Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Career readiness during COVID: How schools can help students enter the labour market in an economic crisis

672 views

Published on

Young people today have never left education more ambitious and highly qualified, but even before the pandemic many struggled to find good work. The COVID-19 crisis has made it more urgent than ever for schools to help students prosper as they move through education and into the labour market.

Education systems can help all students compete more effectively in the labour market. Schools can do more to help young people become more attractive to employers, but the message is not getting through and new waves of austerity and employer retraction will create new barriers to effective action. International datasets can help to identify indicators among teenagers that are linked with employment outcomes. This presentation accompanies a webinar that introduces significant new OECD work designed to enable and encourage data-driven career guidance.

Watch the webinar here: https://oecdedutoday.com/oecd-education-webinars/#Previous

Published in: Education
  • Login to see the comments

Career readiness during COVID: How schools can help students enter the labour market in an economic crisis

  1. 1. 1 National longitudinal datasets: linking intervention and outcome Collect data on key characteristics in childhood that relate to adult outcomes (socio-economic status, gender, migrant status/ethnicity, academic proficiency, qualification attainment, attitudes and experiences). Allow analysts to isolate specific interventions: can interventions help explain why some young people do better in the labour market than would be expected given their qualifications and other characteristics? Available in a growing number countries (esp. Australia, UK, US): British Cohort Study, Longitudinal Survey of Australian Youth, Education Longitudinal Study. PISA 2018 allows an assessment of the extent to which indicators are being achieved. Literature review identifies career-related indicators relate to: (i) thinking about the future (ii) exploring the future and (iii) experiencing the future. Anthony.Mann@oecd.org Working paper: Career Ready? How schools can better help young people to prepare for adult working life in the era of Covid-19
  2. 2. Thinking about the future (i) Teenage uncertainty: inability of 15-16 year olds to name job they expect to be working in as an adulthood is associated with worse than expected employment outcomes (ii) Career ambition: expectation of 15-16 year olds to work as a professional or manager is associated with better than expected employment outcomes (iii) Career misalignment: misalignment of qualifications demanded by occupational expectation and educational plan is associated with worse than expected employment outcomes Exploring the future (i) Career conversations: teenagers speaking with non-parental adults (especially teachers) about career aspirations (ii) Occupational exploration: teenage participation in career exploration modules within a wider programme of study (iii) Career development: teenage participation in career development activities (i.e., job fairs, job shadowing) Experiencing the future (i) Teenage employment: working on a part-time or vacation basis alongside full-time secondary education. (ii) Student internship: participation in a school-mediated work placement whilst in full-time secondary education. (iii) Teenage volunteering: undertaking voluntary activity either within or outside of schooling whilst in full-time secondary education. 2 Initial indicators: review of published analysis of national longitudinal data Anthony.Mann@oecd.org Working paper: Career Ready? How schools can better help young people to prepare for adult working life in the era of Covid-19
  3. 3. Indicator: teenage uncertainty • inability of 15-16 year olds to name job they expect to be working in as an adulthood Example Sikora, J. (2018), Aimless or flexible? Does uncertainty in adolescent occupational expectations matter in young adulthood? Australian Journal of Education 6:2, 154-168 Data. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth: 2006 (age 16) to 2016 (age 26) • finds that wage penalties at age 26 are strongly associated with uncertainty at age 23 which is, in turn, driven by uncertainty at age 16 • lost earnings attributable to teenage occupational uncertainty are considerable: 6% or $100 000 in 2011 Australian dollars (the equivalent of approximately €70 000 in 2020) over the working life times of the young adults See also: Gutman (2018), Morgan (2012), Mortimer (2017), Sabates (2010, 2017), Staff (2010), Thompson (2010), Vuolo (2012), Yates (2010) – and Gutman (2014), Schoon (2012). 3 Thinking about the future Anthony.Mann@oecd.org
  4. 4. 4 Thinking about the future 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 Changes in the level of teenage uncertainty in career expectations. PISA 2000 and 2018. 2000 2018 Indicator: teenage uncertainty • inability of 15-16 year olds to name a job they expect to be working in adulthood.
  5. 5. Indicator: Career conversations • teenagers speaking with adults about career aspirations Example Mann, A. et al. (2017), Indicators of successful transitions: teenage attitudes and experiences related to the world of work, London: Education and Employers Data: Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (Next Steps): 2005 (age 14-15) to 2010 (age 19-20). (Analyst: Elnaz Kashefpakdel) Teenagers, at ages 14-15, who agree that they talked to their teacher at least once: • Inside of lessons about their future studies are 24% less likely to be NEET (on the day of the survey) at age 19-20 than comparable peers, • Outside of lessons about their future studies are 13% less likely to NEET (on the day of the survey) at age 19-20 than comparable peers 5 Exploring the future Anthony.Mann@oecd.org
