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BIBFRAMEing for Non-BIBFRAMErs: An Introduction to Current and Future Cataloging Practices

Kevin Balster, presenter
Cataloging standards are rapidly changing. Many libraries have just recently begun cataloging in RDA, and now an even larger change looms on the horizon - BIBFRAME! This session, intended for non-catalogers, will provide a brief overview of the recent and upcoming changes in cataloging standards and how they all fit together. It will also cover how cataloging tools and practices may adapt or change in order to incorporate the new standards.

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BIBFRAMEing for Non-BIBFRAMErs: An Introduction to Current and Future Cataloging Practices

  2. 2. Current Cataloging Environment •Content Standards: RDA, AACR2, DACS, DCRM, other community guidelines (e.g., OLAC, MLA, CONSER), etc. •Encoding Standards: MARC 21, EAD, Dublin Core, MODS, MADS, VRA Core,, etc. •Exchange Formats: MARC 21, RDF, etc.
  3. 3. What’s Wrong with MARC? •Library specific format •Stuck data •Repetitive entry of shared metadata •MARC Must Die – Roy Tennant
  4. 4. MARC BIBFRAME •Bibliographic Framework Initiative (BIBFRAME) • Initially developed by Zepheira for the Library of Congress • Intended to replace MARC 21
  5. 5. What is BIBFRAME? •Vocabulary built on the Resource Description Framework (RDF) •Terms describing the Libraries/Archives/Museum world •Allows our data to live in a Linked Data environment
  6. 6. Down the Rabbit Hole (RDF) •Simple statements to express relationships (AKA Triples) •Best used with Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) •The essential piece of Linked Data (Subject) (Predicate) (Object) Fahrenheit 451 written by Ray Bradbury <> <> <>
  7. 7. Further Down the Rabbit Hole (Linked Data) •Data encoded in RDF, using global identifiers •Published online, supporting use with data from other sources Library Land Wikipedia Fahrenheit 451 written by Ray Bradbury Ray Bradbury <http://…> <http://…> <>
  8. 8. BIBFRAME Model vs. FRBR (RDA) Model
  9. 9. BIBFRAME Developments •Version 2.0 •Library of Congress Tools: MARC to BIBFRAME Conversion Specifications/Comparison Viewer •Upcoming Tool: BIBFRAME Editor •Library of Congress BIBFRAME Pilot Phase 2 •Zepheira:
  10. 10. Future Cataloging •No direct cataloging in encoding format (i.e., none of this) •Browser interface with material profiles
  11. 11. Description Mapping Generic, Granular Description MARC 21 BIBFRAME DublinCore
  12. 12. The Very Near Future of MARC 21 •Necessary to map legacy data •Not all data will be turned into linked data •Not all libraries will (be able to) make the switch •Workflows depend on it!
  13. 13. The FRBR Family •IFLA Library Reference Model (LRM) • Resolves inconsistencies between FR models • Drastic changes to serials • RDA to be frozen August 2017-April 2018 (3R Project)
  14. 14. FRBR vs. LRM Serial work FRBR LRM Expression Expression Manifestation Manifestation Manifestation Serial work Expression Manifestation Serial work Expression Manifestation Serial work Expression Manifestation
  15. 15. Exchange Formats in Action •MARC 21 & RDF: • Easily exchanged and interpreted • Elements have universal and (relatively) persistent meaning •MARC 21: • Natural state: Record • Innate mechanisms for version control and provenance • “Over-shares” •RDF (i.e., BIBFRAME) • Natural state: Triple • Lacks self describing metadata • “Tight lipped”
  16. 16. RDF Questioning •Who created the statement about the thing? (provenance) • Based on what information? (authoritativeness) •Did anybody ever make a different statement about the thing? (version control)
  17. 17. Linked Data Technical Infrastructure •Triplestores •Named graphs •Triple registries
  18. 18. Next Steps •In need of specialized cataloging communities • BIBFRAME still being updated • Best practices for BIBFRAME & LRM •In need of vendors, programmers, and IT folks • Linked Data technological infrastructure
  19. 19. Thank You Kevin Balster ERM/Continuing Resources Metadata Librarian UCLA Cataloging & Metadata Center 310-825-1936
  20. 20. Sources & Other Readings •Roy Tennant, “MARC Must Die,” Library Journal October 15, 2002, •“Semantic Web,” World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), •“MARC 21 to BIBFRAME 2.0 Conversion Specifications,” Library of Congress, •“BIBFRAME Comparison Tool,” Library of Congress, ttl •MacKenzie Smith, Carl G. Stahmer, Xiaoli Li, and Gloria Gonzalez, “BIBFLOW: A Roadmap for Library Linked Data Transition,” •Pat Riva, Patrick Le Bœuf, Maja Žumer, editors, “IFLA Library Reference Model,” March 2017 version, International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, •James Hennelly and Judy Kuhagen, “3R Project,” Presentation for the RDA Steering Committee, May 16, 2017,
  21. 21. Image Sources •RDA Toolkit: •MARC 21 Format for Bibliographic Data (245 field): •Overview of the BIBFRAME 2.0 Model: model.html •Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records, Final Report: •Zepheira BIBFRAME Scribe: •OCLC Connexion •BIBFLOW: A Roadmap for Library Linked Data Transition: