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Research Design (Research Types, Quantitative Research Design and Qualitative Research Design)


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An overview of Research Design: Definition, Classification of Research Design, Experimental Research Design, Non Experimental Research Design, Qualitative Research Design, Quantitative Research Design.

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Research Design (Research Types, Quantitative Research Design and Qualitative Research Design)

  1. 1. RESEARCH DESIGN Nuzhath Alam Associate Professor 1Alam Nuzhathalam
  2. 2. Introduction: ▪ Research approach and research design are two terms that are frequently used interchangeably. ▪ A research design is the frame work or guide used for the planning, implementation, and analysis of a study. ▪ It is a systematic plan of what is to be done, how it will be done, how the data will be analyzed. ▪ Research design basically provides an outline of how the research will be carried out and methods that will be used. 2Alam Nuzhathalam
  3. 3. Definition: ➢ A research design is a broad plan that states objectives of research project and provides the guidelines what is to be done to realise those objectives. ➢ It is a plan structured and strategy of investigation of answering the research question ➢ It is a over all plan or blue print, the researcher select to carry out their study. ➢ It is a master plan for executing a research project. Purpose: ◦ To provide answer to the research question ◦ To control the variants 3Alam Nuzhathalam
  4. 4.  Time ◦ Frequency (How often, when observation done)  Setting ◦ Natural or laboratory setting  Subject ◦ Individual who take part in study or who will be observed  Variables ◦ Focus on study  Investigator Role ◦ In some condition unobstructive, or allocate participant to different condition. 4Alam Nuzhathalam
  6. 6. Quantitative Research Design Experimental Non-Experimental 1.True Experimental 1. Descriptive 2. Quasi Experimental 2. Developmental 3. Pre-Experimental 3. Surveys 4. Cause-comparative 5. Predictive 6. Relationship Qualitative Research Design 1. Historical 2. Phenomenological 3. Ethnographic 4. Case Study 5. Grounded Theory 6Alam Nuzhathalam
  8. 8. It is a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are used to obtain information. Uses: ➢ To describe variables ➢ To examine relationship among variables ➢ To determine cause and effect interaction between variables 8Alam Nuzhathalam
  9. 9. ▪ Experimental is most scientifically sophisticated research method. ▪ Experimental research design are concerned with examination of the effect of independent variable on the dependent variable where the independent variable is manipulated through treatment or interventions and the effect of those interventions is observed on the dependent variable. 9Alam Nuzhathalam
  10. 10. Randomization Control Manipulation Type I Type II Type III True Experimental ❖ Pre Test Post Test Control Group ❖ Post Test only Group ❖ Solomon 4 Group Quasi Experimental ❖ Non Equivalent Control Group ❖ Time Series ❖ Multiple Time Series Pre-Experimental ❖ One Shot Case Study ❖ One Group Pre- Test Post-Test ❖ Static Group Comparison 10Alam Nuzhathalam
  11. 11. characteristic’s Of Research design 11Alam Nuzhathalam
  12. 12.  Participant being assigned to either receive experimental group or not receive control group.  Methods: ◦ Lottery method/Slip of paper ◦ Flip a coin/Tossing a coin ◦ Random table 12Alam Nuzhathalam
  13. 13.  Manipulation is the process of maneuvering the intervention (Teaching programme, Pamphlet, PTP & Brochures) so that is effect on the dependent variable can be observed/measure.  It refers to conscious control of the independent variable by the researcher through treatment or intervention to observe its effect on the dependent variable  Independent Variable – Medication  Dependent Variable - Pain Level 13Alam Nuzhathalam
  14. 14.  Control refers to the use of control group and controlling the effects of extraneous variables on the dependent variable in which the researcher is interested.  It refers to a group of subjects whose performance is used to evaluate the performance of experimental group.  The subject in the control and experimental groups are similar in number & characteristics but the subjects in the control group do not receive experimental treatment or any intervention. 14Alam Nuzhathalam
  16. 16.  In these experiment the researcher conducts experimental group and control group. Individuals in the experimental group receive the experimental treatment where as those in the control group do not. R Exp R Pre-test Post-test Pre-test Post-test 16Alam Nuzhathalam
  17. 17.  In these experiment the researcher assign participants and conduct experimental group and control group. Researcher conduct only post test study where experimental group receive intervention and control group not. R Exp R Post-test Post-test 17Alam Nuzhathalam
  18. 18. ➢ It is a standard pretest post test two group design and two group post test design. The various combination and untested groups with treatment and control group. R Exp R R Exp R Pre-test Post-test Pre-test Post-test Post-test Post-test 18Alam Nuzhathalam
  20. 20.  In these experiment the researcher conducts experimental group and control group. Researcher conduct two groups with out randomiation. R Exp R Pre-test Post-test Pre-test Post-test 20Alam Nuzhathalam
  21. 21.  Researcher in which measurement of the same variables are taken at different points of time R ExpPre-test 1 Pre-test 2 Pre-test 3 Post-test 3 Post-test 2 Post-test 1 21Alam Nuzhathalam
  22. 22.  A series of quasi experimental design where as a series of periodic measurement is taken from units (Experimental and control). R Exp R Pre-test 1 Pre-test 2 Pre-test 3 Post-test 3 Post-test 2 Post-test 1 Pre-test 1 Pre-test 2 Pre-test 3 Post-test 2 Post-test 3 Post-test 1 22Alam Nuzhathalam
  24. 24.  This design, fail to include a control and randomization. A single group is often studied but no comparison. R Exp Post-test 24Alam Nuzhathalam
