILETS/ URINALS etc.  Protection of employees and others from the hazardous activities such as:  Plant, Machineries & Equipments.  Working at Heights- Shuttering/de- shuttering  Scaffoldings/ladders/ Scissor Lift / Boom Loader  Concreting / Roof work/ plastering/ painting/ block work etc.  Electricity- Power tools  Hand Tools/Cartridge and pneumatic power tools.  Lifting Tools and Tackles.  PTW System  Handling/ storage of Hazardous material in construction  (COSHH).  Reporting of Unsafe Acts/ Conditions/ Near misses.  Fire prevention/Location of Fire extinguisher/ Emergency  Assembly point.  Information signs/ warning signs and their meanings in different languages.  Safety Motivation schemes.  Prohibition and restrictions on Photography, Horseplay, fighting, sleeping, smoking, alcohol and drugs.  Vehicle entry and site security procedure.  Other project specific Instructions SafetyInductionTraining-Contents All the employees to receive a detailed HSE induction training which includes site safety rules, site specific hazards, emergency procedures and key contacts. An induction sticker along with ID card should be issued to each employee after induction training.
  22. 22. General Safety Requirements  Reinforcing safe behavior in the minds of employees, by means of positive motivational schemes, is a vital factor in any management system to sustain their interest.  It increases the awareness, interest, and willingness of employees to act in ways that increase their personal safety, and that of co-workers, and that support an organization’s stated goals and objectives  The use of incentives, awards, certification, and recognition to motivate employees to perform safely is an established tool. Motivation Techniques – Incentive Scheme Incentives are rewards with some strings attached, commonly known as the carrot and stick approach
  23. 23. General Safety Requirements A major responsibility of line management, with the safety & health professional’s assistance, is to motivate workers to follow safe practices & procedures. Motivation – Incentive Scheme Supervisors Duty:  Ensure your under working employees have attended all required safety training / toolbox meetings  Encourage them to give suggestion / report nearmiss/ accidents /  Discourage Unsafe Actions Criteria for Safety Incentive Scheme
  24. 24. General Safety Requirements Safety Day / Safety Award Ceremony Individual project and their team can be awarded with Safety Trophy. The award must be decided based on the HSE performance rating which can be evaluated through effective HSE Audit procedures. This award can be celebrated among the project team. Safety Quiz, Contest, Safety Exhibition can be organized and winners can be rewarded.
  25. 25. General Safety Requirements While we believe that Health and Safety at work places can be achieved through Engineering Control, Educating the workforce and Encouraging safe practices. We also ensure to discourage unsafe practices and violations through appropriated disciplinary actions for the violators/offenders. Tools to discourage unsafe behaviors - Verbal Warning - Written Warning Notice - Wage deduction - Suspension from site for the period less than 10 days Motivation - Disciplinary action
  26. 26. General Safety Requirements 1. Smoking at undesignated smoking zone 2. Employee at site without Safety Induction 3. Employee without Safety shoe & Helmet 4. Employees not using task specific PPE 5. Unauthorized person working on equipment 6. Person on unsafe/incomplete scaffold 7. Working/standing @ unsafe height/edge 8. Failure to follow Permit-To-Work system 9. Tool Box Talk not conducted 10. Equipment use without 3rd party inspection 11. Horseplay or Manhandling 12. Over-speeding while driving vehicle in site 13. Mis-handling of Safety equipments 14. Failure to report Incident or Near-miss 15. Eating/sleeping/resting @ un-defined areas 16. Urinating at places other than toilets. Commonly observed safety violations
  28. 28. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS COMMON HAZARDS PRESENT AT SITE 1. Housekeeping 2. Fire 3. Working at height  Ladders ,  Scaffold,  Fall protection while work at height  MEWP 4. Electrical safety 5. Lifting & rigging 6. Manual Handling 7. Environmental hazards
