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Sustainable Tourism Chapter 1

Semester 4, tourism management

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Sustainable Tourism Chapter 1

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 SUSTAINABLE TOURISM
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Is not a new form of tourism product. Arise from awareness of the management toward uncontrollable usage of tourism resources.It’s one of the management approach in managing tourism development. Learning about the impacts of tourism has led many people to seek more responsible holidays. Are applicable to all forms of tourism in all types of destinations
  3. 3. Continue…….. Introduce in early 80’s Implication from ‘green development approach’ Based on ‘Sustainable Development’ concept Butler (1993)- prefer to used ‘Sustainable Tourism Development’ Were practice widely in 1990’s – ‘Globe 90’ convention at Vancouver, Canada Try to solve problem that arise from ‘mass-tourism’ Supporting ‘alternative tourism’ and ‘eco-tourism’
  4. 4. Continue……… Hunter (1995) : Sustainable Tourism Development (STD) should: ● meet the needs and wants of the local host community in terms of improved living standards and quality of life ● satisfy the demands of tourists and the tourism industry, and continue to attract them in order to meet the first aim; and, ● safeguard the environmental resource base for tourism, encompassing natural, built and cultural components; in order to achieve both the preceding aims.
  5. 5. Continue……… WTO (2004) : Sustainable Tourism Development (STD) should: Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance
  6. 6. Continue……… WTO (2004) : Sustainable Tourism Development (STD) should: Ensure viable, long-term economic operations, providing socio-economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities, and contributing to poverty alleviation. Should also maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and ensure a meaningful experience to the tourists, raising their awareness about sustainability issues and promoting sustainable tourism practices amongst them.
  7. 7. WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT? Brundtland Report…….. “Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) 1987,p.43)
  8. 8. Continue……… It contains within it two key concepts: the concept of needs, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and the idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs."
  9. 9. WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE TOURISM? Brundtland Report…….. “Sustainable Tourism is tourism that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) 1987,p.43)
  10. 10. Continue……… “Sustainable tourism development requires the informed participation of all relevant stakeholders, as well as strong political leadership to ensure wide participation and consensus building. Achieving sustainable tourism is a continuous process and it requires constant monitoring of impacts, introducing the necessary preventive and/or corrective measures whenever necessary. Sustainable tourism should also maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and ensure a meaningful experience to the tourists, raising their awareness about sustainability issues and promoting sustainable tourism practices amongst them. “ World Tourism Organization, 2004
  11. 11. Continue……… These include various forms of alternative or sustainable tourism such as: ‘nature- based tourism’, ‘ecotourism’ and ‘cultural tourism’. Sustainable tourism is becoming so popular that some say that what we presently call ‘alternative’ will be the ‘mainstream’ in a decade. All tourism activities of whatever motivation – holidays, business travel, conferences, adventure travel and ecotourism – need to be sustainable. Sustainable tourism is the concept of visiting a place as a tourist and trying to make only a positive impact on the environment, society and economy. A key aspect is respect for the people who call the location home, the culture and customs of the area, and the socio-economic system.
  12. 12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT & SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Sustainable Development are applicable to all forms of tourism.. Sustainable Development ensure the tourism resources are sustain.
  13. 13. Continue………
  14. 14. PRINCIPLES OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Ecological Sustainability • The need to avoid or minimize the environmental impact of tourist activity. Social Sustainability • The ability of community, whether local or national to absorb inputs, such as extra people, for short or long periods of time, and to continue functioning either without the creation of social disharmony as a result of these inputs or by adapting its functions and relationships so that the disharmony created can be mitigated. Culture Sustainability • The mores of interaction, the styles of life, the customs and traditions are all subject to change through the introduction of visitors with different habits, styles, customs and means of exchange. The culture may be irreversibly altered.
  15. 15. Continue……… Economic Sustainability A level of economic gain from activity sufficient either cover the cost of any special measures taken to cater the tourist and to mitigate the effects of the tourist presence or to offer an income appropriate to the inconvenience caused to the local community visited. The Education Element The difference between the new forms of tourism and conventional tourism is found in an element of educational input into the activity. Local Participation Local participation in sustainable tourism. Six different types of participation ranging from passive participation to self mobilization. The Conservation Element Add the conservation element to protect tourism destinations.
  16. 16. BENEFITS OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Preserve tourism resources To ensure equilibrium of ecosystem To increase participation from host community To improve host community quality of life To increase level of tourist satisfaction
