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The Myth of Osiris and Isis

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The Myth of Osiris and Isis (World Lit.(

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The Myth of Osiris and Isis

  1. 1. Nove Joy L. Deleña Title: The Myth of Osiris and Isis Author: Anonymous Literary Type and form: Folktales/ Myth Literary Approach: Mythological Criticism I - Elements of the story Main Characters  Osiris  Protagonist  Egyptian Pharoah who rigned over Egypt in the very early beginings  King of the dead  Isis  Protagonist  Sister & wife of Osiris  Harpocrates  Protagonist  Horus the infant, son of Osiris  Seth  Antagonist  Evil brother of Osiris.  Cruel and jealous of Osiris  Ra  King of the gods.  Nut  Sky goddess, mother of Osiris.  Geb  Earth God, father of Osiris.  Thoth  God of wisdom.  Silene  Moon goddess.  Horus  Brother of Osiris.  Seth  Evil brother of Osiris.  Cruel and jealous of Osiris  Nephthys  Sister of Osiris a. Settings  Land of Babylos  Phoenicia  Red Sea  Set in Egypt b. Plot (Traditional structure)  Introduction/Exposition The story begins first son of Geb and Nut, Osiris was tall, slender, and handsome, with jet black hair. When his father, Geb, gave up the reigning power over Egypt and retired into the heavens, Osiris took over the kingship and married his sister, the beautiful Isis. Under his wise authority the Egyptians were persuaded to renounce cannibalism. He taught them farming and the pleasures of music, and he framed a just legal code for them. Egypt flourished peacefully under his rule. Meanwhile, Osiris, Isis husband went off to civilize the rest of the world and brought the same blessings to Europe  Rising Action The rising action of this story is when his ugly and evil brother with red, coarse hair like an ass's pelt. This was Set, a born plotter who envied the power and attractiveness of his elder brother. Set had another reason for hating Osiris: His own wife, Nephthys, had conceived a child by Osiris — the jackal-headed Anubis. By bribery and cunning Set gained many allies during Osiris' absence, and together they devised a plan for the king's death.  Climax The climax of the story is when Isis learned of her husband's death she traveled along the Nile in the deepest grief, searching for the chest containing Osiris. She found Anubis, who had been abandoned by Nephthys, and she nursed and educated him. Isis continued looking for Osiris through repeated discouragements, until one day she learned the chest had sailed to Phoenicia, where a tamarisk tree had enveloped it within its trunk.  Falling Action Aided by Nephthys, Isis revived Osiris through magic and conceived a son by him. And Set then put her in prison, from which she escaped with the help of Anubis. Isis fled to the swamps of the Nile delta and, living like a peasant, she gave birth to Osiris' son, Horus the hawk, born to avenge his father's murder. Horus suffered intense pains throughout his childhood, and only his mother's witchcraft managed to save him. Horus grew to manhood as a valiant.  Resolution
  2. 2. The story Together Horus and Isis pursued Set, and when they met the fighting was even more intense. Set managed to grab Horus' eye and tear it out, but Horus wrested it back and finally drove Set into the Red Sea forever.  Conflict Man vs. Man (Protagonist against Another) c. Point of View In this story the point of view is third person or omniscient. The narrator is telling the story. d. Theme The theme that being portrayed to this story is struggle between the powers of good and evil. II - Interpretation of the Title. The Egyptian myth entitled “the myth of Osiris and Isis”, the main figures of the myth symbolize the physical features of Egypt itself. Thus, Osiris represents the Nile with its annual flooding and withdrawal; Isis represents the fertile farm land of Egypt, which was made fecund by the Nile; Set represents the arid desert that separates the Nile and the fertile land; while Nephthys stands for the marginal areas between the farm land and desert. This naturalistic approach may stem from the fact that the lineage of these gods symbolized forces of nature — earth, sky, air, moisture, the sun. III - Gained Insights The main features of the myth are largely moral, depicting the eternal struggle between the powers of good and evil. One point worth remarking about some Egyptian gods, such as Ra, Shu, and Geb, is that they suffer the same vicissitudes as earthly monarchs. They reign for a while in Egypt, their power begins to dwindle, and they retire into the sky, leaving their kingdom to a son. Moreover, Osiris has a mortal body and dies like any man. And he must be restored to life through magic and love. One can link this to the annual death and rebirth of vegetation, but it has more to do with the idea of the soul's immortality and a regeneration beyond the grave. The myth of Isis and Osiris illustrates the power of love and how it can transform us irrevocably. For over three thousand years— before 3000 b.c. to the second century a.d.