  29. 29. 1. HOUSEKEEPING 1. Include the removal of generated debris from the area in the activity itself. 2. Ensure that the access are clear from any obstruction, 3. Material should be stacked adequately. 4. Adequate number of waste skip, food waste bins, chemical waste area to be maintained at site. 5. The construction waste should be removed from the site on regular basis. 6. Depute a dedicate housekeeping team for common areas. A Place for everything and everything is in its place. Poor housekeeping is a major cause of slips, trips and falls. A tidy site and workplace means: You can • get to your place of work more easily and quickly. • work efficiently • find your tools and materials easily How to maintain good housekeeping? WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS
  30. 30. 2. FIRE  FIRE is a big hazard at construction site, it kills and injuries people, destroys property and may seriously disrupt production and the construction process.  Practical steps can be taken to prevent and minimize the risk of fire in the site. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS A composition of Fuel, oxygen and heat is set out as Fire
  32. 32. FIRE - cause WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS 1. Hot work– Welding, Cutting etc. 2. Overheating of machineries 3. Electric short circuit and overloading 4. Improper storage of Flammable & Combustible liquids 5. Poor Housekeeping 6. Careless Smoking 7. Arson Poor safety practices cause FIRE
  33. 33. 1. Adequate Fire Safety training 2. Effective PTW for all hot work 3. Good maintenance of electrical equipments 4. Restriction of smoking. 5. Sufficient Fire Points 6. Deputing competent security to avoid ARSON 7. Good housekeeping, Proper storage and clean up of combustible and flammable liquids 8. Regular FIRE Safety inspection in site and camps. FIRE - Prevention WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS EVERY EMPLOYEE & VISITORS MUST KNOW The department / Area emergency procedures and evacuation routes / Fire Exit. Locations of extinguishers in your area and How to use The location of FIRE ALRAM & How to raise the ALRAM The local Emergency Contacts – FIRE 997, Police-999, Ambulance - 998 The location of Assembly point
  34. 34. FIRE - Fighting WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS A Class Fire (solid ) - Free burning materials, paper, wood, plastics etc B Class Fire ( Liquid- Hydrocarbon ) - petrol, diesel, kerosene etc. C Class Fire (Gas ) – LPG, Acetylene, methane, hydrogen etc D Class Fire (Metal) - potassium, sodium, magnesium etc. E Class Fire-( Electrical Hazards) - energized electrical equipment. As long as it’s “plugged in.” FIRE CLASS FIRE EXTINGUISHER
  35. 35. Know How to use Fire Extinguishers – P A S S WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Know Fire Emergency Response– R A C E R – “Rescue” any person/s in immediate danger (only if safe to do so) A – “Alarm” Raise the alarm & follow emergency procedure C – “Contain” Close doors / windows to contain the FIRE E – “Extinguish” attempt to extinguish the fire
  36. 36. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS FIRE – Emergency Evacuation Need for a systematic Fire Evacuation Plan & Fire Drill? Inadequate Fire Training may leads to this
  37. 37. General Safety Requirements ON DISCOVERY OF FIRE FOLLOWING ACTION WILL BE TAKEN IMMEDIATELY 1. Stay calm, do not panic. 2. Shout FIRE, FIRE and raise alarm. 3. Inform others who may be in danger. 4. Shut down your equipment safely 5. With the minimum of personal risk, attack the FIRE 6. In the event that the fire can not be extinguished, evacuate the building using one of the designated “Exit” routes and go to nearest “ASSEMBLY POINT” 7. Inform Safety Dept / PM / CM DO NOT USE LIFT/HOIST. DO NOT RE-ENTER THE AREA UNLESS DECLARED SAFE. FIRE – Emergency Evacuation
  38. 38. 3.Working at Height  Working at height is always a high-risk activity.  Falls are the largest cause of accidental death in the construction industry  It needs to be avoided by provision of suitable access equipment being properly used. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS It means work in any place, including a place at or below ground level or when a person is accessing or exiting from such a place (except via a staircase in a permanent workplace) where if regulatory measures are not taken, a person could fall a distance likely to cause personal injury. Most of Fall accidents occurred due to fall from less height
  39. 39. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS a. Fall of person  Falls from a higher level  Falls to a lower level  Falls to the same level  Slips / Trips b. Fall of material  Throwing tool, Fall from unprotected edge / openings Working at height - Hazards Cause of Fall Hazards:  From Ladders,  Through gaps or holes in working platforms (Scaffold etc),  From unprotected edge of floor or floor opening  Through fragile materials and whilst accessing areas.
