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Sequential batch reactor (SBR)

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A presentation on treatment of dairy wastewater by SBR.

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Sequential batch reactor (SBR)

  1. 1. A PRE-THESIS PRESENTATION ON Presented By: PRASHANT SRIVASTAVA Scholar No: 162111302 “ENVIRONMENT ENGINEERING ” DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING MAULANA AZAD NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BHOPAL DEC 2017
  2. 2. LIST OF CONTENTS  Introduction  Working principles of SBR  Phases/Stages in SBR  Objective of the study  Need of study  Differences between ASP & SBR  Operational parameters  Efficiency of Removal  Standards for Dairy Industry  Literature Review  Advantages  Limitations  Expected Outcomes  Benefits to Society  Proposed Methodology  Work plan  References
  3. 3. DAIRY WASTE WATER  High nitrogen load and chemical oxygen demand (COD), BOD in comparison to other food industry.  According to CPHEEO manual 3 liters of wastewater generated for 1 liter milk production.  EFEECTS OF DAIRY WASTE WATER:- 1. Environmental effect 2. Effects on water 3. Effects on soil
  4. 4. Sequential Batch Reactor  In a conventional activated sludge system, unit processes would be accomplished by using separate tanks.  Sequential batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater.  The difference between the two technologies is that the SBR performs equalization, biological treatment, and secondary clarification in a single tank using a timed control sequence.
  5. 5. SBR Working Principles  SBR technology is a method of wastewater treatment in which all phases of the treatment process occur sequentially within the same tank.  The sequencing batch reactor is a fill and draw activated sludge system. In this system, wastewater is added to a single “batch” reactor, treated to remove undesirable components, and then discharged.
  6. 6. Diagram showing SBR operating principles SOURCE: pvs.at
  7. 7. Various phases in a typical SBR process
  8. 8. Fill Phase  During the fill phase, the basin receives influent wastewater. The influent brings food to the microbes in the activated sludge, creating an environment for biochemical reactions to take place.
  9. 9. Types of fill phase Static fill Mixed fill Aerated fill
  10. 10. React Phase  During this phase, no wastewater enters the basin and the mechanical mixing and aeration units are on.  This phase allows for further reduction of wastewater parameters
  11. 11. Settle Phase  During this phase, activated sludge is allowed to settle under quiescent condition . The activated sludge tends to settle as a flocculent mass.
  12. 12. Decant Phase  Clarified treated effluent (supernatant) is removed from the tank.  No surface foam or scum is decanted.
  13. 13. Idle Phase  This step occurs between the decant and the fill phases.  The idle period is used when the system is waiting for enough effluent to process.
  14. 14. Objectives of the Study  To study the problem related to the conventional methods of treatment of wastewater.  To find the best alternative technology possible.  To study the treatment of dairy wastewater using SBR technology by obtaining COD, TSS, Ph, TKN.
  15. 15. Need of Study  It is provided mainly in urban region where less area is available.  Basic requirement for SBR is basin only so old treatment plants units can be upgraded to SBR easily.  ASP is not able to treat nitrogen and phosphorous load.
  16. 16. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ASP & SBR  SBR system has oxygen dissolving capacity higher than ASP.  SBR provides Higher Fecal coliform removal efficiencies with less cost and space.  As the effluent quality is better in case of SBR system than in ASP system, it helps in maintaining quality of water body in which its effluent is being disposed.  SBR system is flexible in nature, it can be expanded in future while in ASP its not an easy task.
