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Arcuated stractures


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This presentation contain information about curvature structure in many different ears of architecture .

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Arcuated stractures

  1. 1. Evolution of Arcuated Structures Done By Mohammed shawwa Othman Othman Omar Hijazi Hashemite university Faculty of Engineering Department of Architecture Instructors Prof shaher Rababeh Arch Mohammed Waleed
  2. 2. Arcuated Structures Arch DomeVault
  3. 3. Outline Definition Technical parts Structural behavior Construction systems Evolution in Different Eras Mesopotamia Stone Age Ancient Egyptian Greek and Roman Byzantine Islamic Gothic
  4. 4. 2- Classification (Analysis category of chronological evolution ) 1- Definition According to Geometry and centers Arch Vault Dome According to structural behavior According to building material and construction According to Technical parts 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 Arch Vault Dome Pointed Semi- Circular segmentalHorse- shoe Methodology Cross barrel cloister Bulbose onion cross ribbed dome Stone brick mud concrete Stone brick Timber concrete Key stone intrados Extrados Springer stone Ribs groin arch piles Coffer cupola Toholobate lantern Compressive Thrust load Compression Tension Stress Compression Tension Stress torsion NUBIAN TECHNIQUE FREE SPANNING TECHNIQUE Centering work frame Construction without centering The Woodless Construction Construction technique
  5. 5. Arch
  6. 6. Arch Definition  a curved structure member that is used to span an opening and to support loads from above  . The arch is basic element for the make of the vault and domes .  Is an essential element of the .architecture of early civilizations.  Visually the arch was an important decorative feature that was transmitted from architectural decoration to other forms of art, especially furniture.
  7. 7. Classification of arches 1- According to Geometry 2-According to number of centers 3-According to materials
  8. 8. Segmental arch semi circular arch Pointed archLancet arch flamboyant arch Horse shoe arch 1- According to Geometry
  9. 9. 2- According to number of centers A-one center B – two center c -three center D – four center
  10. 10. 3-According to Materials 1-Birck Arches A-rough brick arches / un wedge B- Axed brick arches / wedge shape 2- stone arches A- Rabble b- Ashlar 3- concrete arches (Modern arches) A-pre cast concerted b- Monoliths concrete 4- wooden arch
  11. 11. Technical parts
  12. 12. structural behavior An arch is an architectural form that controls the pressure from the weight of a building in a specific way. The arch directs pressure downwards and outwards, creating a strong passage underneath it that has the ability to support heavy structures. This is called compressive stress, because the pressure of the weight is compressed by the shape of the arch. Because the stress is directed both down and outwards, walls or other structures were often required to reinforce the arch. The arch allowed ancient builders to make larger, more complex buildings that could hold more space and people.
  13. 13.  Structurally the thrust, in a simple arch, is exerted vertically by the weight of the masonry and any other superimposed loads above the arch, and horizontally by the cumulative wedge action of the voussoirs. This action gives the arch elasticity, which enables it to reach a balance corresponding to the thrust
  14. 14. Failure in arch In order to harness tis
  15. 15. Consolidation in Arch BY two Methods 1- tie beam 2- built to a wall
  16. 16. Main Construction Teqnique Centering frame work from wood
  17. 17. Vault
  18. 18.  Vaults are extended arches used to create large open rooms and high, covered passageway. Is an arch shaped structure usually of masonry used as the ceiling of room or other enclosed space vault Definition
  19. 19. Classification of Vault Materials A –Brick b- Concert c- stone d-timber Geometry It made from extension the arch element Building techniques 1- ribbed vault 2- quad partite ribbed vault 3- gross vault 4- cloister vault 5-light vault 6-fan vault
  20. 20. Technical Parts of vaults
  21. 21. Ribbed vault
  22. 22. Fan vault A fan vault is a form of vault used in the Gothic style, in which the ribs are all of the same curve and spaced equidistantly, in a manner resembling a fan
  23. 23. Technical Parts of vaults Groin vault : is produced by the intersection at right angles of two barrel vaults. The word "groin" refers to the edge between the intersecting vaults. Sometimes the arches of groin vaults are pointed instead of round Ridge rib: A principal rib of a vault along either the longitudinal or t ransverse ridge. Lozenge: lozenge refers to a thin rhombus—a rhombus with acute angles of less than 45°
  24. 24. Structure Behavior
  25. 25. Structure Behavior
  26. 26. Consolidation in Vault Three Methods 1-Haunched 2- buttressed 3- flying Buttress
  27. 27. Main Construction system As like arch the centering is a main construction method for vault
  28. 28. a dome is a hollow semi-spherical structural element Domes evolved from arches, by rotation arch 360 degree The ‘Building Construction Handbook’ describes domes as: ‘Double curvature shells which can be rotationally formed by any curved geometrical plane figure rotating about a central vertical axis. A dome is a rounded vault made of either curved segments or a shell of revolution, meaning an arch rotated around its central vertical axis Traditional domes can be highly-efficient structures, similar to arches. They are self-supporting, stabilized by the force of gravity acting on their weight to hold them in compression. Definition
