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Management Information
System
Syllabus Overview
UNIT 1
 Foundation of Information Systems: Introduction to
information system in business, fundamentals of information
sy...
Objectives
 „Role of information systems in business environment to
achieve competitive advantage „
 Fundamental Knowled...
UNIT 2
 An overview of Management Information Systems:
Definition of a management information system, MIS versus
Data pro...
UNIT 3
 Concepts of planning & control: Concept of organizational
planning, The Planning Process, Computational support f...
 Understand what managerial planning is and why it is
important.
 Identify and analyze the various types of plans and sh...
UNIT 4
 Business applications of information technology: Internet &
electronic commerce, Intranet, Extranet & Enterprise
...
 To review the understanding about Business Strategy and
its components
 To understand the role of Information Systems i...
UNIT 5
 Managing Information Technology: Enterprise & global
management, Security & Ethical challenges, Planning &
Implem...
 Identify and give examples to illustrate the following aspects
of customer-relationship management, enterprise resource
...
UNIT 1
FOUNDATION OF INFORMATION
SYSTEM
Data and information: Data is raw unprocessed facts and figures that have no
context or purposeful meaning and information...
Attributes of Information Quality
Time Dimension
Content Dimension
Form Dimension
What is a System?
• A system is…
– A set of interrelated components
– Working together as planned….
– To achieve a common ...
Basic Functions of a System
 Input
 Capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be
processed
 Processing...
The Information System transforms the input of data resources into an output of
information and its products. The processe...
Information System
 An information system has a set of interrelated
components that collect (or retrieve), process, store...
Information System
Information System Activities
https://www.scribd.com/doc/396076/Foundations-of-Information-Systems-in-Business
Components of Information System
https://www.scribd.com/doc/396076/Foundations-of-Information-Systems-in-Business
Components of Information System
Information system
 Interrelated components working together to collect, process,
store and disseminate information to su...
Information system in business
https://www.scribd.com/doc/396076/Foundations-of-Information-Systems-in-Business
Information system in business
Major business functions
The Major Roles of IS
Traditional IS solution to Business
Process steps for developing IS in business
Current Problem Solving Process
Current Problem Solving Process:
Animation Link: ..VideosSDLC.mp4
Business applications expanding role over time
Assignment 1:
1. The Indian Railways recently introduced the Web-based Passenger
Reservation System (PRS) and introduced o...
INFORMATION
TECHNOLOGY
Hardware
Software
Databases
Networks
Other related
components
are used to build
INFORMATION
SYSTEMS...
Effectiveness vs. Efficiency
Business perspective of the information system
Planning, coordinating and controlling
Supply chain mgmt, enterprise mgmt,
...
Operation Support System
Transaction Processing System (TPS)
System Architecture: TPS
Process Control Systems
Process Control Systems: example
Enterprise Collaboration System
http://staff.uob.edu.bh/files/781231507_files/ch5p2.pdf
Management Support System
Other categories of IS
How IT increases organization flexibility
Small companies
 IT hardware/software provides precision, speed and quality,
 ...
Business environment – a change
 Emergence of globalization
 Global nature, competition in word market, global work grou...
Information Architecture of the organization
Information architecture as:
 The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation
schemes within an information sys...
SUMMARY ( LECTURE NOTES 1 – Information Systems in Global Business Today)
1. Explain why Information Systems are so essent...
2. Define an Information System from both Technical and Business perspective
From a Technical perspective:
 An Informatio...
3. Identify and describe the three dimensions of Information Systems
An Information System represents a combination of Man...
1. What is information system? Explain importance of
information system in business.
2. Define fundamentals of information...
UNIT 2
An overview of Management
Information Systems
Survey on MIS
MIS
Animation Link: ..VideosManagement Information Systems & its Functions.mp4
 The MIS is defined as a system which provides information
support for decision making in the organization.
 MIS is a sy...
Structure of MIS
Structure of MIS is a difficult concept to understand because
there is no standard or universally accepted framework for
d...
Decision Making
 A step in problem solving
 Intelligence gathering
 Definition of problem
 Data gathered on scope
 Co...
Decision Making in Management Information Systems
Strategic Management
 The People
– Board of Directors
– Chief Executive Officer
– President
 Decisions
– Develop Overall...
Tactical Management
 People
– Business Unit Managers
– Vice-President to Middle-
Manager
 Decisions
– short-medium range...