  25. 25.  A type of pre-experimental design where pre-test and post-test are taken with intervention but fails to include randomization and control. R ExpPre-test Post-test 25Alam Nuzhathalam
  26. 26.  In these static group comparison design there will be two groups. Give intervention to one group and give post test to two groups. Exp Post-test Post-test 26Alam Nuzhathalam
  27. 27. non-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH DESIGN 27Alam Nuzhathalam
  28. 28.  Intended to describe  Effective when the are has been previously studied  Describe attitude, behaviour or other characteristics of a group  Does not involve manipulation of variable (Independent Variable)  Uses: Provide data for initial investigation of data  Typical Analysis: Graph, Chart & Table  Example: “How much do college students exercise” 28Alam Nuzhathalam
  29. 29. 29 DEVELOPMENTAL 2. Longitudinal Researcher collect data from the same group at different point of time 4. Prospective Begin with an exploration of assumed cause and than forward in the time to be presumed effect 3. Retrospective Begin with phenomena of interest in the present and examination relationship to another variable in the past 1. Cross Sectional Data are collected on only one occasion with the same subjects Alam Nuzhathalam
  30. 30.  Very popular method, mostly used in descriptive studies  It is used to learn about attitude belief opinion behaviour etc  Standardized data collection method  Asking Structured Questions: Telephone, face to face & Print/on- line surveys.  Techniques: Questions, Interviews and Survey  Advantages: Efficiency cost effectiveness, small sample provide reliable result and generalization 30Alam Nuzhathalam
  31. 31.  Beyond relationship it describe cause and effect.  Types: ◦ 1. Ex Post Facto & ◦ 2. Correlation  1. Ex Post Facto: ◦ In these, researcher first observes an effect and then tries to define the cause  Data collected after the act  Relies on observation of relationship between naturally occurring differences in the intervention and outcomes 31Alam Nuzhathalam
  32. 32.  2. Correlation:  Researchers measure two variables and assess the statistical relationship. Relationship between two variables  Positive Correlation: Increase in one variable associated with increase in the other variable. Example., Age Increases Weight Increases  Negative Correlation: Increase in one variable associate with decrease in other variable. Example., Train speed increase, duration decrease  Zero Correlation: No meaningful relationship Example., Amount of tea drink and level of intelligence 32Alam Nuzhathalam
  33. 33.  It allows us to calculate the value one variable (Criterion variable) related in another variable (Predictive variable)  It allow us to make estimate  Typical Analysis: Regression  Example: ◦ Criterion Variable : Intermediate ◦ Predictive Variable : College ◦ “Which Intermediate applicants should be admitted to college” 33Alam Nuzhathalam
  34. 34.  Investigate the degree to which variation in one variable related in another variable.  Mainly it shows the relationship between variables  Typical Analysis: Correlation  Example: Age and Weight 34Alam Nuzhathalam
  35. 35. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN 35Alam Nuzhathalam
  36. 36.  It is a scientific method of observation to gather non-numerical data, while focusing on meaning making.  This often occurs through case study, personal experience, introspection, life story, cultural along with observational, historical etc.  Qualitative research design varies depending upon the method used; participant observations, in- depth interviews i.e., face to face or on the telephone), and focus groups are all examples of methodologies which may be considered during qualitative research. Alam Nuzhathalam 36
  37. 37.  This research involving analysis of events that occurred in the remote (or) recent past.  It shows patterns that occurred in the past and over time which can help us to see where came from and what kind of solutions we have used in the past. How we examine current events and educational practices.  Steps: ❖Identification of research problem ❖Systematic collection and identification of data ❖Synthesis of information ❖Interpreting and drawing conclusions Alam Nuzhathalam 37
  38. 38. ❖ Identification of a shared experience ❖ Attempt to locate essence of an experience ❖ What was experienced and how he/she experienced it ❖ Study of the lived experience of persons ❖ Attempt to locate universal nature of an experience.  It is an inductive, descriptive research approach developed from phenomenological philosophy, its aim is to describe an experience as it is actually lived by the person. They are based in a paradigm of a personal knowledge and subjectivity, and emphasize the importance of personal perspective and interpretation. Alam Nuzhathalam 38
  39. 39.  It is an art and science of describing a group/culture.  It refer to the investigation of a culture through an in-depth study of the members of the culture; it involves the systematic collection, description and analysis of data for development of theories of cultural behaviour.  It studies people ethnic groups and other ethnic formations their ethno genesis, composition resettlement, social welfare characteristics, as well as their material and spiritual culture. Alam Nuzhathalam 39
  40. 40.  The researcher shed light on a phenomenon by studying in depth a single case. The case can be an individual person, an event a group or an institution.  It is an depth investigation of a single entity or small number of entities, which could be individual, family, group, institution, community or other social unit. Alam Nuzhathalam 40
  41. 41.  It operates almost in a reverse fashion from traditional research and at first may appear to be in contradiction to the scientific method STAGES: Alam Nuzhathalam 41 4. THEORY Collection of explanations that explain the subject of the research 2. CONCEPTS Collection of codes of similar content that allows data to be gathered 3. CATEGORIES Broad groups of similar concepts that are used to generate a theory 1. CODES Identify anchors that allow the key points of the data to be gathered.
  42. 42. Alam Nuzhathalam 42 THANK YOU