  17. 17. OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS (ASP)  Design Parameters for activated sludge systems for sewage (CPHEEO manual)  Sr.no Parameters Units Conventional Complete mix Extended  1 Flow Regime Plug Flow Complete mix Complete mix  2 F/M ratio 1/d 0.3 – 0.4 0.3 – 0.5 0.1 – 0.18  3 Өc D 5 – 8 5 – 8 10 – 25  4 MLSS mg/l 1500 – 3000 3000 - 4000 3000 – 5000  5 MLVSS/MLSS Ratio 0.8 0.8 0.6  6 HRT Hrs 4 – 6 4 – 5 12 – 24  7 BOD Removal % 85 – 92 85 – 92 95 – 98
  18. 18. OPERATIONAL PARAMETERS (SBR)  Design Parameters for SBR systems for sewage (CPHEEO manual)  Sr.no Parameters Units Continuous& Intermittent Decant Intermittent Flow &Decant  1 F/M ratio 1/d 0.05-0.08 0.05-0.3  2 Sludge age D 15-20 4-20  3 MLSS mg/l 3000-4000 3500-5000  4 Cycle Time H 4-8 2.5-6  5 Settling Time H >0.5 >0.5  6 Decant Depth M 1.5 2.5  7 Process oxygen BOD Kg O2/kg BOD 1.1 1.1
  19. 19. Efficiency of Removal  The avg. performance data values(CPHEEO manual)  Parameters SBR ASP  BOD 89-98% 85-95%  TSS 85-97% 85-90%  Total Nitrogen Removal >75% No treatment  Phosphorus removal 57-69% No treatment  Total Coliforms 99% 90-96%
  20. 20. Objective Methodology Results 1. This paper aims to study the characteristics & treatment of Dairy Industry Wastewater. 1) Collection of sample from a dairy and analyzing the parameters. 2) Preparation of model of Down flow Fixed Bed reactor (anaerobic process ) 3) Acclimatization by Digested piggery sludge. 4) Treatment of dairy industry wastewater by DFBR. 5) Analyzing the effluent characteristics of treated Wastewater. 1) BOD removal efficiencies with respect to HRT of 0.5 day, 1 day, 2 day ,4 day are 7.86%, 22.34%, 53%, 95.48% . 2) The pollutants like nitrogen and phosphorous also can be removed. 3) Dairy Industry Waste water treatment plants are required to be designed to achieve nutrient removal in order to protect aquatic ecosystem. LITERATURE REVIEW Ashish Tikariha, Omprakash Sahu
  21. 21. Objective Methodology Results 1. This paper aims to study the Degradation of phenol using SBR. 1) Preparation of sample in lab. 2) Preparation of model of Sequential Batch Reactor (column type). 3) Acclimatization by garden soil bacteria + cow dung. 4) Treatment of sample by SBR. 5) Analyzing the effluent characteristics of treated Sample. 1) The phenol removal efficiency of 94%, 94%, 95%, 97% and 92% is obtained with initial phenol concentration of 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 150 ppm, 200 ppm and 250ppm is respectively. It is found that the maximum percentage of removal of phenol is 97% with 200 ppm of initial phenol concentration. 2) Variation of aeration rate also affects the removal efficiency (increase in aeration rate, the SBR efficiency increases). LITERATURE REVIEW Rajkumar V. Raikar, Rekha Patil, Arjun Virupakshi
  22. 22. Objective Methodology Results 1. This paper aims to study the Aerobic treatment of dairy wastewater with sequencing batch reactor systems. 1) They collected the sample from a dairy research farm. 2) Preparation of lab scale model of Sequential Batch Reactor with diffused oxygen for aeration. 3) Acclimatization by activated sludge filtrate. 4) Treatment of sample by SBR. 5) Analyzing the effluent characteristics of treated Sample. 1) The COD removal efficiency for 1 day, 2 day , 3 day HRT are as 80.2%, 84.2%, 85.3%. 2) TKN removal efficiency for 1day, 2 day, 3 day HRT are as 75%, 76.3%, 78.8%. LITERATURE REVIEW Xiujin Li, Ruihong Zhang
  23. 23. Objective Methodology Results 1. This paper aims to study Effective Method of Treating Wastewater from Meat Processing Industry Using Sequencing Batch Reactor. 1) Collection of sample. 2) Preparation of model of SBR with air diffuser at the bottom. 3) Acclimatization by activated sludge. 4) Treatment of sample by SBR model. 5) Analyzing the effluent characteristics of treated Wastewater. 1) BOD& COD level was reduced up to 90% – 95%. 2) The final effluent was a clear, odorless,and yellowish liquid with a reduction in turbidity by 90%. LITERATURE REVIEW M Baskar, Dr. B. Sukumaran
  24. 24. Objective Methodology Results 1. This paper aims to study the Sequential batch reactor for dairy wastewater treatment: Parametric optimization, kinetics and waste sludge disposal. 1) SDW was prepared in the laboratory by dissolving 4 g of milk powder of Amulya brand per litre of distilled water. 2) Preparation of lab scale model of Sequential Batch Reactor with air diffuser and mixer, rotameter. 3) Acclimatization by AS collected from Haridwar sewage treatment plant. 4) Treatment of sample by SBR model. 5) Analyzing the effluent characteristics of treated Sample. 1) COD removal efficiency for 15hour, 17.14 hour, 20 hour , 24 hour , 30 hour are as 92.69%, 93.46%, 93.85%, 96.54%, 97.05% 2) TKN removal efficiency for 15hour, 17.14 hour, 20 hour , 24 hour , 30 hour are as 49.85%, 56.57%, 61.29%, 64.61%. LITERATURE REVIEW Jai Prakash Kushwaha, Vimal Chandra Srivastava , Indra Deo Mall
  25. 25. Advantages of SBR  Equalization, primary clarification, biological treatment and secondary clarification can be achieved in a single reactor vessel.  SBR requires small space.  SBR has controllable react time and quiescent settling.  Minimal footprint.  High nutrient removal capabilities.  The BOD removal efficiency is generally 85 to 90%  Filamentous growth elimination
  26. 26. Limitations of SBR  A higher level of sophistication is required especially for larger systems, of timing units and controls.  Higher level of maintenance associated with more sophisticated controls, automated switches, and automated valves.  FBBR enables better removal of biological nutrients without excessive usage of chemicals. SBR also uses coagulants (generally lime or alum) to remove phosphate from sewage which potentially increases the sludge volume.  Potential plugging of aeration devices during selected operating cycles, depending on the aeration system used by the manufacturer.  Fluidized Bed Bio Reactor is a continuous flow reactor (CFR) with enhanced bacterial activity through the introduction of special bio media, The core process advantage of FBBR is the availability of high specific area for micro organisms.
