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What does teaching look like? Launch of the Global Teaching InSights video study

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As education systems and schools around the world are being challenged in unprecedented ways, teachers are playing a central role in both supporting young people to navigate these difficult times and prepare them for the world ahead. But the true complexity of teaching is rarely seen and still little understood. What do we really mean by impactful, high-quality teaching? How does it actually drive learning and growth? What does all it mean in the context of COVID-19?

Andreas Schleicher, OECD Director of Education and Skills, discusses these issues and presents the findings of the Global Teaching InSights report, which looks at what practices teachers use to manage the classroom, provide social-emotional support, and deliver quality instruction. This new international study is unique in the type of evidence collected, using classroom videos from over 700 teachers across eight different countries and economies to understand the nuances of teaching, along with teaching materials, teachers’ and students’ views, and students tests in a pre-post design, all aimed at providing as detailed and rich a picture of teaching as possible.

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What does teaching look like? Launch of the Global Teaching InSights video study

  1. 1. GLOBAL TEACHING INSIGHTS A VIDEO STUDY OF TEACHING November 16, 2020 Andreas Schleicher, Director for Education and Skills
  2. 2. Classrooms are extraordinary spaces
  3. 3. Global Teaching InSights: A Video Study of Teaching 700 teachers 17 500 students Across eight countries/economies: B-M-V (Chile), Colombia, England (UK), Germany*, K-S-T (Japan), Madrid (Spain), Mexico, Shanghai (China) A collaborative effort between participating countries, the OECD Secretariat and an International Consortium (RAND, ETS, DIPF)
  4. 4. B-M-V (Chile)​ Colombia​ England (UK) Germany​ * K-S-T (Japan)​ Madrid (Spain) Mexico Shanghai (China) Sample size Number of teachers​ 98​ 83​ 85​ 50​ 89​ 59​ 103​ 85​ Number of students 2 344 2 143 1 862 1 042 2 426 1 176 2 529 2 579 Number of schools​ 98​ 83​ 78​ 38 73​ 55​ 103​ 85​ Deviations Sample non-representative​ X​ X​ X X​ Sampling in selected regions only X Sometimes recruited target and replacement schools simultaneously​ X​ X​ Recruited teachers across two school years​ X​ X​ X​ Sometimes recruited more than one teacher per school​ X​ X​ X​ X​ Additional sample schools required​ X​ Did not use the list of schools from TALIS 2018​ X​ X​ X​ Did not follow the teacher random sampling plan​ X​ X​ X​ X​ Sample size and deviations Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database
  5. 5. A digital platform to watch and discuss teaching at a global scale www.globalteachinginsights.org Survey to compare teaching to the TALIS Survey and its 48 countries Videos of teaching organised by practice Open crowdsourcing ideas and innovations from the teachers around the world
  6. 6. The rich diversity of teaching captured in authentic and immersive video examples
  7. 7. Global Teaching InSights: A Video Study of Teaching Classroom Processes Institutional Context Teacher Background Student Background PreTest Questionnaires PostTest Questionnaires Artifacts Video Student Outcomes (cognitive and non-cognitive)
  8. 8. Measuring teaching through observation and teaching materials Example of rating for teaching materials Rated low because students are only asked to apply a standard routine; they are not asked how or why the method works, or why it is appropriate. Rated high because students are asked to describe a procedure they used (ie how to represent the area of the field), and to provide the justification for why procedures are effective in a given solution. 1 2 3 4 There is no student thinking present. There is a small amount of student thinking present. Questions, prompts, and tasks result in perfunctory student contributions that only concern answers, procedures, or the steps necessary for solving a problem. There is a moderate amount of student thinking elicited. Questions, prompts, and tasks result in detailed student contributions concerning answers, procedures, and the steps necessary for solving a problem. There is a lot of student thinking present. Questions, prompts, and tasks result in a mixture of student contributions concerning answers, procedures, the steps necessary for solving a problem, ideas, and concepts. Contributions may be detailed or perfunctory. Example of rating for observation Component: Eliciting student thinking Questions, prompts, and tasks elicit detailed student responses (written or oral). Asking for explanations measures the extent to which students are asked to explain or justify their thinking about mathematical procedures and concepts