Operational Management
 People
– Middle-Managers to
– Supervisors
– Self-directed teams
 Decisions
– short-range plannin...
Levels of Management Decision Making
 Strategic – group of executives develop overall organizational
goals, strategies, p...
Decision Structure
 Structured – situations where the procedures to follow when
a decision is needed can be specified in ...
Decision Support Systems
Decision support systems (DSS) are interactive software-
based systems intended to help managers ...
Decision Support Systems
Decision Support Systems
Analytical Modeling is the key: example
Type of
Modeling
Example
What-if
analysis
What if we cut advertising by 10% what
w...
Decision Support Systems: characteristics
1. Support for decision-makers in semi-structured and
unstructured problems.
2. ...
DSS Components
http://dsssystem.blogspot.in/2010/01/components-of-decision-support-systems.html
For an example of the components of a Decision Support
System, let’s consider the Decision Support System that Land’s
End ...
To accomplish theses goals, it uses a Decision Support System which
performs three tasks:
 Data management: The Decision ...
DSS Components: example
Decision Support Systems
How MIS support DSS????
 MIS support decision making in both structured and
unstructured problem environments.
 MIS supp...
MIS vs. DSS
Data Processing Cycle
Applications of Data Processing
MIS Vs. Data Processing
 Data are typically subjected to processing activities such as
calculating, comparing, sorting, c...
MIS Vs. Data Processing cont’d…
 The data generation processing involves the following steps:
 Data Acquisition
 Data T...
MIS Vs. Data Processing
Data Acquisition
Data are facts expressed with the help of symbols. Such
as alphabets, digits, graphs, diagrams or in any ...
Data Transformation and Management of Information
 Data Transformation may be done by calculating, classifying,
summarizi...
Information Resource Management
Information Resource Management
MIS & IRM
Management Information Systems
1. Control of Data
2. Organization
3. Boundaries
Information Resources Management...
MIS & IRM
http://www.slideshare.net/achmatim/w-5-irm
Benefits of IRM
Typical MIS Reporting
 Periodic Scheduled Reports
 Example: Monthly Financial Statements
 Exception Reports
 Example: ...
More MIS Reports
 Demand Reports and Responses
 Available whenever a manager needs them, updated in
real-time.
 Push Re...
End User Computing
 In 1980’s several new roles for information systems
appeared.
 First the rapid development of microc...
THE EMERGENCE OF USER APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT
Why end-user computing?
End User Development
 IS professionals play a consulting role, while uses do their
own application development
 A staff ...
Focus on IS Activities
 End user development should focus on the fundamental
activities of an information system
 Input
...
Focus of End User Development
Doing End User Development
Application development capabilities built into
software packages make it easier for end users
...
Encouraging End User Web Development
 Look for tools that make sense
 Some are more powerful or costly than needed
 Spu...
 Make users comfortable
 Training will make users more confident
 It can save the IT department the trouble
of fixing p...
Effectiveness/Efficiency criteria of an MIS system
 MIS is designed primarily to make the management effective
to achieve...
Effectiveness/Efficiency criteria of an MIS system
The Ethical Dimensions of IT
 As a prospective managerial end user and knowledge worker
in global society, we should also...
The Ethical Dimensions of IT
1. How can information technology support a company’s
business processes and decision making, and give it a
competitive ad...
5. What are some of the toughest management challenges
in developing IT solutions to solve business problems and
meet new ...
SDLC
SDLC is the process of understanding how an information
system (IS) can support business needs by designing a
system, buil...
 Determine if a new system is needed
 Three primary tasks:
1. Define the problem
 By observation and interview, determi...
System Investigation
The current system
1. how staff / customers interact with the current system i.e.
how tasks are carri...
Feasibility Study
 Feasibility Studies typically involves cost/benefit analysis.
 If the cost and benefits can be quantified, they are cal...
Feasibility Study
System analysis
 It is an in depth study of end user information needs that
produces functional requirements that are use...
System Design
 System analysis describes what a system should do to meet
the information needs of user.
 System design s...
System Design
System Coding & Testing
 The system design needs to be implemented to make it a
workable system.
 The coding of the desi...
System Coding & Testing
 Before actually implementing the new system into
operations, a test run of the system is done re...
System Investigation
 In this stage physical system specifications are converted into a working
and reliable solution. Th...
Key Deliverables:
 Fully Installed system
 Fully trained users
 User and Operational Documentation
System Implementation
System Maintenance
 Maintenance is necessary to eliminate errors in the system
during its working life and to tune the sy...