  27. 27. Expected Outcomes  The pollutant removal efficiency of SBR system is higher for nitrogen and phosphate.  SBRs combine all of the treatment steps and processes it will result in low land area requirement.  High BOD removal efficiency is expected.  It can also remove heavy metal such as Zn, Cu, Pb.
  28. 28. Benefits to Society  Highly efficient and economic technology in comparison to present methods of treatment (ASP)  As nitrogen removal is also possible, it will help against Blue baby syndrome.  As Nutrient removal is possible (N&P), it will help against Algal bloom maintaining quality of water body in which its effluent is being disposed.
  29. 29. PROPOSED METHODOLOGY TREATMENT OF SAMPLE WITH VARYING HRTs & DETERMINATION OF ITS EFFECT ON COD, TSS, Ph, TKN COLLECTION OF RESULTS ANALYSIS OF RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS Identification of the problem related to the conventional methods of treatment of wastewater Finding the best alternative possible (SBR) CONSTRUCTION OFA LAB SCALE SBR MODEL ACCLIMATIZATION OF WASTEWATER BY AS WITH MILK POWDER FOR 15-20 DAYS Collection of data and literature COLLECTION OF SAMPLE OF DAIRY WASTEWATER FROM HABIBGANJ ACCLIMATIZATION OF WASTEWATER
  30. 30. Work Plan 31 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Detailed Study of Literature Laboratory work Analysis of laboratory test results Final Thesis report Preparation Months Activities
  31. 31. 32 S. No. Activity Sub activities Time (months) Schedule 1. Detailed study of literature Detailed study of the existing literature on Sequential Batch Reactor (SBR), Dairy industry wastewater & its characteristics, Effects of dairy effluents, etc 4 August 2017– November 2017 2. Laboratory work Treatment of collected sample with model SBR, acclimatization & variation in characteristics with different HRTs. 4 December 2017 – March 2018 3. Analysis of Results Collection of results like COD, TSS, Ph, TKN. 1 April 2018 4. Final Thesis report Preparation Final thesis report preparation. 1 May 2018 Work Plan
  32. 32. REFERENCES  Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, Reuse. 4th edition. New York: McGraw Hill.  Ashish Tikariha, Omprakash Sahu,Study of Characteristics and Treatments of Dairy Industry Waste Water, DOI:10.12691/jaem-2- 1-4, Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 2014, Vol. 2, No. 1, 16-22  Rajkumar V. Raikar, Rekha Patil, Arjun Virupakshi, Degradation of phenol using Sequential batch reactor, IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, eISSN: 2319-1163, Volume: 04 Issue: 04 | Apr-2015  SBR manual by NEW ENGLAND INTERSTATE WATER POLLUTION CONTROL COMMISSION, 2005  Xiujin Li, Ruihong Zhang, Aerobic treatment of dairy wastewater with sequencing batch reactor systems, DOI 10.1007/s00449-002- 0286-9,Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 25 (2002) 103–109
  33. 33.  M Baskar, Dr. B. Sukumaran, Effective Method of Treating Wastewater from Meat Processing Industry Using Sequencing Batch Reactor, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET), e-ISSN: 2395-0056 ,Volume 2 Issue 2 , May-2015  Bharati S. Shete ,N. P. Shinkar, Dairy Industry Wastewater Sources, Characteristics & its Effects on Environment , International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology ,ISSN 2277 – 4106, Vol.3, No.5 (December 2013)  CPHEEO manual , published 2013  Jai Prakash Kushwaha, Vimal Chandra Srivastava , Indra Deo Mall, Sequential batch reactor for dairy wastewater treatment:Parametric optimization; kinetics and waste sludge disposal, Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering 1 (2013) 1036–1043, 2013 Elsevier Ltd. REFERENCES
  34. 34. THANK YOU 35

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