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Antiseptics, disinfectants

drug presentation on antiseptics and disinfectants

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Antiseptics, disinfectants

  2. 2. ANTISEPTICS Antiseptics are drugs or substances used either to kill microbes or prevent their further multiplication. The term antiseptic is used for animate or living surfaces like surface of skin, application of antiseptic dressing on wounds. The drugs like phenol, Boric acid cetrimide are the examples of antiseptics.
  3. 3. DISINFECTANTS These are drugs or substance used either to kill bacteria or to prevent their further growth or multiplication. The term disinfectants is used for inanimates, for example, disinfection of surgical instrument, mug sputum, urine containers. Examples are Cresol, Potassium permanganate.
  4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS OF ANALGESICS&DISINFECTANTS • It should be cheap and available at affordable price. • It should be chemically stable. • It should be bacteriostatic as well as bactericidal • It should be active against all microbes like bacteria, fungi, viruses. • It should be active in the presence of exudates, blood pus, excreta etc.
  5. 5. CONTD. • A disinfectants should not corrode or rust instruments. • It should be easily washable. • It should be non allergic to use. • It should not provide toxicity to the tissue. • It should have rapid action and provide protection.
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATIONS • Alcohol • Acids • Phenol derivatives • Oxidising agents • Aldehydes • Biguanide • Dyes • Furan derivative • Halogens • Quaternary ammonium • Metallic salts
  7. 7. 1.ALCOHOL
  8. 8. ALCOHOL Ethanol (C2H5OH), Ethyl alcohol. It is a antiseptic and cleansing agent and acts by precipitating the properties of microbes. It can be used for cleansing of skin before injections administration. Kills 90 % of bacteria in two to three minutes. It is a poor disinfectant that does not kill spores of bacteria.
  9. 9. 2.ALDEHYDES
  10. 10. ALDEHYDES • Chemical formula: HCHO. • It is a toxic colourless, foul smelling gas. It is soluble in water. • 37 % solution of HCHO is used for fixing and preserving biological specimens for pathological examination.
  11. 11. Formaldehyde( Formalin) 4% is used for hardening and preserving dead tissue. Glutaraldehyde: It is used as disinfectant. It is less pungent, less irrigating drug and is better sterilising power than formalin. It is used as 2 % solution to disinfect surgical instruments, endoscopes.
  12. 12. 3. ACIDS • Boric acids: H3BO3. It is soluble in water, It is bacteriostatic and very weak antiseptic agent. Its 4% solution is used for irrigating eyes, mouth wash.
  13. 13. Acetic acid: CH3COOH. It is also known as glacial acetic acid. It is used to prepare dilute acetic acid and strong ammonium acetate solution. It is a weak antiseptic. The solution 5% and above acts as bactericidal. It is used for destruction of warts.
  14. 14. 4.PHENOL DERIVATIVES Phenol Cresol Resorcinol Hexyl Resorcinol Chloroxylenol( Dettol)
  15. 15. PHENOL It is used to disinfect urine, pus, sputum and faces of patients. It has very pungent odour. In solution phenol acts as strong disinfectant. It is derived from coal tar or plant tar.
  16. 16. CRESOL • It is methyl phenol. It is more active in comparison to phenol and less damaging to body tissue. • It is used for disinfection of utensils, excreta and washing of hands. • Lysol emulsion is 50% soapy emulsion of cresol. It is less poisonous than phenol.
  17. 17. RESORCINOL • It is less potent as phenol. • It is used as keratolytic drug in dermatoses. Effective in the treatment of acne, ringworm, eczema.
  18. 18. HEXYL RESORCINOL • It is used as antifungal agent. It is used for mouth wash, Lozenges.