SDLC example: Prototyping model
Prototyping is the rapid development and
testing of working models
1. An interactive, iter...
Prototyping Life Cycle
Deliverables of the SDLC
Begin building
new system
System converted
Users trained
Coded and
Tested System
Design Specifica...
Assignment-2
1. Write a short note on
 Cloud Computing
 Green Computing
 Black box vs. White box testing
2. Difference ...
Verification Validation
Evaluates the intermediary products to
check whether it meets the specific
requirements of the par...
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Unit 1 & 2

Management Information System

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Unit 1 & 2

  1. 1. Management Information System Syllabus Overview
  2. 2. UNIT 1  Foundation of Information Systems: Introduction to information system in business, fundamentals of information systems,  Solving business problems with information systems, Types of information systems, Effectiveness and efficiency criteria in information system. Goal: This course provides a broad introductory understanding of information systems, seen within organizational and societal contexts. The aim is to provide students with an appropriate balance of technical and organizational perspectives to serve as the basis for further study in the field.
  3. 3. Objectives  „Role of information systems in business environment to achieve competitive advantage „  Fundamental Knowledge of information systems architecture and IT infrastructure „  State-of-the-art technologies that will contribute towards future development of IT systems and applications „  Issues contributing to security, integrity, ethics, successful planning, implementation and management of IT systems Reference Book: O’Brien J. A. and Marakas G. M., Introduction to Information Systems, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2008
  4. 4. UNIT 2  An overview of Management Information Systems: Definition of a management information system, MIS versus Data processing, MIS & Decision Support Systems, MIS & Information Resources Management, End user computing, Concept of an MIS, Structure of a Management information system. Goal: This course provides a broad introductory understanding of information systems, seen within organizational and societal contexts. The aim is to provide students with an appropriate balance of technical and organizational perspectives to serve as the basis for further study in the field.
  5. 5. UNIT 3  Concepts of planning & control: Concept of organizational planning, The Planning Process, Computational support for planning, Characteristics of control process, The nature of control in an organization. Goal: This course provides a broad introductory understanding of information systems, seen within organizational and societal contexts. The aim is to provide students with an appropriate balance of technical and organizational perspectives to serve as the basis for further study in the field.
  6. 6.  Understand what managerial planning is and why it is important.  Identify and analyze the various types of plans and show how they relate to one another.  Outline and discuss the logical steps in planning and see how these steps are essentially a rational approach to setting objectives and selecting the means of reaching them.  Explain the nature of objectives.  Describe how verifiable objectives can be set for different situations. Objectives
  7. 7. UNIT 4  Business applications of information technology: Internet & electronic commerce, Intranet, Extranet & Enterprise Solutions,  Information System for Business Operations, Information System for Managerial Decision Support, Information System for Strategic Advantage. Goal: This course provides a broad introductory understanding of information systems, seen within organizational and societal contexts. The aim is to provide students with an appropriate balance of technical and organizational perspectives to serve as the basis for further study in the field.
  8. 8.  To review the understanding about Business Strategy and its components  To understand the role of Information Systems in Strategy Formulation and Implementation  To learn how to use Information Systems for gaining competitive advantage Objectives
  9. 9. UNIT 5  Managing Information Technology: Enterprise & global management, Security & Ethical challenges, Planning & Implementing changes.  Advanced Concepts in Information Systems: Enterprise Resource Planning, Supply Chain Management, Customer Relationship Management, and Procurement Management. Goal: This course provides a broad introductory understanding of information systems, seen within organizational and societal contexts. The aim is to provide students with an appropriate balance of technical and organizational perspectives to serve as the basis for further study in the field.
  10. 10.  Identify and give examples to illustrate the following aspects of customer-relationship management, enterprise resource management, and supply chain management systems: a. Business processes supported. b. Customer and business value provided. c. Potential challenges and trends. Objectives
  11. 11. UNIT 1 FOUNDATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEM
  12. 12. Data and information: Data is raw unprocessed facts and figures that have no context or purposeful meaning and information is processed data that has meaning and is presented in a context. Information as a Strategic Resource: "Drowning in data, yet starved of information"
  13. 13. Attributes of Information Quality
  14. 14. Time Dimension
  15. 15. Content Dimension
  16. 16. Form Dimension
  17. 17. What is a System? • A system is… – A set of interrelated components – Working together as planned…. – To achieve a common set of objectives – By accepting inputs and producing outputs An organized transformation process Animation Link: ..VideosSystems approach in IS.mov
  18. 18. Basic Functions of a System  Input  Capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be processed  Processing  Transformation process that converts input into output  Output  Transferring transformed elements to their ultimate destination  Feedback is data about the performance of a system  Control involves monitoring and evaluating feedback  to determine whether a system is moving toward the achievement of its goals.  makes necessary adjustments to a system's input and processing components to ensure that it produces proper output
  19. 19. The Information System transforms the input of data resources into an output of information and its products. The processed data as information shall be stored for further uses.