  9. 9. • Classroom management – Routines, disruptions, monitoring, activity structures • Social-emotional support – Encouragement and warmth, respect, persistence. • Instruction – Classroom talk: questioning, explanations – Quality of Subject Matter: connections, generalising – Cognitive Engagement: multiple ways of reasoning – Assessment: feedback, aligning instruction Teaching was unpacked into three domains
  10. 10. The quality of teaching varies by domain of practice 1 2 3 4 B-M-V (Chile) Colombia England (UK) K-S-T (Japan) Germany* Madrid (Spain) Mexico Shanghai (China) Classroom Management Social-Emotional Support Instruction Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database
  11. 11. Classroom management Routines, disruptions, monitoring, activity structures
  12. 12. Classrooms are well-managed and organised Distribution of classrooms, by the mean teaching domain score Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 5.A.15 and 5.A.16 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 B-M-V (Chile) CM SE IN 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 Colombia CM SE IN 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 England (UK) CM SE IN 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 Germany* CM SE IN 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 K-S-T (Japan) CM SE IN 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 Madrid (Spain) CM SE IN 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 Mexico CM SE IN 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 Shanghai (China) CM SE IN Classroom management Social-Emotional Instruction
  13. 13. Frontal teaching prevails in nearly all classrooms Mean proportion of the lesson segments using the following activity structures 0 20 40 60 80 100 Shanghai (China) Madrid (Spain) K-S-T (Japan) England (UK) Colombia B-M-V (Chile) Mexico Germany* % Individual Whole Group Small Group Pairs Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 3.A.6
  14. 14. Teachers effectively managed the class Mean classroom scores for routines, monitoring and disruptions 1 2 3 4 England (UK) K-S-T (Japan) Germany* Madrid (Spain) Colombia Mexico Shanghai (China) B-M-V (Chile) Score Routines Monitoring Disruptions Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 3.A.1
  15. 15. Little time was spent on non-mathematics tasks Percentage of first, middle and last lesson segments that devoted more than 30 seconds to non-mathematics tasks Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 3.A.6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 K-S-T (Japan) Mexico Colombia B-M-V (Chile) Germany* Shanghai (China) England (UK) Madrid (Spain) % First Segment Middle Segments Last Segment
  16. 16. Social-emotional support Respect, encouragement and warmth, and persistence
  17. 17. Teachers provide some social-emotional support Distribution of classrooms, by the mean teaching domain score Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 5.A.15 and 5.A.16 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 B-M-V (Chile) CM SE IN 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 Colombia CM SE IN 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 England (UK) CM SE IN 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 Germany* CM SE IN 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 K-S-T (Japan) CM SE IN 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 Madrid (Spain) CM SE IN 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 Mexico CM SE IN 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 1 2 3 4 Shanghai (China) CM SE IN Social-Emotional Classroom management Instruction
  18. 18. Classrooms interactions were highly respectful Percentage of classrooms by mean respect score 0 20 40 60 80 100 Madrid (Spain) (3.75) K-S-T (Japan) (3.68) England (UK) (3.56) Colombia (3.44) Germany* (3.42) B-M-V (Chile) (3.34) Mexico (3.30) Shanghai (China) (3.12) % Score between 1.0 and 1.5 Score between 1.5 and 2.5 Score between 2.5 and 3.5 Score between 3.5 and 4.0 Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 4.A.1 and 4.A.2 Mean Rarely Frequently
  19. 19. Classrooms were neither warm nor cold environments Percentage of classrooms by mean encouragement and warmth score 0 20 40 60 80 100 Germany* (2.84) K-S-T (Japan) (2.84) Madrid (Spain) (2.72) England (UK) (2.71) Mexico (2.31) B-M-V (Chile) (2.27) Colombia (2.15) Shanghai (China) (2.13) % Score between 1.0 and 1.5 Score between 1.5 and 2.5 Score between 2.5 and 3.5 Score between 3.5 and 4.0 Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 4.A.1 and 4.A.2 Mean No evidence Frequently