  19. 19. CHLOROXYLENOL( DETTOL) It is non-corrosive and non-irritating to intact skin. It is slightly soluble in water. It is used as antiseptic and for sterilising surgical instruments. Dettolin 1% is used as mouth wash. Skin cream and soap: 0.8%, Commercial 4.8 % solution used for surgical antisepsis.
  20. 20. 5.OXIDISING AGENTS POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE( KMNO4):  It is available as purple crystals highly soluble in water. This oxidises bacterial protoplasm. It acts as germicidal. It has also been used to disinfect water of wells, ponds.
  21. 21. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE(h202) Hydrogen peroxide has weak penetrating power. It is oxidized and release oxygen which oxidises bacteria. During oxidation foam is liberated which helps in loosening and removing wax from ears.
  22. 22. BENZOYAL PEROXIDE • It is widely used as effective drug for the treatment of acne. • It liberates oxygen in the presence of water which kills bacteria.
  23. 23. 6. BIGUANIDES • CHLORHEXIDINE: It is a strong, non-irritating , antiseptic drug. • It is used as surgical scrub for mouth wash, obstetrics and as skin antiseptic. • It acts as bactericidal.
  24. 24. 7.DYES GENTIAN VIOLET: Gentian violet is an antibacterial , anti-infective, antifungal and anthelmintic. It is used in the treatment of superficial infection of skin, vaginal infections. Gentian violet in alcoholic solution 1% is used to locally on bed sores, ulcer.
  25. 25. ACRIFLAVINE: These are orange yellow acridine dyes. Bandages impregnated with Acriflavin Vaseline is used for dressing of wounds, ulcers, burn wounds.
  26. 26. 8.FURAN DERIVATIVES • NITROFURAZONE: It is an odourless, yellow crystalline powder with a bitter taste. • It has an antibacterial action against number of gram positive and gram negative bacteria. • It is used in the treatment of second and third burn, in the treatment of skin and mucous membrane infections.
  27. 27. 9.HALOGENS • CHLORINE: It is highly reactive element and strong germicide. • It is used to disinfect water supplies to public in villages and city area.
  28. 28. Contd. • CHLOROPHORES: There are the compounds which slowly release hypochlorous acid( HOCL) . • It includes Chlorinated lime( bleaching powder) , chloramine.
  29. 29. 10.METALLIC SALTS • MERBROMIN: It is a bright red colour mercury salt. • Merbromin 1% solution is used for application to skin, minor cuts , wounds and eyes.
  30. 30. • SILVER NITRATE: It rapidly kills microbes/bacteria. It is used for tonsillitis and ulcers.
  31. 31. 11. QUATERNARYAMMONIUM ANTI- SEPTIC • CETRIMIDE: it is a creamy white powder having soapy bitter taste. It is a nontoxic antiseptic with detergent properties. • It has been used in the treatment of wounds, burns. • It is also used for disinfection of utensils, vessels, apparatuses, instruments.
  32. 32. ECTOPARASITICIDES • Ectoparasiticides are the drugs which are used to kill parasites that live on body. • These are used in scabies, pediculosis. • Drugs used in scabies and pediculosis are as follows:
  33. 33. ECTOPARASITICIDES Permethrin. Lindane. Benzyl Benzoate. Crotamiton Sulpher. Dicophane.
  34. 34. PERMETHRIN • It is a anti scabitic drug. • It is most effective for lice and scabies
  35. 35. LINDANE • It is an larvicide, insecticide. • 0.1% application is effective against head lice and 1% is used in the treatment of pediculosis and scabies.
  36. 36. BENZYL BENZOATE • It is an oily liquid . • It is drug of choice in the treatment of scabies.
  37. 37. CROTAMITON • It is an effective scabicide, pediculocide. • It cause less irritation to skin and can be preferred for children.
  38. 38. SULPHER • It is the oldest used scabicide, antiseptic fungicide and keratolytic.
  39. 39. DICOPHANE DDT( Dichlorodiphenyl trichloro ethane) acts as an insecticide and larvicide. It has been used as a popular insecticide for mosquitoes, flies and many other pests. If it is used as 1 to 2% lotion or ointment for scabies and pediculosis.