  20. 20. Information System  An information system has a set of interrelated components that collect (or retrieve), process, store, and distribute information to support decision making and control in an organization.  An information system (IS) can be any organized combination of people, hardware, software, communications networks, and data resources that collect, transforms, and disseminate information in an organization.
  21. 21. Information System
  22. 22. Information System Activities https://www.scribd.com/doc/396076/Foundations-of-Information-Systems-in-Business
  23. 23. Components of Information System https://www.scribd.com/doc/396076/Foundations-of-Information-Systems-in-Business
  24. 24. Components of Information System
  25. 25. Information system  Interrelated components working together to collect, process, store and disseminate information to support decision making ,coordination ,control, analyze and visualization in an organization  Animation Link: ..VideosMIS.mp4  The unique ways in which organizations coordinate and organize their work activities, information and knowledge to produce a product or service. Business process Information system in business
  26. 26. Information system in business https://www.scribd.com/doc/396076/Foundations-of-Information-Systems-in-Business
  27. 27. Information system in business
  28. 28. Major business functions
  29. 29. The Major Roles of IS
  30. 30. Traditional IS solution to Business
  31. 31. Process steps for developing IS in business
  32. 32. Current Problem Solving Process
  33. 33. Current Problem Solving Process: Animation Link: ..VideosSDLC.mp4
  34. 34. Business applications expanding role over time
  35. 35. Assignment 1: 1. The Indian Railways recently introduced the Web-based Passenger Reservation System (PRS) and introduced online payment through credit and debit cards. Explain how this information system helped Indian Railways in becoming more efficient not just from the customer’s point-of-view but also from the Railways management’s perspective. 2. Difference between Competitive Advantage & Strategic Advantage. 3. Difference between Information System and Information Technology. 4. Explain the Effectiveness and efficiency criteria in information system.
  36. 36. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Hardware Software Databases Networks Other related components are used to build INFORMATION SYSTEMS Payroll System Inventory System Marketing System Customer Service System IS Vs IT
  37. 37. Effectiveness vs. Efficiency
  38. 38. Business perspective of the information system Planning, coordinating and controlling Supply chain mgmt, enterprise mgmt, Customer relationship mgmt,& knowledge mgmt http://www.chris-kimble.com/Courses/World_Med_MBA/Types-of-Information-System.html
  39. 39. Operation Support System
  40. 40. Transaction Processing System (TPS)
  41. 41. System Architecture: TPS
  42. 42. Process Control Systems
  43. 43. Process Control Systems: example
  44. 44. Enterprise Collaboration System http://staff.uob.edu.bh/files/781231507_files/ch5p2.pdf
  45. 45. Management Support System
  46. 46. Other categories of IS
  47. 47. How IT increases organization flexibility Small companies  IT hardware/software provides precision, speed and quality,  Immediate availability of information eliminating need of intermediate staff  Better management of distributed staff through information network Large companies  Customized product/services can be provided in small quantities at different locations  Massive database of customer/suppliers records can be maintained effectively  Easy collection of information and distribution of information to lower level staff for problem solving
  48. 48. Business environment – a change  Emergence of globalization  Global nature, competition in word market, global work groups, and global delivery system  Transformation of industrial economics  Knowledge based economics, new products& services, time based competition, shorter product life limited employee knowledge base  Transformation of enterprise  Flattening of organizations , decentralization, flexibility location independence, low cost of coordination, empowerment, collaborative and team work,  Emerging digital nature of business  Digital relationship among customer, supplier and employees  Core business being achieved through digital networks  Rapid sensing and responding to environmental changes
  49. 49. Information Architecture of the organization
  50. 50. Information architecture as:  The combination of organization, labeling, and navigation schemes within an information system.  The structural design of an information space to facilitate task completion and intuitive access to content.  The art and science of structuring and classifying web sites and intranets to help people find and manage information.  An emerging discipline and community of practice focused on bringing principles of design and architecture to the digital landscape. Information Architecture of the organization
  51. 51. SUMMARY ( LECTURE NOTES 1 – Information Systems in Global Business Today) 1. Explain why Information Systems are so essential in business today.  Information Systems are fundamental for conducting Business today.  In many industries, survival and even existence is difficult without extensive use of Information Systems.  Information Systems have become essential for helping organizations operate in a global economy.  Organization are trying to become more competitive and efficient by transforming themselves into ‘Digital Firms’ where nearly all core business processes and relationship with customers, suppliers, and employees are digitally enabled.  Business today use Information Systems to achieve six major objectives: 1. Operational excellence 4. Improved Decision making 2. New product, Services & Business models 5. Competitive advantage 3. Customer / Supplier intimacy 6. Day-to-day survival
  52. 52. 2. Define an Information System from both Technical and Business perspective From a Technical perspective:  An Information System collects, stores, and disseminates Information from an organization’s environment and internal operations to support organizational functions and decision making, communication, coordination, control, Analysis and visualization.  Information Systems transform raw data into useful Information through three basic activities: Input, Processing and Output From a Business perspective  An Information System provides a solution to a problem or challenge facing a firm and provides real economic value to the business.