  29. 29. Types of Domes Semi circular dome 1- According to Geometry HEMISPHERICAL DOME Onion dome:- Is a dome tapering smoothly to a point Saucer dome :- it’s a low pitched shallow dome
  30. 30.  Corbel dome 1- According to Building technique  dome on pendentive  Squinch dome Umbrella dome Geodesic dome Monolithic dome
  31. 31. Structure Behavior However, the weight of traditional domes produces downward and outward thrusts. The downward thrust must be transferred to the foundations, whilst the outward thrust must be resisted to prevent the dome from collapsing. This resistance can be provided by the mass of the supporting walls, by buttresses, or by a tension element such as a perimeter ring, cable or chain 52
  32. 32. Technical Parts of dome  ELEMENTS OF Dome :-  1) cupola  2) lantern  3)dome  4) tholodate(drum)
  33. 33. Technical Parts of dome  A Coffer A coffer in architecture is a series of sunken panels. A cupola is a small, most often dome like structure on top of building. It usually crowns a larger dome. A tholodate or drum is the upright part of building on which dome is raised A lantern is a day lighting cupola architectural element
  34. 34. Technical Parts of dome Whispering gallery  A whispering gallery is a circular, hemispherical, enclosure, often beneath a dome in which whispers can be heard clearly in other parts other gallery GOL GUMBAJ The rotunda is any building with a circular ground plan and covered by a dome A pendentive is constructive device which allows the placement of the circular dome over the square room or elliptical over the rectangular room. A squinch in architecture is a construction filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a base to receive a dome  pendentive
  35. 35. How Arch Convert to Vault and dome
  36. 36. Mesopotamian Architecture
  37. 37. (Geological) Building Material The main material used in ancient near eastern building was mud. Were the stone and timber were rare . The mud is very versatile building material, the mud can be formed into bricks either modeled by hand or shaped and thin dried it in the sun and become hard and they used marsh reeds sometimes. ReedsFired BricksMud brick
  38. 38. The Arch  1-Semi Circular The Arch In Mesopotamian Semi Circular * Arch Corbel arch* •The Royal Tombs at Ur where little stone was available. -Dome construction and corbelled vault are suggested by tombs at ur Palace of Sargon Khorsabad, c 700 BC, reconstruction of the arched passages
  39. 39. 2)Corbel Arch • Corbelling is laying courses or layers of stone or brick so that each course overhangs the one below. When walls are corbelled out from two sides until they meet, a corbelled arch or vault results. Although a structure of this kind is [not as strong] as a true arch, it is easy to make. • Edublalmahr Temple 2100 BC. Ancient Ur, Iraq
  40. 40. The Arch  -The chief method of erecting such structures was to tie clusters of tall reeds into thick, sturdy bundles and then dig holes and sink the ends of the bundles into the ground. The bundles, which stood upright like columns, were bent over and their tops were attached to the tops of other bundles, forming rounded arches. Crosspieces, also made of bundled reeds, connected and braced the arches, after which thick reed mats were tied to the top and sides, forming the structure's roof and walls. One of the methods to construct the arch :-
  41. 41. Dome  The first dome in history was found in the ziggurat that cover the ceiling in the main hall.
  42. 42. The Vault  Laying bricks on their edge is one of the strangest but most defining features of ancient Mesopotamian and Parthian architecture. This unusual method, which was passed on to the Sassanians and the Umayyads, can easily be explained for arches and vaults (due to the described building process without centering). •The oldest brick vault of this kind, found at Akkadian palace
  43. 43. The Vault •1) The Pitched Vault • example of a pitched brick barrow example of a pitched brick barrow
  44. 44. The Vault -The pitched brick vault is initially supported by a single bearing wall at the back. The courses of the vault are then laid at right angles to the courses of the wall. Each vault course is tipped somewhat off the vertical so that the initial courses lean against the back wall, and subsequent courses rest against the first. This vertical orientation of the courses, in addition to the tip or pitch, distinguishes the pitched vault from Radial construction where the vault merges into the wall surface. The construction of the pitched vault :-
  45. 45. The Vault  The Brick vaulted culverted The Assyrians they used anew technique to construction the vault • brick vaulted culvert at Khorsabad
  46. 46. NUBIAN TECHNIQUE Nubian Vault construction uses local skills and labor and renewable materials. the courses were laid almost vertically the blocks used were adobes,(sun dried bricks), The basis of this technique is that the blocks adhere to each other with earth glue. The principle is that the dry block sucks by capillarity the water along with the clay of the glue which will bind the blocks. It is essential that the blocks are very thin, Ayn Asil in Daklha,
  47. 47. advantage disadvantage build vaults and domes without centering. the earth glue is very liquid (induces cracks),and the blocks are very thin.