  17. 17. TOOLS OF SUSTAINABILITY INDUSTRY REGULATION VISITOR MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AREA PROTECTION CARRYING CAPACITY CALCULATIONS CONSULTATION / PARTICIPATION TECHNIQUES CODES OF CONDUCT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA) SUSTAINABILITY INDICATORS Martin Mowforth and Ian Munt (Tourism And Sustainablity, 2003)
  18. 18. Continue……… • A scenic or historically important area of countryside protected by the federal government for the enjoyment of the general public or the preservation of wildlife. National park • An area of land that is protected and managed in order to preserve a particular type of habitat and its flora and fauna which are often rare or endangered. Wildlife reserves • Areas comprising terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems. Each reserve promotes solutions reconciling the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. Biosphere reserves • An area designated for people to visit and enjoy recreation in a countryside environment. Country park AreaProtection
  19. 19. Continue……… • An area of countryside in England, Wales or Northern Ireland which has been designated for conservation due to its significant landscape value. Area of outstanding natural beauty (AONB) • Are the basic building block of site-based nature conservation legislation and most other legal nature/geological conservation designations in the United Kingdom are based upon them, including national nature reserves, Ramsar sites, Special Protection Areas, and Special Areas of Conservation. Sites of special scientific interest Cont……..AreaProtection
  20. 20. Continue……… Government legislation is law which has been promulgated (or "enacted") by a legislature or other governing body or the process of making it. Professional association regulations is usually a non profit organization seeking to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession and the public interest. IndustryRegulation
  21. 21. Continue……… International regulation and control Voluntary self- regulation Corporate social responsibility refers to business practices involving initiatives that benefit society. A business's CSR can encompass a wide variety of tactics, from giving away a portion of a company's proceeds to charity, to implementing "greener" business operations. Industry Regulation
  22. 22. Continue……… Zoning The principal method used to deploy visitors and hence it is critical in achieving the appropriate combination of concentration and dispersal. Designed to allocate geographical areas for specific levels and intensities of human activities and of conservation. Honey pots A location attracting a large number of tourists who, due to their numbers, place pressure on the environment and local people. Honeypots are frequently used by cities or countries to manage their tourism industry. Visitor dispersion The action or process of distributing tourist over a wide area. Channelled visitor flow Designed to regulate the way visitors access at surrounding area to avoid the environmental destruction. Restricted entry Use limit are direct restrictions on the number of people that may enter a recreation area. Vehicle restriction Manage and regulate vehicle use in parks to conserve nature and to ensure the ecologically sustainable. Differential pricing structures Involves establishing two or more prices for the same recreation opportunity to maximize income. VisitorManagementTechniques
  23. 23. Continue……… ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT ( EIA ) Overlays Matrices Mathematical models Cost-benefit analysis ( COBA ) The materials balance model The planning balance sheet Rapid rural appraisal Geographic information system (GIS ) Environmental auditing Eco-labelling and certification
  24. 24. Continue……… Carrying Capacity Calculations  Physical carrying capacity  Ecological carrying capacity  Social carrying capacity  Environmental carrying capacity  Real carrying capacity  Effective or permissible carrying capacity  Limits of acceptable change (LACs) Consultation / Participation Techniques  Meeting  Public attitude surveys  Stated preference surveys  Contingent Valuation Method  The Delphi technique Codes of Conduct  For the tourist  For the industry  For the host - Government - Communities  Best practice example Sustainability Indicators  Resource use  Waste  Local production  Access to basic human needs  Access to facilities  Freedom from violence and oppression  Access to decision-making process  Diversity of natural and culture life  Holiday foot printing
  25. 25. PUSH FACTORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Factors pushing the tourism industry towards sustainable development An increase in regulatory pressure and awareness of cost savings from prudent resource consumption Awareness by governments and businesses that growth in tourism could threaten some of the world’s pristine environments and prime destinations Tourism professionals now consider environmental quality essential to the delivery of their product
  26. 26. Continue……… Sustainable tourism is poorly defined in practical terms Sustainability issues are not a key factor in tourist decision making The industry is fragmented, mainly comprised of small businesses who do not consider environmental issues a priority A belief that generic certification programmes do not address the specific needs of the tourism industry Reasons the travel and tourism industry was slow to respond to the sustainable development agenda
  27. 27. CONCLUSION 1) Make optimal use of environmental resources that constitute a key element in tourism development, maintaining essential ecological processes and helping to conserve natural heritage and biodiversity. 2) Respect the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, conserve their built and living cultural heritage and traditional values, and contribute to inter-cultural understanding and tolerance. 3) Ensure viable, long-term economic operations, providing socio- economic benefits to all stakeholders that are fairly distributed, including stable employment and income-earning opportunities and social services to host communities, and contributing to poverty alleviation.

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