  53. 53. 3. Identify and describe the three dimensions of Information Systems An Information System represents a combination of Management, Organization, and Technology elements.  The Management Dimension involves:  Leadership,  Strategy,  Management behaviour.  The Organization Dimension involves:  Organization’s hierarchy,  Functional specialities,  Business Processes,  Culture,  Political interest groups  The Technology Dimension consists of:  Computer Hardware,  Software,  Data Management technology,  Network / Telecommunications technology (including the Internet.)
  54. 54. 1. What is information system? Explain importance of information system in business. 2. Define fundamentals of information system? Explain information system resources. 3. How information system is useful in solving business problems and what are the components of IS? 4. Describe various types of information system. 5. What do you mean by system? Explain the difference between Data and information. 6. Define Management Support System and Decision Support System. Important Questions
  55. 55. UNIT 2 An overview of Management Information Systems
  56. 56. Survey on MIS
  57. 57. MIS Animation Link: ..VideosManagement Information Systems & its Functions.mp4
  58. 58.  The MIS is defined as a system which provides information support for decision making in the organization.  MIS is a system for collecting, processing, storing, disseminating and utilizing data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management  The management information system is defined as an integrated system of man and machine for providing the information to support the operations, the management & decision making function in the organization.  The MIS is defined as a computer based information system. MIS
  59. 59. Structure of MIS
  60. 60. Structure of MIS is a difficult concept to understand because there is no standard or universally accepted framework for describing management information system. For example , A car may be perceived in a number of different way; by describe the physical characteristics, i.e. its shapes, color, seating capacity, door etc. MIS structure be described by following a variety of different approaches: 1. Physical components, 2. Information system processing functions, 3. Decision support 4. Levels of management activities 5. Organizational functions Structure of MIS
  61. 61. Decision Making  A step in problem solving  Intelligence gathering  Definition of problem  Data gathered on scope  Constraints identified  Design phase  Alternatives identified and assessed  Choice  Selection of an alternative
  62. 62. Decision Making in Management Information Systems
  63. 63. Strategic Management  The People – Board of Directors – Chief Executive Officer – President  Decisions – Develop Overall Goals – Long-term Planning – Determine Direction Political Economic Competitive
  64. 64. Tactical Management  People – Business Unit Managers – Vice-President to Middle- Manager  Decisions – short-medium range planning – schedules – budgets – policies – procedures – resource allocation
  65. 65. Operational Management  People – Middle-Managers to – Supervisors – Self-directed teams  Decisions – short-range planning – production schedules – day-to-day decisions – use of resources – enforce polices – follow procedures
  66. 66. Levels of Management Decision Making  Strategic – group of executives develop overall organizational goals, strategies, policies, and objectives as part of a strategic planning process  Tactical – managers and business professionals in self- directed teams develop short- and medium-range plans, schedules and budgets and specify the policies, procedures and business objectives for their subunits  Operational – managers or members of self-directed teams develop short-range plans such as weekly production schedules
  67. 67. Decision Structure  Structured – situations where the procedures to follow when a decision is needed can be specified in advance  Unstructured – decision situations where it is not possible to specify in advance most of the decision procedures to follow  Semi structured - decision procedures that can be pre- specified, but not enough to lead to a definite recommended decision
  68. 68. Decision Support Systems Decision support systems (DSS) are interactive software- based systems intended to help managers in decision- making by accessing large volumes of information generated from various related information systems involved in organizational business processes such as office automation system, transaction processing system, etc. Animation Link: ..VideosDSS.mp4
  69. 69. Decision Support Systems
  70. 70. Decision Support Systems
  71. 71. Analytical Modeling is the key: example Type of Modeling Example What-if analysis What if we cut advertising by 10% what would happen to sales? Sensitivity analysis Let’s cut advertising by 1% repeatedly so we can see its relationship to sales Goal-seeking analysis Let’s try increasing advertising until sales reach $1 million Optimization analysis What level of advertising maximizes our overall profit?