  48. 48. Contraction VAULTS  1)The back wall should be built first.  2) A template is needed to ensure the shape of the vault,  3) create a net of string lines between the back wall and the template.  4) Starting the vault,(inclined course)  5)Construct courses with applying mortar  6) When the first arch is completed Build arch after arch
  49. 49. Egyptian Architecture
  50. 50. The Vault Figure 1. The earliest known vaults in Egypt in tomb Qa'a at Saqqara composed by one course of adobe masonry ADOBE VAULT The adobe vault is one of the most protracted types ever invented across the Ancient Egyptian civilization since First Dynasty period till the Coptic era. Ancient Egyptians developed betimes these vaults after they had known the construction using mud brick. The Ancient Egyptian architects used the adobe vaults above the ground (in houses and magazines) and under the ground (in tombs).
  51. 51. construction techniques The adobe masonry barrel vaults in Ancient Egypt were constructed of courses of horizontal or upright mud-bricks laid tilted, at a slight angle to the vertical, against the supporting wall, Figure 2 (Van Beck, 1987; Spencer, 1979a). The inclination of the bricks from the vertical led most of the weight of each brick to transfer to the lower course which already had been laid rather than acting downwards, thus, the weight of each new brick was borne by those already laid. The brick was held in its position and stuck to the brick of the lower course by mud mortar.
  52. 52. construction techniques Ancient Egyptian architect used in the construction of the adobe barrel vaults bricks with specific shapes. To reduce the weight of the vault, the bricks were thinner than the ordinary bricks. Also, straw was added for weight reducing and to give some tensile strength to the brick and thus minimizing cracking. Bricks were given the wedged-shape to be more appropriate to the vault construction.
  53. 53. Roman Architecture
  54. 54. voussoir arch  voussoir arch /ture arch is rightly considered to be one of the fundamental elements in conquest of space .contribution made by roman in monumental architecture .  It is tarquins in sixth century the constriction of Drain .gates. City wall. Vaulted tomb Cloaca Maxima Oldest model Long underground vaulted channel draining water from the low lying forum romanun into the Tiber
  55. 55. Construction
  56. 56. Greek Architecture the dome  Internal Dome of Treasury of Atreus 1250 BC, Greece  1) The Corbel Dome  It is formed of a semi-subterranean  room of circular plan, with a corbel arch  covering that is ogival
  57. 57. THE DOME  The construction of the dome Massive stones, used to guarantee the vault's stability over time in bearing the force of compression from its own weight
  58. 58. Geological Building Material  Concrete was probably the greatest Roman contribution to architecture. Roman concrete, called opus caementicium was made with a special Roman mortar or cement, called casement , created by mixing water, lime, and a special volcanic ash sand, called pozzolana, that gave Roman casement its special strength.
  59. 59. THE DOME  -Temple of Mercury at Baiae 2)The Monolithic Dome (masonry dome) dome is made of one solid piece of material.
  60. 60. THE DOME  The construction of the dome  Its construction begins with a circular concrete foundation, the Construction technique is the centering was composed of eight equally spaced timber trusses that were supported with a central column  the problem : large variations in the building plan when compared with the ideal circular plan that a dome should have.  Theories about the problem : 1) the centering was not well constructed and positioned 2) the centering was composed of eight timber trusses that were accidentally unequally spaced and there was no center column support
  61. 61. THE DOME  Temple of Minerva Medica at Rome 3) octagonal umbrella dome the lower part octagonal and the upper part a semicircular calotte
  62. 62. THE DOME  The construction technique :stiffening method of brick lattice  1)the large lattice ribs land directly on portions of the supporting octagon that continue down to the ground.  2) The smaller lattice ribs actually land on portions of the supporting octagon that have openings below.  Romans did not use lattice ribbing purely for carrying the loads of the dome but also for distributing the loads
  63. 63. THE DOME  The construction of the dome :- 1) the eight supporting pillars are linked by an equal number of flat arches. 2) built using square bricks 3) Above them is a domical vault with eight cells (shown as a cloister vault) right up to the oculus at the top ) the vault can be interpreted as two vaults on top of each other( platbands (bricks and concrete) timber framework supporting blocks (travertine) contrasting arches (bricks and concrete)
  64. 64. The Vault 1) Barrel vault Circular in shape and semi cylindrical in appearance. -Series of arches placed side by side is known as barrel roof. -It is the simplest form of vault. -It is best for roofing purpose.