—Isis was worshiped in Egypt as the mother goddess of the universe. She had two brothers, Osiris and Set. Osiris was responsible for the fertile soil and Set ruled the barren desert. Nove Joy L. Deleña Title: The Happy Man Author: Naguib Mahfouz Literary Type and form: Prose Fiction/Short Story Literary Approach: Psychological Criticism I - Elements of the story e. Characters and characterization The happy man  He is the protagonist.  He is on the state of mind of being stressed in work until he realizes that he is happy. Happiness  The happy man’s antagonist. Bashir  The man’s servant  He is low-class, and not closed with his master.  He gets embarrassed when the man asked him if he considered a happy man, because it was the first time addressing him as a companion or friend.  He is a static character because his personality remains the same throughout the story. The Doctors/therapists/psychiatrists  These are the professional individuals that the man sought for help.  They are too static characters, for they are nothing more than what their job was. f. Settings The settings change throughout the story since it is in the view of his daily life.  Home  Office
  3. 3.  Many different medical clinics  Meeting hall of the newspaper building (where he works)  Set in Egypt  The main setting of this story is in the clinic. g. Plot (Traditional Structure)  Introduction/Exposition The story begins the “Happy Man” is introduced and shows how unbelievably happy he is. His usual mood is the opposite, “for he usually got up with a terrible headache from working late hours or with a hangover from too much drinking in wild parties”. He explains this abrupt happiness as if his organs were” functioning in perfect harmony with an overwhelming feeling  Rising Action The rising action of this story is when the man starts to seeks explanation of his overbearing happiness. Because of too much confusion towards his emotion cause him to start loosing sleep and miss work.  Climax The climax in the story is when he realizes that he can no longer continue his life being this happy so he decides that there is something wrong with him, his emotions and he goes to different clinics to seek help from the psychiatrist.  Falling Action The falling action occurs when the man visits many different clinics to find explanations and answers to his overbearing happiness and tries to figure out his internal conflict. Until he found a specialist that encounters similar cases and recommends him to go to session twice a week.  Resolution The story ends with him at last he found a specialist that encounters similar cases and recommends him to go to session twice a week. In the end he decided to finally accept his happiness. h. Conflict Person vs. Self The man’s conflict takes place within himself. He is fighting with himself and feels like the life he used to live is far away from the reality. i. Point of View In the story “the happy man”, the point of view is third person or omniscient. The narrator is telling the story. j. Theme The theme of the short story portrays what “happiness” and how this contributes to being human. Normal human feel various emotions; happiness, anger, excitement, sadness, madness and etc. That having overbearing happiness is impossible; this story also looks at self-identity, his outlook on life and pressures as well as values. II - Interpretation of the Title The short story entitled “The Happy Man”, the title itself emphasize the fact that the happiness he feels became everything for him, because he could only feel happiness and no other emotions. To be human needs to feel various emotions and face different phases of life and gain experiences to feel that the life that you live is worth living. The word “happy”, was the definite word that would describe him. III - Gained Insights A philosophy of life that emphasizes personal choice and subjectivity, which is the idea that our everyday choices, actions and reactions determine who and what we are. In the happy man the significant theme is what it means to be human. It could be explained by three aspects. The pressure and reality derived from this world is waiting us to face, the sentiments we experienced enrich our life and add flavor to the outlook of life and the most importantly, to create self-identity. His short term goal is to get an answer to why he is so happy. “ I haven’t come to see you because I’m ill but because I’m happy!” “Happiness is not the key to life”. We need to capable feel of various emotions to feel that we’re human and in order to have a balanced life. In the story definitely shows us that without experiencing various emotions;