  72. 72. Decision Support Systems: characteristics 1. Support for decision-makers in semi-structured and unstructured problems. 2. Support for managers at various managerial levels, ranging from top executive to line managers. 3. Support for individuals and groups. Less structured problems often requires the involvement of several individuals from different departments and organization level. 4. Support for interdependent or sequential decisions. 5. Support for intelligence, design, choice, and implementation. 6. Support for variety of decision processes and styles. 7. DSSs are adaptive over time.
  73. 73. DSS Components http://dsssystem.blogspot.in/2010/01/components-of-decision-support-systems.html
  74. 74. For an example of the components of a Decision Support System, let’s consider the Decision Support System that Land’s End has tens of millions of names in its customer database. It sells a wide range of women’s, men’s, and children’s clothing, as well various household wares. To match the right customer with the catalog, land’s end has identified 20 different specialty target markets. Customers in these target markets receive catalogs of merchandise that they are likely to buy, saving Lands’ End the expense of sending catalogs of all products to all 20 million customers. To predict customer demand, lands’ end needs to continuously monitor buying trends. And to meet that demand, lands’ end must accurately forecast sales levels. DSS Components: example
  75. 75. To accomplish theses goals, it uses a Decision Support System which performs three tasks:  Data management: The Decision Support System stores customer and product information. In addition to this organizational information, Lands’ End also needs external information, such as demographic information and industry and style trend information.  Model management: The Decision Support System has to have models to analyze the information. The models create new information that decision makers need to plan product lines and inventory levels. For example, Lands’ End uses a statistical model called regression analysis to determine trends in customer buying patterns and forecasting models to predict sales levels.  User interface management: A user interface enables Lands’ End decision makers to access information and to specify the models they want to use to create the information they need. DSS Components: example
  76. 76. DSS Components: example
  77. 77. Decision Support Systems
  78. 78. How MIS support DSS????  MIS support decision making in both structured and unstructured problem environments.  MIS support decision making at all levels of the organization.  MIS are intended to be woven into a fabric of the organization.  MIS support all aspects of decision making process.
  79. 79. MIS vs. DSS
  80. 80. Data Processing Cycle
  81. 81. Applications of Data Processing
  82. 82. MIS Vs. Data Processing  Data are typically subjected to processing activities such as calculating, comparing, sorting, classifying and summarizing.  These activities organize, analyze and manipulate data, thus converting them into information for end users.  Data processing is handling row data in a systematic manner to confirm to the data quality standards as determined by the designer of the information system.
  83. 83. MIS Vs. Data Processing cont’d…  The data generation processing involves the following steps:  Data Acquisition  Data Transformation  Management of information
  84. 84. MIS Vs. Data Processing
  85. 85. Data Acquisition Data are facts expressed with the help of symbols. Such as alphabets, digits, graphs, diagrams or in any other form. Whatever may be the source of data, it may be initially recorded & later verified for accuracy & authenticity. This activity is known as data capture.
  86. 86. Data Transformation and Management of Information  Data Transformation may be done by calculating, classifying, summarizing or by rearranging.  After transforming the data, the processed data may either be communicated to end user, or may be stored for further reference. In case of data communication to the end user, the appropriate channel of communication is to be selected & used.
  87. 87. Information Resource Management
  88. 88. Information Resource Management
  89. 89. MIS & IRM Management Information Systems 1. Control of Data 2. Organization 3. Boundaries Information Resources Management or Information Infrastructure management 1. Information is an asset that should be managed 2. Requires process and systems knowledge, communication, and technical expertise 3. Used by information workers who create and process information
  90. 90. MIS & IRM http://www.slideshare.net/achmatim/w-5-irm
  91. 91. Benefits of IRM
  92. 92. Typical MIS Reporting  Periodic Scheduled Reports  Example: Monthly Financial Statements  Exception Reports  Example: List of items out of stock  These reports contain information but they might not directly help you determine the best decision to make.