  40. 40. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Working at Height- Hazards Collapse of scaffold Fall from Ladder Fall from Scaffold Fall of materials Fall from unprotected edge Leading cause of accident
  41. 41. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS 1. Do not work at height unless it is essential; 2. Ensure that the working platform is  Secure & Stable;  Footed on stable ground/support/structure;  support the weight of those persons using it and any materials; and  There is adequate working space to undertake the work; 3. Ensure that all open edges are protected by use of guard rails, barriers, etc. 4. Ensure suitable fall protection and give priority to collective Fall Protection over personal. Working at height - Prevention Prevention of Falls:
  42. 42. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Scaffolds An elevated, temporary work platform. Scaffolds – Hazards & Cause 1. Collapse of scaffolds – Missing tie / Bracing, Inadequate foundation 2. Fall from scaffolds – Unguarded work platforms, Damaged planks, gaps 3. Fall of materials – Missing toe boards / Gaps in platform, Over height of materials at edge, loose materials at unprotected edge
  43. 43. 1. Erected, modified and dismantled by competent scaffolders only. 2. Erected on firm ground available with sole plate and base plate. 3. Safe means of access and egress 4. Fully planked Scaffold platform and at least 600mm in width. 5. Suitably tied with the structure 6. All platforms with guard rails (Top Rail, Mid Rail), and toe board 7. All four side Bracing 8. Scafftag to identify safe & unsafe scaffolding Competent person should formally inspect scaffolding after initial erection, after significant alteration, after any destabilizing event, and at least once 7 days SAFE UNSAFE WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS What make a SAFE and Complete Scaffolds
  44. 44. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS What make a SAFE and Complete Scaffolds
  45. 45. Mounted on castor wheels and are hazardous. 1. Erected, modified and dismantled by competent scaffolders only. 2. Height of the mobile tower shall not exceed 4 times the smallest base width. 3. Use outriggers in accordance with manufacturer 4. Used only on firm, level, clean surfaces. 5. Moved on leveled surfaces only by pushing or pulling or both. 6. Provision of internal ladder with trap door. For Rolling the scaffold: 1. Make sure that the path is clear, no material/person on the platform. Then unlock the wheels to push the scaffold 2. Apply the force no more than five feet above the ground. 3. Re-Lock the wheels when move ends / scaffold is stationary What make a Safe Mobile Scaffolding:- Scaffold casters and wheels shall be locked before any one is allowed to work on the platform. These casters shall be capable of supporting the safe working load of the scaffold. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Mobile Scaffolds
  46. 46. Moving Tower with person/ material on it. Overloading of Scaffold Platform Frame used as access Missing Brick Guard causes material fall Mobile Scaffolds WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Major cause of mobile scaffold accidents
  47. 47. Ladder should be used as a means of access and for short period of work. 1. The angle - between 65 – 750 to the horizontal (1 : 4) ‘four up, one down’ 2. Extend at least 1 m ( 3 ft) above the step-off point. 3. Must be tied at the level of the platform. 4. Firm & fitted with a non-slippery foot hold. 5. No rung should be missing. 6. Rungs / step shall be clear of oil / grease etc., What make a safe ladder:- WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Ladders - Avoid working off a ladder for long time - Secure top & bottom of ladder when using as access of platform - Make sure that only one person at a time is on the ladder. - Don’t carry materials in your hand while using ladders
  48. 48. Many falls occur while ascending to / or descending from the ladder Maintain three point contacts two hands & one foot or two feet & one hand. Face the ladder when ascending or descending. Safe method for getting on / off ladder – 3 Points Contact Rule Clean muddy or slippery footwear, check the rung for slippery surface Don't use makeshift ladder.Don’t use metal ladder near energized electrical equipments Don’t stretch or reach beyond the side rails of ladder. Never stand any higher than the third step from the top of a ladder. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Ladders