  20. 20. Teachers vary in addressing students’ struggles Percentage of classrooms by mean persistence score, after removing segments for which there was no opportunity to demonstrate persistence 0 20 40 60 80 100 Germany* (1.91) Mexico (1.90) B-M-V (Chile) (1.70) England (UK) (1.46) Colombia (1.46) K-S-T (Japan) (1.45) Shanghai (China) (1.35) Madrid (Spain) (1.32) % Score between 1.0 and 1.5 Score between 1.5 and 2.5 Scores between 2.5 and 3.0 Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 4.A.5 and 4.A.6 Mean Ignored Addressed in depth
  21. 21. Teachers and students had similar views Country/economy means of social-emotional support indices 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Score Teacher perception of Teacher support for learning Student perception of Teacher support for learning Teacher perception of Teacher-student relationship Student perception of Teacher-student relationship B-M-V (Chile) Colombia Germany*England (UK)Madrid (Spain)MexicoShanghai (China)K-S-T (Japan) Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database
  22. 22. Classroom talk Questioning Explanations Cognitive Engagement Multiple approaches Metacognition Responsiveness Feedback Aligning instruction Quality of Subject Matter Connections Patterns and generalisations Instruction
  23. 23. Raising the quality of instruction is a challenge Distribution of classrooms, by the mean instruction sub-domain scores 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 B-M-V (Chile) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Colombia 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 England (UK) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Germany* 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 K-S-T (Japan) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Madrid (Spain) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Mexico 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 Shanghai (China) Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 5.A.3 and 5.A.4 Classroom discourseSubject matterCognitive engagement Response to student thinking
  24. 24. Learning activities were clearer and more explicit than learning goals Percentage of classrooms observed by mean score 0 20 40 60 80 100 Shanghai (China) (2.68) B-M-V (Chile) (2.63) Mexico (2.39) England (UK) (2.30) K-S-T (Japan) (2.21) Germany* (2.21) Colombia (2.19) Madrid (Spain) (1.96) % Score between 1.0 and 1.5 Score between 1.5 and 2.5 Score between 2.5 and 3.0 Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 5.A.5 and 5.A.6 Mean No goals or activities Activities Learning goals
  25. 25. Students had many opportunities to practice… Percentage of classrooms that had a mean highest repetitive practice score Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 5.A.12 and 5.A.13 0 20 40 60 80 100 England (UK) (2.96) Shanghai (China) (2.69) B-M-V (Chile) (2.59) Germany* (2.45) Madrid (Spain) (2.41) Mexico (2.25) K-S-T (Japan) (2.05) Colombia (1.96) % Score between 1.0 and 1.5 Score between 1.5 and 2.5 Score between 2.5 and 3.0 None At least 4 minutes Mean
  26. 26. ..but occasionally engaged in cognitively demanding work Percentage of classrooms observed by mean cognitive engagement score 0 20 40 60 80 100 K-S-T (Japan) (2.52) England (UK) (1.96) Germany* (1.93) Mexico (1.83) Madrid (Spain) (1.63) Shanghai (China) (1.63) Colombia (1.50) B-M-V (Chile) (1.36) % Score between 1.0 and 1.5 Score between 1.5 and 2.5 Score between 2.5 and 3.5 Score between 3.5 and 4.0 Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 5.A.8 and 5.A.9 Rarely Frequently Mean
  27. 27. Connections were not common and often lacked depth Percentage of classrooms by mean explicit connections score 0 20 40 60 80 100 England (UK) (1.93) K-S-T (Japan) (1.91) Germany* (1.77) Mexico (1.76) Madrid (Spain) (1.72) Colombia (1.57) B-M-V (Chile) (1.54) Shanghai (China) (1.52) % Score between 1.0 and 1.5 Score between 1.5 and 2.5 Score between 2.5 and 3.5 Score between 3.5 and 4.0 Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 5.A.8 and 5.A.9 None Two or more Mean
  28. 28. Few opportunities to notice patterns or make generalisations Percentage of classrooms observed by mean patterns and generalisations score Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 5.A.8 and 5.A.9 0 20 40 60 80 100 Shanghai (China) (2.41) England (UK) (1.59) K-S-T (Japan) (1.49) Madrid (Spain) (1.34) Mexico (1.29) Germany* (1.25) Colombia (1.24) B-M-V (Chile) (1.18) % Score between 1.0 and 1.5 Score between 1.5 and 2.5 Score between 2.5 and 3.5 Score between 3.5 and 4.0 None Deep and explicit Mean
  29. 29. Students were rarely asked deep questions Percentage of classrooms by mean questioning score 0 20 40 60 80 100 Germany* (2.64) K-S-T (Japan) (2.62) England (UK) (2.51) Shanghai (China) (2.24) B-M-V (Chile) (2.19) Mexico (2.19) Madrid (Spain) (2.16) Colombia (1.73) % Score between 1.0 and 1.5 Score between 1.5 and 2.5 Score between 2.5 and 3.5 Score between 3.5 and 4.0 Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Tables 5.A.8 and 5.A.9 Superficial Deep Mean
