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Social Epidemiology:
Social and Behavioral
Concepts
Nicole Kunkel
Purpose
➔ Effectively communicate terminology used
in social epidemiology in a manner by
which the general population can
...
Social Epidemiology
➔ “Comprehensive study of health, well-being, social conditions or problems,
and diseases and their de...
Chronic Illness
➔ A persistent or long-lasting disease that progresses slowly and is usually
controlled, but cannot be cur...
Infectious Disease
➔ Caused by pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi)
➔ Can be spread and transmi...
Risk & Protective Factors
Risk Factor
➔ Variable associated with an
increased probability of disease,
infection, or health...
Morbidity Rate
➔ Indicates rates of a disease,
behavior, or health problem
Morbidity Rate:
Total # of cases of disease/beh...
Prevalence & Incidence Rates
Incidence Rate
➔ New cases: the current rate at which
a disease/health problem is being
repor...
Prevalence Rate
➔ Increased rate:
◆ long duration or short remission periods
◆ when incidence increases
◆ increased likeli...
Case Fatality Rate
➔ Expresses severity of symptoms and the likelihood that the
disease/behavior/health problem will resul...
Survival Rate
➔ Number of patients over a specific time period who are still alive at the end
of said time period
➔ Usuall...
Self-Efficacy
➔ Key element in how people change
behavior that goes beyond the
mechanistic conditioning process of
change
...
Reciprocal Determinism
➔ Behavior is part of a continuous interactive cycle that includes individuals
and their social env...
Health Disparities
➔ The differences in health status between the majority population and population subgroups
◆ Ex: race,...
Health Disparities: Causes
➔ Causes of health disparities:
◆ Socioeconomic status
◆ Lack of access to resources
◆ High pov...
➔ Individual approach
◆ address individual knowledge and awareness among a specific population
◆ Use theories to structure...
Addressing Health Disparities
➔ Organizational theory
◆ Improve organizations or systems, resulting in improved access and...
Epidemiological Triangle
➔ Basic model developed in order to study
health problems
➔ 3 factors: Host, Agent, and Environme...
Epidemiological Triangle
➔ Host: the person/animal harboring the infectious agent, acted upon by
noxious noninfectious age...
Impact Application
➔ Slideshare: upload of presentation to public presentation database
➔ Studyblue: upload of presentatio...
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Impact application project

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Social Epidemiology terms and concepts