  49. 49. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Edge Protection means a barrier erected to prevent employees from falling to lower levels. 1. Must withstand 200 pound force 2. Constructed by competent team 3. Constructed of suitable materials – Steel Pipes, Steel Wire ropes 4. Tied and anchored using standard means – Post , U- clamps
  50. 50. Examples of Edge Protection WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Using 10mm wire rope – 3 lines GI Pipes, Vertical Posts, Timber as Toe board Using timber Combined with table formwork
  51. 51. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS UNSAFE SAFE While Form work After Slab concreting
  52. 52. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS UNSAFE SAFE Floor openings – MEP openings Lift Shaft openings
  53. 53. ERECTION OF SECONDARY BEAMS Access Ladder Fully boarded platforms LIFE LINES ERECTION WITH ATLEAST THREE CLAMP WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Fall protection while formwork Means of access, Fully boarded platform Use of Safety harness with anchorage 100% tie off by using twin lanyard Edge Protection fixed with Table Form
  54. 54. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Fall protection while Steel Structure work Additional Hazards - Fall of structure, Crush in between two steel members, Complex to provide fall protection 1. Secured steel members 2. Fixed / Rolling scaffolds or MEWP (Mobile Elevated Platform) such cherry picker, Scissor lift to be used. 3. Provision of Safe access and egress 4. Provision of life line for anchoring harness 5. Use of Safety harness with anchorage 6. Safety Nets 7. Edge protection after sheeting work
  55. 55. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Fall protection while roof work More workers fall to their deaths from, or through, roofs. Fragile area, slopes are additional hazards, while working at roof (height). 1. Means of access, roof ladders 2. Provision of lifelines at work area 3. Use of Safety harness with anchorage 4. Safety Nets 5. Edge protection / Warnings 6. Closed / Guarded openings – Skylights etc
  56. 56. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Fall arrest system PFAS – Safety Harness, Self retractors etc CFAS – Safety Net , Fans , Air bags, Edge protection system PFAS: means a system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level. It consists: an anchorage, connectors, Dee Ring, a body belt or body harness and may include a lanyard, deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations of these. Connector Dee Ring Harness Lanyard Self retractor – Deceleration Device Grab system – Vertical lifeline
  57. 57. Effective January 1, 1998, body belts were prohibited as a fall arrest device. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Fall arrest system  What all do we consider before using PFAS?  Free-Fall Distance  Total Fall Distance  Anchorage Point Strength and Location Therefore, a. Anchor the harness above your shoulder height with a strong anchor point which can sustain your weight. b. provision of suitable anchorage points c. Training on how to use PFAS The anchor point must be able to support at least 5000 pounds.
  58. 58. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Fall of materials Cause –  Throwing tool, Use of unsafe tools,  Unsafe Scaffolds - Missing toe boards / Gaps in platform, Over height of materials at edge,  Loose materials at unprotected edge Prevention– 1. Use of safe tools 2. Restricting throw of tools and materials 3. Use of tool pouch & tool lanyard 4. Use of ropes with bucket to get material at higher level. 5. Safe scaffolds with toe guard & edge protection 6. Keeping materials away from leading edges
  59. 59. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS MEWP Such as Telescopic boom - Cherry pickers, scissor lifts, etc. 1. Trained competent and physically capable operator 2. Six monthly inspections by 3RD Party. 3. Must be used on level, stable ground. 4. Fully Extended Outriggers 5. Follow SWL (Safe work load) 6. Regular maintenance as per supplier instructions 7. The user of any MEWP must inspect the safety critical items before each use - tyres, brakes, alarms, hydraulics, and any other critical systems. 8. Operators and passengers must wear a full body harness and have this clipped securely to the platform at all times. It is prohibited to leave the basket at any time whilst elevated. Planks, ladders etc should not be used to gain extra reach or height. are designed to provide a temporary working platform which can be easily moved from one location to another.