  30. 30. Teachers sometimes used students’ thinking instructionally Percentage of classrooms by mean alignment score Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Annex 5A 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% England (UK) (3.25) Germany* (3.08) K-S-T (Japan) (2.95) Shanghai (China) (2.78) B-M-V (Chile) (2.72) Madrid (Spain) (2.67) Mexico (2.64) Colombia (2.38) Score between 1.0 and 1.5 Score between 1.5 and 2.5 Score between 2.5 and 3.5 Score between 3.5 and 4.0 None Mean Frequently
  31. 31. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 B-M-V (Chile) Colombia England (UK) Germany* K-S-T (Japan) Madrid (Spain) Mexico Shanghai (China) No Technology Used Communication Only Communication + Limited Conceptual Understanding Communication + Conceptual Understanding Little or no use of technology to enhance learning Percentage of classrooms with highest rating of use of technology for each purpose Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database, Table 5.1 %
  32. 32. Different ways of teaching the same topic
  33. 33. Opportunities to learn algebraic procedures vary Proportion of teaching material sets that included the respective method Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database Subtopic Less than 20% 20 - 40% More than 40% Finding roots B-M-V (Chile) Colombia K-S-T (Japan) Madrid (Spain) Mexico Shanghai (China) England (UK) Germany* Completing the square B-M-V (Chile) Colombia Madrid (Spain) Mexico England (UK) Germany* K-S-T (Japan) Shanghai (China) Factorising Mexico B-M-V (Chile) Germany* Madrid (Spain) Colombia England (UK) K-S-T (Japan) Shanghai (China) Quadratic formula Colombia England (UK) K-S-T (Japan) Shanghai (China) B-M-V (Chile) Germany Madrid (Spain) Mexico More difficult Easier
  34. 34. Ways of fostering deeper understanding also varied Proportion of teaching material sets that included any of the respective method Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 B-M-V (Chile) Colombia England (UK) Germany* K-S-T (Japan) Madrid (Spain) Mexico Shanghai (China) Algebraic Procedures Applications Functions Reasoning
  35. 35. Higher quality practices are related to higher achievement Regression estimates for a one-point increase the respective domain scores, before adjusting for student and classroom baseline characteristics -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 K-S-T (Japan) England (UK) B-M-V (Chile) Germany* Madrid (Spain) Mexico Shanghai (China) Colombia -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 Shanghai (China) England (UK) Mexico B-M-V (Chile) Colombia Madrid (Spain) K-S-T (Japan) Germany* -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 B-M-V (Chile) Shanghai (China) K-S-T (Japan) England (UK) Colombia Madrid (Spain) Mexico Germany*Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database Classroom management Social- Emotional Support Instruction
  36. 36. Teaching was related to students’ self-efficacy Regression estimates for a one-point increase the respective domain scores, adjusting for student and classroom baseline characteristics -0.5 0 0.5 1 Shanghai (China) Madrid (Spain) England (UK) Mexico B-M-V (Chile) Colombia Germany* K-S-T (Japan) -0.5 0 0.5 1 Shanghai (China) Madrid (Spain) Mexico Colombia Germany* England (UK) B-M-V (Chile) K-S-T (Japan) -0.5 0 0.5 1 Shanghai (China) Mexico Colombia B-M-V (Chile) England (UK) K-S-T (Japan) Madrid (Spain) Germany* Source: OECD, Global Teaching InSights Database Classroom management Social- Emotional Support Instruction
  37. 37. A digital platform to watch and discuss teaching at a global scale www.globalteachinginsights.org Survey to compare teaching to the TALIS Survey and its 48 countries Videos of teaching organised by practice Open crowdsourcing ideas and innovations from the teachers around the world
  38. 38. Search the videos by key tags Beyond just watching, empowering a global dialogue Choose your language Comment on specific timestamps of the video and dialogue with other professionals Look at the teaching materials of this classroom Get viewing hints for each video
  39. 39. A tool for teachers to support the peer-observation
  40. 40. Covid-19 Special focus: Crowdsourcing innovations in the classroom  What innovations in your teaching are you most proud of?  What new forms of collaboration with your peers have been most helpful?  What have you learnt and what will your teaching look like in the future? Submit your 2 minute video at globalteachinginsights.org An initiative led by:
  41. 41. Learn more at www.globalteachinginsights.org

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