  65. 65. The Vault  The construction of the barrel vault :- It’s initially supported by a single bearing wall at the back. The courses of the vault are then laid at right angles to the courses of the wall Each vault course is tipped somewhat off the vertical so that the initial courses lean against the back wall, and subsequent courses rest against the first.
  67. 67. Barrel Vault at Bath, England Barrel Vault at Bath, England Romans did not use large barrel vaults often, due to the need to create thick, buttressed walls, mostly without windows on each side to support the outward force of the vault. One example is seen at Bath in England where a 10.5 meter vault was created over the baths. The builders accomplished this with a system of brick ribs filled in between with hollow brick voussoirs to reduce the weight of the vault. Even so, the vault eventually collapsed. Hollow brick ,ribs vault
  68. 68. Lighted vault
  69. 69. The Vault You make a groin vault by building two barrel vaults that cross each other, so that they make an X.
  70. 70. The Vault  The construction of the Groin Vault Load bath way: the Groin Vault takes all the weight of the roof and concentrates it on just four points at the corners of each bay (each X). If you have a buttress at each corner, you don't need to have a solid wall between those buttresses, because that wall isn't holding much weight accomplish the multiple goals of minimum materials use, wide span of construction, ability to achieve lateral illumination, and avoidance of lateral stresses.
  71. 71. Byzantine Architecture
  72. 72. The Dome *Geometry A squinch in architecture is a construction filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome. Another solution of this structural problem was provided by the pendentive. Dome on pendentive Pendentive is the term given to a construction element that allows a dome to be placed over square or rectangular spaces. Pendentives are triangular segments of a sphere that spread at the top and taper to points at the bottom Dome on squinch
  73. 73. The Dome *Geometry
  74. 74. The Dome *Structure Behavior How a Squinch Works A squinch is a wedge that fits on the top corners of a square space. At the point where the dome's bottom edge meets the room's upper horizontal edges, four triangular-like wedges (often similar to a small bridge or arch) are placed in the corners. How a Pendentive Works A pendentive also supports a dome but it's more complicated, using geometry to create a series of curving and arched supports., a pendentive is a spherical triangle that serves as an arch. Architects used four pendentives on the upper corners of a room, where they arched inward to meet the dome's circular base. One of the earliest examples of pendentives can be found in Hagia Sophia,
  75. 75. The Dome *Hagia Sophia *Hagia Sophia Dome is carried on four pendentives and these pendentives enable its transition into the square shape of its piers below *These pendentives distribute the weight of the dome to the walls under it.
  76. 76. The Dome Materials used in construction These domes were frequently constructed of bricks or of some light porous stone
  77. 77. Islamic Architecture --Umayyad --abbsuiad --Fatimah
  78. 78. Horseshoe Arch  This was first employed in the Umayyad Mosque of Damascus (706-715,  They are often mounted onto front doors of houses  The horseshoe arch allowed more height then the classical (semi-circular) arch as well as better aesthetic and decorative use. Islamic Arches Horseshoe Transverse Pointed poly-lobed Multi foil The arch was first employed for structural and functional purposes but progressively it became used for decorative purposes.