  61. 61. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Electrical Safety The hazard of electricity includes Burn, Shock, Arc, FIRE and Electrocution. The dangers are particularly increased where electrical equipment is used to adverse conditions, on site in wet or damp areas, or where voltage is more lethal. Causes of Electrical Failure 1. Damaged Insulation, Poor cable routing, 2. Inadequate over-current protection (fuses, RCDs etc) 3. Inadequate earthling 4. Overheated apparatus 5. Earth leakage current 6. Loose contacts and connectors, 7. Unprotected connectors 8. Overloading, 9. Improper ELCBs, 10. Incompetent workers, Unauthorized repair, 11. Carelessness and complacency 12. Poor maintenance and testing 13. working in wet areas, improper sockets, Electricity is another major hazard which can injure, kill and destroy company assets, and also is often the main source of FIRE
  62. 62. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Electrical Safety
  63. 63. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Electrical Safety - Prevention 1. Avoid “live” working 2. Ensure good insulation / enclosure of live conductors 3. Isolation (LOTO) and earthing of conductors 4. ELCBs on 30 mA tripping current rating. 5. Maintain a safe distance from live conductors 6. Maintenance and testing 7. Suitable selection of equipment (Cables, Industrial Sockets etc) 8. Avoid overloading – implement one plug – one socket 9. Maintenance, testing and Inspection (Power tools, DBs etc) 10. Avoid cable under water / oil – Cable route management, 11. Rain hood for DBs 12. Competent Electricians -Only authorized repairs 13. Sufficient training and supervision DON’T Operate switches with hands wet with water or flammable materials.
  64. 64. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Lifting & Rigging The hazard of electricity includes Overturn of Crane, Collision with structure, Overhead Electrical Hazards, Load fail, Material damage, Personal injury etc Causes of Crane Failure 1. Untrained Operator & Signalmen 2. Poor condition of Cranes and lifting tools 3. Not following manufacturer instructions 4. Not following Load Limit – SWL 5. Overloading - Placing crane on uneven surface. 6. Poor communication between crane operator and signalmen 7. Improper slinging 8. Coming under suspended load 9. Swinging of loads – non use of tagline 10. Dragging / Pulling loads using crane 11. Not maintaining regular maintenance and inspection schedule 12. Working in adverse weather condition – High wind speed The cranes are widely used in construction industries for material handling – lifting & shifting
  65. 65. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Lifting & Rigging
  66. 66. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Lifting & Rigging Prevention 1. Comply with the manufacturer's specifications 2. Follow safe work load – load capacity, angle according to load chart 3. Valid 3rd party certification for all lifting tools – Crane, Slings, Shackles etc 4. Trained crane operator and dedicated signalmen for each crane 5. Hand signals those prescribed by ANSI standard for the type of crane in use. 6. Competent person inspect all machinery and equipment:  prior to each use,  and during use, 7. Must be uniformly leveled and located on firm footing. 8. Riggers should check load, centre of gravity, use correct slings, softeners where necessary 9. Respect the weather condition – Wind speed Only one man should give signal. If hand signal is not visible to operator Walkie talkie can be used.
  67. 67. Tandem Lift – Where two cranes used to lift a major structure WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Tandem Lift – Decrease 25% of total SWL of two cranes
  68. 68. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Use tagline to control the loads Stay away from slings when they are being pulled out Know the Sling Capacity - SWL Do not stand under suspended load
  69. 69. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Manual Handling The hazard of Manual handling includes Low back pain, Hand injuries, Slip & Trip etc Causes 1. Improper lifting 2. Twist & Jerk 3. Overweight of loads 4. Bulky loads 5. Insufficient Environment – Lighting, Floors, Steps, Access 6. Awkward position Back Injuries are the 2nd-most common workplace problem Prevention Carrying the load 1. Hold the load close so you can see over it. 2. Keep the load balanced. 3. Avoid twisting the body 4. Watch out for pinch points -- doorways, etc. 5. Face the way you will be moving.