  93. 93. More MIS Reports  Demand Reports and Responses  Available whenever a manager needs them, updated in real-time.  Push Reporting  Information is pushed to a managers computer  Example: Report is pushed every time a supplier is late with a shipment  Key-indicator report  Summarizes the previous day’s critical activities  Typically available at the beginning of each day  MIS Reporting is all about giving managers feedback and doesn’t necessarily help directly with decision making.
  94. 94. End User Computing  In 1980’s several new roles for information systems appeared.  First the rapid development of microcomputer processing power, application software packages, and now end users could use their own computing resources to support their job requirements instead of waiting for the direct support of corporate information services department.
  95. 95. THE EMERGENCE OF USER APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT Why end-user computing?
  96. 96. End User Development  IS professionals play a consulting role, while uses do their own application development  A staff of user consultants may be available to help with analysis, design, and installation  Other support  Application package training  Hardware and software advice  Help gaining access to organization databases
  97. 97. Focus on IS Activities  End user development should focus on the fundamental activities of an information system  Input  Processing  Output  Storage  Control
  98. 98. Focus of End User Development
  99. 99. Doing End User Development Application development capabilities built into software packages make it easier for end users to develop their own solutions
  100. 100. Encouraging End User Web Development  Look for tools that make sense  Some are more powerful or costly than needed  Spur creativity  Consider a competition among departments  Set some limits  Limit what parts of a web page or site can be changed and who can do it  Give managers responsibility  Make them personally responsible for content
  101. 101.  Make users comfortable  Training will make users more confident  It can save the IT department the trouble of fixing problems later on  It can limit the need for continuous support Encouraging End User Web Development
  102. 102. Effectiveness/Efficiency criteria of an MIS system  MIS is designed primarily to make the management effective to achieve the organization objectives efficiently.  Therefore design of the organization management practices and management philosophy along with environment factors together will make MIS very effective.  Negandhi Estafer, provided a good model for analyzing management effectiveness in achieving the goal and objectives. The mode as shown initial – emphasis on.  Management Philosophy  Environment Factors  Management Practices
  103. 103. Effectiveness/Efficiency criteria of an MIS system
  104. 104. The Ethical Dimensions of IT  As a prospective managerial end user and knowledge worker in global society, we should also become aware of the ethical responsibilities generated by the use of information technology.  For ex, what uses of IT might be considered improper, irresponsible, or harmful to other individuals or to society?  What is the proper use of organization’s information resources?  How can we protect our self from computer crime and other risks of IT?
  105. 105. The Ethical Dimensions of IT
  106. 106. 1. How can information technology support a company’s business processes and decision making, and give it a competitive advantage? 2. How does the use of the Internet, intranets, and extranets by an e-business enterprise support their e-commerce activities? 3. Why do big companies still fail in their use of information technology? What should they be doing differently? 4. How can a manager demonstrate that he or she is a responsible end user of information systems? Important Questions
  107. 107. 5. What are some of the toughest management challenges in developing IT solutions to solve business problems and meet new e-business opportunities? 6. Why are there so many conceptual classifications of information systems? Why are they typically integrated in information systems found in the real world? 7. In what major ways have the roles of information systems applications in business expanded during the last 40 years? What is one major change you think will happen in the next 10 years? 8. Can the business use of Internet technologies help a company gain a competitive advantage? Important Questions
  108. 108. SDLC
  109. 109. SDLC is the process of understanding how an information system (IS) can support business needs by designing a system, building it, and delivering it to the users SDLC Definition
  110. 110.  Determine if a new system is needed  Three primary tasks: 1. Define the problem  By observation and interview, determine what information is needed by whom, when, where and why 2. Suggest alternative solutions 3. Prepare a short report System Investigation
  111. 111. System Investigation The current system 1. how staff / customers interact with the current system i.e. how tasks are carried out 2. how other systems interact with the current system 3. what is good about the current system 4. what causes problems with the current system 5. which parts of the system are critical to the business The proposed new system 1. what the new system is expected to be able to do 2. how the new system is expected to do this 3. what people want from the new system 4. which working methods from the old system should be incorporated into the new system
  112. 112. Feasibility Study
  113. 113.  Feasibility Studies typically involves cost/benefit analysis.  If the cost and benefits can be quantified, they are called tangible; if not they are called intangible.  Tangible benefits are favorable results, and easy to estimate  Intangible benefits are harder to estimate, and difficult to quantify. Feasibility Study
  114. 114. Feasibility Study
  115. 115. System analysis  It is an in depth study of end user information needs that produces functional requirements that are used as the basis for the design of a new information system.  The system analysis traditionally involves a detailed study of :  The information needs of the organization and end users like yourself.  The activities, resources, and products of any present information system.  The information system capabilities required to meet our information needs, and those of other end users.