  79. 79.  The first use of arches in Islamic architecture In the horseshoe arch, the half-circle of the arch starts to turn in on itself before meeting the top of its supporting columns. The hypostyle hall in the Great Mosque at Cordoba, Spain, is a example of this type of arch. The shape of the horseshoe arch allowed architects to achieve greater height in the arches and it gave an opportunity for greater visual pattern and rhythm in the design. The hypostyle hall in the Great Mosque at Cordoba, Spain Horseshoe arch in Great Mosque at Cordoba
  80. 80. Transverse Arch  The use of the transverse arch, in which the arch structurally spans the space between a pillar and the wall instead of another pillar, allowed architects to use slimmer pillars instead of thick columns in arcades.  used in many Gothic cathedrals. Coupled with the four-centered arch –  a low, slightly pointed arch shape that has a center of gravity below the crown of the pillars -- transverse arches allowed Islamic architects to cover large spaces and led to the development of the pointed arch.  The use of the transverse arch over the nave not only provided greater safety and durability but also gave the final shape of the nave especially in terms of height and roof. the transverse arch in the Palace of Ukhaidir
  81. 81. Pointed Arch  Many art historians believe the pointed arch originated in Islamic architecture. As early as The Dome of the Rock, built in 691, one sees arches with a slight point. The pointed arch had a major architectural advantage in that it centered the load-bearing thrust of the building on a vertical point, so that more of the building's weight could be supported on the exterior, usually with the use of buttresses, instead of with walls and interior columns. This allowed for thinner pillars, higher ceilings, the support of larger domes and overall gave the building a lighter, more open feel.
  82. 82.  The first appearance of the pointed arch in the Muslim World was traced to the Al-Aqsa Mosque,
  83. 83.  Geometry two centers The main advantage of the pointed arch was that it concentrated the thrust of the vault on a narrow vertical line that could be supported by flying buttresses, a major feature of European Gothic architecture. The pointed arch enabled reduction of the lateral thrust on the foundations Structure behavior
  84. 84. Different between pointed and round arch
  85. 85. Multi foil Arch  Sometimes called the cusped arch, multifold arches contain arches within arches. some examples can be found in the Great Mosque in Cordoba, alongside horseshoe arches. The main architectural benefit to multifold arches is decorative -- like horseshoe arches, they provide opportunity for greater visual pattern and rhythm; and indeed the shape of multifold arches was completely removed from arches to become a pattern motif on some buildings. But, like the pointed arch, multifold arches also centered the thrust of the weight they carried to a single vertical point, which allowed for all the structural benefits of a pointed arch. Great Mosque in Cordoba , spain
  86. 86. Vault
  87. 87. Groin (or cross) vaults & Sail (or spherical) vaults. Groin or cross vaults in stone masonry were not used extensively in Umayyad period (probably due to its demanding technical requirements when built entirely in stone masonry, Construction many of the masonry and brick-built arches, the actual arch began at a higher level than the formal springing line, since the construction of the first voussoirs, in many cases horizontally projecting courses, didn’t require centering
  88. 88. Cross vaults Sail, or spherical vaults can be understood as a particular case of cross vaults with semicircular groins (the diagonal intersecting arches) and thus an apex higher than the crown of the main lateral - - Sail, or spherical vaults can be understood as a particular case of cross vaults with semicircular groins (the diagonal intersecting arches)
  89. 89. Dome The first examples known appear in Al-hakam II’s extension of the Great Mosque of Córdoba, between the years 961 and 965.  Crossed-arch domes are a singular type of ribbed vaults. Their characteristic feature is that the ribs that form the vault are intertwined, forming polygons or stars, leaving an empty space in thecentre. The fact that the earliest known vaults of this type are found in the Great Mosque of
  90. 90. GEOMETRY 3 Geometry is a key feature of crossed-arch vaults. There is an enormous range of possibilities for the design of the plan projection of these vaults. However, spatial geometry must be simultaneously considered, as some designs might present incompatibilities in their geometry when implemented in three dimensions the central dome of the Great Mosque of Cordoba we find a scheme originated from two squares rotated in plan, and inscribed inside a third square
  91. 91. Construction of Islamic dome Arab make use of the ribs to organize the decorative brick bond in the webs, but always constructing a homogeneous intrados. The scale is also different: in Armenia, these vaults are elements applied to the whole of the building, while in Muslim architecture the vault only covers part of , the number of ribs increases while their thickness is reduced, and the domes often feature stalactite ornament and fretwork webs.
  92. 92. Structure behavior Are the ribs the active structure and the webs only a passive load, or, on the contrary, the ribs have merely decorative? (The first theory corresponds to Viollet-le-Duc and Choisy and was considered right until the 1930’s. The second originated in the work of V. Sabouret and, above all, P. Abraham (Huerta, 2009)). If this question is pertinent for gothic vaults it will be also pertinent in the case of the Muslim ribbed vaults and domes. However, the whole matter of the structural behavior of Islamic vaults and domes has been so far neglected
  93. 93. Timber domes In these cases we are again clearly dealing with elements with a strong Byzantine influence in terms of technique and shape: the double wooden ‘Dome of the Rock’ (Qubbat Al-Sakhra) is set on a high drum, pierced with windows by means of transverse wooden wall-plates.
  94. 94. Dome of the Rock