  4. 4. happiness, anger, excitement, sadness, madness and etc., we can’t have a balanced life. Nove Joy L. Deleña Title: The Peasant who became King Author/Reference: Baldonado, R.S. Franco. A.O.,et al. (2013), Readings From World Literature. Great Books Publishing: Quezon City Literary Type and form: Prose Fiction/Folktale Literary Approach: Mythological Criticism I - Elements of the story a. Characters and characterization Main Characters  Anubis/Anpu  Elder brother of Bata  Bata  Protagonist  Younger brother of Anpu  Have a good heart (divine heart) Minor Character  Wife of Anpu  Who attempt to seduce Bata  Antagonist  Pharaoh  Wife of Bata  God Ra  The gracious God who helped Bata. b. Settings  In the house  Field  Near the river and valley of Acacia  Egypt c. Plot (Traditional structure)  Introduction/Exposition In this Egyptian myth there were once two brothers the eldest named Anpu and the younger one named Bata. The younger one Bata lived with his eldest brother and his wife, were Bata lived with Anpu as he were his own son. Bata was the person who drove the oxen to the field, it was he who also ploughed the field, and who harvested the grain.  Rising Action Anpu’s wife got jealous of Bata and decided to destroy him to his brother. She made an evil plan, where she made a romantic gesture and asked the younger brother Bata to lay with her in which Bata denied. Upon Anpu’s return he found his wife laying on the floor in total darkness and asked what was wrong. The Anpu’s wife lied by accusing the younger brother Bata of attempting to hurt her and lay with her.  Climax Anubis/Anpu the eldest brother attempts to kill his younger brother Bata, who flees and prays to Re-Harakhti to save him from his brother. The god creates a crocodile-infested lake between the two brothers, across which Bata is finally able to appeal to his brother and share his side of the events.  Falling Action The brother discussed the whole story behind the matter and found out the truth. Anpu went home and found his wife washing the paint off. Anpu killed his wife.  Resolution The resolution in the story is when Anpu realized the mistake he had done to his brother while his brother found peace living in the valley of the Acacia. d. Conflict Man vs. Man (Bata vs. Anpu’s wife) e. Point of View The point of view of the story is third person or omniscient, because the story talks about the experience of Bata. f. Theme The theme of the story is life process where it tells the experience of the two brothers. II - Interpretation of the Title The story of "The Peasant who became King" describes how a farmer or a laborer who had been experienced and passed the wrath of his brother, Anpu restore himself goes adventures and became king. Good traits, faith and efforts bring him to the peek. The tale also has traits peculiar to ancient Egypt, notably that the main characters are gods as well as kings.
  5. 5. Bata and Anubis are both divine figures connected with Egypt’s mortuary cults, and their story is replete with religious symbols of rebirth. III - Gained Insights The Egyptian myth “The Peasant Who Became King” informs individuals that what goes around comes around or more likely known by individual’s in society today as karma. In the case of brothers Anpu and Bata not only do they display how they inflict harm themselves, but how their lives as peasants or farmers change out of spite of cruel and villain women, the Anpu’s wife. The karma hunts Anpus wife’s dies by her husband’s hands. Her death displays that karma takes no pity and that the penalty for the foul action came just as bad as her intention was. The truth deliberately always comes out sooner than anticipated in an easy form or a rather difficult one as this story. For the wife, due to her foul actions taken and also the older brother for judging without knowing both parts of the story. The villain women not only caused disruption in the lives of the brothers but also put them in the lowest positions of their lives. These two share similar qualities to those of past myths where women use their looks primarily to undermine men. Yet, in the end the both Anpu and Bata had a great ending despite their journey despite the villainous women they married caused strife and chaos in their lives. This tale gives insight on how the women (antagonist) destroyed the main characters, and how Karma does exist and everything from the past will catch up to each individual at any period. In the story there are lots of valuable lesson that we can get. We can learn how to give importance and appreciate the value of relationship of a family and how evil plans fails against good, specially in the family because there is a saying that “blood is thicker than water.” The are valuable lesson portrays in the story, lessons to the Egyptians in those years the lessons that can be pass through written and orally to the next generation.

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