  116. 116. System Design  System analysis describes what a system should do to meet the information needs of user.  System design specifies how the system will accomplish this objective.  System design consists of design activities that produce system specifications satisfying the functional requirements developed in the system analysis stage.
  117. 117. System Design
  118. 118. System Coding & Testing  The system design needs to be implemented to make it a workable system.  The coding of the design into computer language, i.e., programming language. This is also called the programming phase in which the programmer converts the program specifications into computer instructions, which we refer to as programs  It is an important stage where the defined procedures are transformed into control specifications by the help of a computer language  The programs coordinate the data movements and control the entire process in a system, so the right programming language should be chosen
  119. 119. System Coding & Testing  Before actually implementing the new system into operations, a test run of the system is done removing all the bugs, if any  After codifying the whole programs of the system, a test plan should be developed and run on a given set of test data  The output of the test run should match the expected results. Sometimes, system testing is considered as a part of implementation process.  Using the test data following test run are carried out: – Program test – System test
  120. 120. System Investigation  In this stage physical system specifications are converted into a working and reliable solution. This is where the system is developed. It is followed by testing and then implementation.  Implementation Phases: – Coding: Includes implementation of the design specified in the design document into executable programming language code. The output of the coding phase is the source code for the software that acts as input to the testing and maintenance phase. – Integration and Testing: Includes detection of errors in the software. The testing process starts with a test plan that recognizes test-related activities, such as test case generation, testing criteria, and resource allocation for testing. The code is tested and mapped against the design document created in the design phase. The output of the testing phase is a test report containing errors that occurred while testing the application. – Installation: In this stage the new system is installed
  121. 121. Key Deliverables:  Fully Installed system  Fully trained users  User and Operational Documentation System Implementation
  122. 122. System Maintenance  Maintenance is necessary to eliminate errors in the system during its working life and to tune the system to any variations in its working environments.  It must meet the scope of any future enhancement, future functionality and any other added functional features to cope up with the latest future needs.  It has been seen that there are always some errors found in the systems that must be noted and corrected.  It also means the review of the system from time to time  The review of the system is done for: – knowing the full capabilities of the system – knowing the required changes or the additional requirements – studying the performance.
  123. 123. SDLC example: Prototyping model Prototyping is the rapid development and testing of working models 1. An interactive, iterative process used during the design phase 2. Makes development faster and easier, especially when end user requirements are hard to define 3. Has enlarged the role of business stakeholders.
  124. 124. Prototyping Life Cycle
  125. 125. Deliverables of the SDLC Begin building new system System converted Users trained Coded and Tested System Design Specifications Preliminary Investigation System Analysis System Design System Implementation System Development System Maintenance Approved Feasibility Study Operational System Documentation completed Abort Project Goto next phase Goto Previous phaseProblem Specifications
  126. 126. Assignment-2 1. Write a short note on  Cloud Computing  Green Computing  Black box vs. White box testing 2. Difference between the following:  Functional requirements and system specifications  Verification and Validation 3. Suppose you have implemented a newly-developed salary information system in your organization. Identify its activities and categorize it in suitable category of MIS
  127. 127. Verification Validation Evaluates the intermediary products to check whether it meets the specific requirements of the particular phase Evaluates the final product to check whether it meets the business needs. Checks whether the product is built as per the specified requirement and design specification. It determines whether the software is fit for use and satisfy the business need. Checks “Are we building the product right”? Checks “Are we building the right product”? This is done without executing the software Is done with executing the software Involves all the static testing techniques Includes all the dynamic testing techniques. Examples includes reviews, inspection and walkthrough Example includes all types of testing like smoke, regression, functional, systems and UAT http://www.softwaretestingclass.com/difference-between-verification-and-validation/

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