  70. 70. WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Manual Handling Prevention 1. Plan the lift. 2. Know the weight of the material to be lifted. 3. Use mechanical aids wherever possible. 4. If load is heavy or awkward - get help. 5. Adopt a good posture to keep the back straight. 6. Get a firm grip of the load. 7. Carry out lifting movement smoothly. Do not jerk,. 8. Move the feet- don’t twist the trunk. 9. Keep the load close to the trunk. 10.Position feet, shoulder width apart, giving a balanced and stable base for lifting. 11.Wear PPE.
  71. 71. Plan the Lift Get Help if Needed. Lift With the Legs WORKPLACE HAZARDS & SOLUTIONS Lift With the Legs -- NOT THE BACK. Carry the load Correct Manual Handling Get Help with heavy or awkward loads! Use the right tools!
  72. 72. Quiz 1. LIST Two mandatory PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) required to wear while entering site? 2m 2. Write THREE Kind of incidents needs to be reported? – 3m 3. What are the THREE components of Fire Triangle? -3m 4. What is P A S S / What is R A C E 4m – It is related to FIRE 5. What are the TWO Major hazards while working at height ? – 2m 6. What makes a SAFE SCAFFOLDS, Write any FOUR? / Write FOUR preventive measures while using Crane for Lifting? 4m 7. Write THREE don'ts of Mobile Scaffolds? / THREE don'ts of LADDER? 6m 8. T / F – Safety Belt can be used instead of Safety Harness -2m 9. T / F – We should always Lift load with our legs not with the back – 2m 10. T / F – At a time from one location 2 or more person can give signals to crane operator. 2m
  73. 73. Answer 1. Safety Helmet and Safety Shoes 2. Fire, First Aid Case, Property Damage 3. Oxygen, Fuel, Sources of ignition 4. P A S S – Pull the pin, Aim Low, Squeeze handle, Sweep side by side. / R A C E – Rescue, Alarm, Contain, Extinguish 5. Fall from height, fall of materials 6. What makes a SAFE SCAFFOLDS, Write any FOUR? a. Erected, modified and dismantled by competent scaffolders only. b. Erected on firm ground available with sole plate and base plate. c. Safe means of access and egress d. Fully planked Scaffold platform and at least 600mm in width. e. Suitably tied with the structure f. All platforms with guard rails (Top Rail, Mid Rail), and toe board g. All four side Bracing h. Scafftag to identify safe & unsafe scaffolding
  74. 74. Answer / Write FOUR preventive measures while using Crane for Lifting? Any four a. Comply with the manufacturer's specifications b. Follow safe work load – load capacity, angle according to load chart c. Valid 3rd party certification for all lifting tools – Crane, Slings, Shackles etc d. Trained crane operator and dedicated signalmen for each crane e. Hand signals those prescribed by ANSI standard for the type of crane in use. f. Competent person inspect all machinery and equipment:  prior to each use,  and during use, g. Must be uniformly leveled and located on firm footing. h. Riggers should check load, centre of gravity, use correct slings, softeners where necessary i. Respect the weather condition – Wind speed 7. Write THREE don'ts of Mobile Scaffolds? - Don’t move mobile scaffold with person / material on it - Don’t overload the mobile scaffold - Don’t use frame as access
  75. 75. / THREE don'ts of LADDER? a. Never stand any higher than the third step from the top of a ladder. b. Don’t stretch or reach beyond the side rails of ladder. c. Don’t use metal ladder near energized electrical equipments d. Don’t use makeshift ladders 8. T / F – Safety Belt can be used instead of Safety Harness -FALSE 9. T / F – We should always Lift load with our legs not with the back – TRUE 10. T / F – At a time from one location 2 or more person can give signals to crane operator. FALSE Answer
  76. 76. END OF SESSION 2