  6. 6. Indicator: Career conversations • teenagers speaking with adults about career aspirations 6 Exploring the future 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 Percentage of students agreeing that they had talked to someone about the job they would like to do when they finish their education. PISA 2018. OECD countries. Anthony.Mann@oecd.org
  7. 7. Indicator: teenage volunteering • Taking part in voluntary activity whilst in secondary education Example Sikora, J. and Green, J (2020), Gifts as gains? The impact of volunteering on young people’s educational and occupational attainment in Australia Australian Journal of Education Data. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth: 2006 (age 16) to 2016 (age 26) • a significant relationship between formal teenage volunteering outside of study time (including campaigning, fundraising, coaching, teaching, serving on committees, organizing events, distributing food, goods or health-related information) and occupational status. • occupational status is drawn from the Australian Socioeconomic Index 2006, reflecting the link between educational credentials required for entry into a given job and the associated income. • the impact of teenage volunteering on enhancing occupational status to be one-quarter of size of that of completing higher education. See also: Kim (2017), Ballard (2019), Chan (2014). Email: Anthony.Mann@oecd.org 7 Experiencing the future
  8. 8. Indicator: teenage volunteering • working on a part-time or vacation basis alongside full-time secondary education 8 Experiencing the future 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 Student participation in volunteering. PISA 2018, participating countries.
  9. 9. 9 The capacity to aspire (Apparadui, 2004) Email: Anthony.Mann@oecd.org
  10. 10. Over the next twelve months, the OECD will:  Publish two further working papers exploring longitudinal evidence from OECD and national longitudinal datasets across a wide range of countries  Publish eight guides for practice drawing out practical insights from the research  Create a new online repository of key research and practice examples  Hold an online conference in the autumn of 2021  Create data-driven tools for policy makers and practitioners to enhance provision Opportunity for practitioners, policy officials, researchers, parents, employers to stay in touch and get involved (no cost). Join our informal stakeholder group and: (i) Receive findings (reports and guides) (ii) share examples of effective practice (iii) Help influence possible future work. Email: Anthony.Mann@oecd.org. 10 New OECD project for 2021: Career readiness in the pandemic
  11. 11. 11 How engaged are young people in career development activities? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Students agreeing that they had spoken to a career counsellor in school. PISA 2018.
  12. 12. 12 How engaged are young people in career development activities? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Students agreeing that they had attended a job-shadowing or work-site visit. PISA 2018.
  13. 13. 13 How engaged are young people in career development activities? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Students agreeing that they had attended a job fair. PISA 2018.
  14. 14. 14 How engaged are young people in career development activities? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Students agreeing that they had completed a questionnaire about their interests and abilities. PISA 2018.
  15. 15. 15 How engaged are young people in career development activities? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Students agreeing that the earn money from working outside of school. PISA 2018.
  16. 16. 16 How engaged are young people in career development activities? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 All students Girls Boys Bottom quarter SES Top quarter SES Low performers High performers Urban Rural Native-born student Foreign-born students Students agreeing that they had used the internet to research careers. PISA 2018. Ireland OECD average
  17. 17. 17 How engaged are young people in career development activities? 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 I did an internship I attended a job shadowing or work-site visit I visited a job fair I spoke to a career advisor at my school I spoke to career advisor outside of my school I completed a questionnaire to find out about my interests and abilities. I researched the internet for information about careers I went to an organised tour in an ISCED 3-5 institution. I researched the internet for information about ISCED 3-5 programmes. Student participation in career development activities. PISA 2018. Ireland OECD average - 18
  18. 18. Over the next twelve months, the OECD will:  Publish two further working papers exploring longitudinal evidence from OECD and national longitudinal datasets across a wide range of countries  Publish eight guides for practice drawing out practical insights from the research  Create a new online repository of key research and practice examples  Hold an online conference in the autumn of 2021  Create data-driven tools for policy makers and practitioners to enhance provision Opportunity for practitioners, policy officials, researchers, parents, employers to stay in touch and get involved (no cost). Join our informal stakeholder group and: (i) Receive findings (reports and guides) (ii) share examples of effective practice (iii) Help influence possible future work. Email: Anthony.Mann@oecd.org Twitter: @AnthonyMannOECD Working paper: Career Ready? How schools can better help young people to prepare for adult working life in the era of Covid-19 18 New OECD project for 2021: Career readiness in the pandemic

×