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Impact application project

  1. 1. Social Epidemiology: Social and Behavioral Concepts Nicole Kunkel
  2. 2. Purpose ➔ Effectively communicate terminology used in social epidemiology in a manner by which the general population can understand. ➔ Improve knowledge and awareness of the general population regarding social epidemiology concepts.
  3. 3. Social Epidemiology ➔ “Comprehensive study of health, well-being, social conditions or problems, and diseases and their determinants” ➔ Use of epidemiology and behavioral/social science to improve and promote health ◆ Epidemiology: branch of medicine dealing with incidence, distribution, and possible control of disease and related health factors ➔ Used to develop interventions, programs, policies, and institutions that promote public health ➔ Studies: social distribution and social determinants of different states of health ➔ Understanding: social variables and conditions can determine which factors affect illness and health ◆ Emphasis: social factors
  4. 4. Chronic Illness ➔ A persistent or long-lasting disease that progresses slowly and is usually controlled, but cannot be cured ➔ Alternation between symptomatic periods and periods of remission or stability ◆ Remission: periods of relative health with little to no symptoms in between symptomatic periods or episodes ◆ Some chronic illnesses have acute episodes with abrupt symptom changes in between remission periods ● Acute episode/occurrence: abrupt onset of intense symptoms, usually within a short duration ➔ Usually applied when the course of the disease lasts longer than 3 months ➔ Ex: Cancer, Ulcerative Colitis, HIV/AIDS, Epilepsy, Sickle Cell Anemia
  5. 5. Infectious Disease ➔ Caused by pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi) ➔ Can be spread and transmitted directly or indirectly ◆ Person to person ◆ Animal/Insect to person ◆ Ingestion of contaminated food or water ➔ Vaccines effectively prevent the spread of some infectious diseases ◆ Ex: Measles, chickenpox, smallpox, whooping cough ➔ Frequent and thorough handwashing prevents spread and transmission ➔ Recent rise of infectious diseases, especially in poverty-stricken countries with environments conducive to spread and transmission
  6. 6. Risk & Protective Factors Risk Factor ➔ Variable associated with an increased probability of disease, infection, or health behavior problem ◆ Increased likelihood of negative/undesirable outcome ➔ Host or environmental relation ➔ Immutable factors: age, race, gender, ethnic background ➔ Adjustable factors: Change with intervention ◆ Ex: attitudes, behaviors Protective Factor ➔ Variable associated with a reduced probability of disease, infection, or health behavior problem ◆ Increased likelihood of positive/desirable outcome ➔ Ex: family history, healthy home/family environment, social support, routine doctor visits, access to resources ★ Both have cumulative effect on development/reduced development of health problems
  7. 7. Morbidity Rate ➔ Indicates rates of a disease, behavior, or health problem Morbidity Rate: Total # of cases of disease/behavior Estimated total population at the midpoint of time period Mortality Rate: Total # of deaths from disease/behavior Estimated total population at the midpoint of time period X 100,000 Morbidity & Mortality Rates Mortality Rate ➔ Indicates rates of death from a specific disease, behavior, or health problem ➔ Statistics collected by each country routinely: basic information on health status ◆ Collected via death certificates and coded by underlying cause of death ➔ Higher in young children, then decrease ➔ Increase again with age ◆ After age 40, increases by twofold for every decade ➔ Young children (<4) and older adults (>65) at highest risk during epidemics and outbreaks
  8. 8. Prevalence & Incidence Rates Incidence Rate ➔ New cases: the current rate at which a disease/health problem is being reported ◆ Used to calculate morbidity Prevalence Rate ➔ Existing case rates of a disease or health problem in a population; the spread or distribution of the problem in a population Incidence Rate: # of people who contract the disease/condition in specified time period # of people exposed to risk during this period Prevalence Rate: # of people with the disease or condition at that time # of people in the population at risk at that time
  9. 9. Prevalence Rate ➔ Increased rate: ◆ long duration or short remission periods ◆ when incidence increases ◆ increased likelihood of contraction from high-risk individuals via poor general health ➔ Decreased rate: ◆ improved rate of cure ◆ short duration of illnesses ◆ fatality rates increase ◆ decline of infection rate ◆ immigration of healthy population/emigration of ill population Incidence Rate ➔ Estimate of the probability of an individual, belonging to an exposed population, developing a disease during a specific time period ➔ Calculation of new cases that occur within a specific time frame ➔ Incidence rate is used to calculate prevalence rate ◆ P= I x D ● P: Prevalence rate ● I: Incidence rate ● D: Average duration of disease Prevalence & Incidence Rates
  10. 10. Case Fatality Rate ➔ Expresses severity of symptoms and the likelihood that the disease/behavior/health problem will result in death ➔ Percentage of people diagnosed with the disease, who die within a specified time period after onset, in which the disease is diagnosed as underlying cause of death ➔ Case fatality rate vs. mortality rate: ◆ Mortality rate: denominator is total population ◆ Case fatality rate: denominator is number of people who have the disease of interest Case Fatality Rate: # of deaths from the disease/behavior within a specific time period after onset Total # of cases identified during the same time period
  11. 11. Survival Rate ➔ Number of patients over a specific time period who are still alive at the end of said time period ➔ Usually reported after longer periods of time ◆ More appropriate for chronic illnesses with long incubation periods ➔ Usually calculated as one or five year cumulative survival rate: Cumulative survival rate: # of patients surviving total # of cases at the beginning of the period
  12. 12. Self-Efficacy ➔ Key element in how people change behavior that goes beyond the mechanistic conditioning process of change ◆ Gives individuals a role in their own change ➔ A person’s belief in his or her ability to take action and confidence to overcome obstacles
  13. 13. Reciprocal Determinism ➔ Behavior is part of a continuous interactive cycle that includes individuals and their social environment ➔ Interactive process: a person acts based on individual factors or social/environmental cues, receives a response from the environment, adjusts behavior accordingly, and acts again.
  14. 14. Health Disparities ➔ The differences in health status between the majority population and population subgroups ◆ Ex: race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status ➔ Exist in terms of: ◆ Quality health care ◆ Access to health care ◆ Levels and types of care ◆ Clinical conditions (cancer, mental health, etc.) ➔ Identified in several health outcomes: ◆ Life expectancy ◆ Overall life status ◆ Infant mortality ◆ Cancer ◆ HIV/AIDS ◆ Violence ◆ Diabetes
  15. 15. Health Disparities: Causes ➔ Causes of health disparities: ◆ Socioeconomic status ◆ Lack of access to resources ◆ High poverty levels ◆ Immigration ◆ Cultural beliefs/attitudes ◆ Lack of health care coverage ◆ Mistrust towards government/physicians ◆ Discrimination ◆ Environmental risks ◆ Social exclusion ◆ Lack of cultural competence ◆ Housing segregation ◆ Neighborhood characteristics and physical environment
  16. 16. ➔ Individual approach ◆ address individual knowledge and awareness among a specific population ◆ Use theories to structure education and intervention ➔ Social, community, and group approaches ◆ Community mobilization or advocacy ● Ex: improve access to healthcare, remove environmental risk affecting a minority community ◆ Health communications strategies, social network, and cultural approaches ● Used to address shared norms, beliefs, and attitudes of a population ◆ Community mobilization with ecological approaches ● Used as part of a coordinated community strategy in order to reduce socioeconomic disparities Addressing Health Disparities
  17. 17. Addressing Health Disparities ➔ Organizational theory ◆ Improve organizations or systems, resulting in improved access and care for disparities populations ◆ Local, state, or national level ➔ Multilevel approaches ➔ Lack of coordination hinders improvement in health disparities: communication is key
  18. 18. Epidemiological Triangle ➔ Basic model developed in order to study health problems ➔ 3 factors: Host, Agent, and Environment ➔ Disease is produced by exposure of a susceptible host to a noxious agent in the presence of environmental factors that aid or hinder agents of disease
  19. 19. Epidemiological Triangle ➔ Host: the person/animal harboring the infectious agent, acted upon by noxious noninfectious agent, or has experienced event/behavior of interest ◆ the “who” of the triangle ➔ Agent: infectious microorganism, chemical, or vulnerable substance ◆ the “what” of the triangle ◆ Ex: lead, radiation, excess/deficiency of nutritional elements such as calories, carbs, or iron ➔ Environmental Factors: external conditions that promote or hinder the action of an agent on a susceptible host ◆ the “where” of the disease ◆ Ex: drought, high temperatures, rain
  20. 20. Impact Application ➔ Slideshare: upload of presentation to public presentation database ➔ Studyblue: upload of presentation to public study material site

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