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Transit oriented development

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The motivation of this study is to explore about Transit Oriented Development (TOD), its parameters and principles. This dissertation includes case studies of areas that show the benefits of TOD and how it is making public transportation feasible near stations and thereby reducing traffic jam problems.

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Transit oriented development

  1. 1. 1 TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT A Dissertation Submitted to Madhav Institute of Technology & Science, Gwalior, 474005 [An autonomous Institute under RAJIV GANDHI PROUDYOGIKI VISHWAVIDYALAYA, Bhopal] IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE of Bachelors in Architecture Submitted By Palak Khandelwal 0901AR121020 (Batch 2012-2017) DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE MADHAV INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE GWALIOR-474005 (M.P) December 2015
  2. 2. 2 DECLARATION I hereby certify that the Dissertation entitled TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT which is being submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Bachelors in Architecture, is a record of my own work carried out under the supervision and guidance of Prof. Vatsalya Sharma, Madhav Institute of Technology & Science, Gwalior. The matter presented in this Dissertation has not been submitted elsewhere for the award of any other degree. Date: Place: Gwalior Palak Khandelwal This is to certify that the above statement made by the candidate is correct to the best of my knowledge and belief. (Dr. R K Pandit) Professor & Head Department of Architecture
  3. 3. 3 ABSTRACT The motivation of this study is to explore about Transit Oriented Development (TOD), its parameters and principles. This dissertation includes case studies of areas that show the benefits of TOD and how it is making public transportation feasible near stations and thereby reducing traffic jam problems. Since Transit Oriented Development (TOD) is a recent technique using certain parameters and components to create the desired development density around transit node, this report also analysed whether the same parameters and components can be used or are applicable to the areas around well-established and recent transit systems in USA and Asia. Comparisons of development process in India and USA has also been analysed. A literature study of the GTB railway station at Mumbai and Karkardooma Metro Station at Delhi was done to study the existing conditions in the zone and what government have planned for the development of the areas so as to increase and promote ridership and additional mixed use development around the studied areas. This study also includes what government is planning for the Vedanta station which is a major part of ‘Naya Raipur Project’. The TOD analysis with respect to the Indian context concluded that some or all of the TOD components, Design, Density and Diversity exists in the areas around the transit stations. Although the population densities around the newly introduced transit systems may be adequate for transit ridership, accessibility to transit and multimodal connectivity is lacking. The proposed transit oriented strategies in India do address new high density development around the transit stations, investing in critical transportation infrastructure and better traffic and transportation management and parking management. Pedestrian safety and convenience are also addressed. The strategies do not address immediate and short term solutions for generating transit ridership and moving people away from private vehicles towards the use of public transportation. Therefore, the proposed strategies may not reduce congestion on an immediate and short term basis. The issue of increasing transit ridership on an ongoing basis is also not addressed. In order to promote transit ridership, the transit oriented strategies must address land use and transportation and short term and long term solutions. The existence of mature and diverse land uses and densities along the transit stations must be recognized. The report also discusses how can ridership be promoted in Indian cities where new transit systems (metro) are being introduced and which already have a fairly high population (two million+) with fairly high population densities.
  4. 4. 4 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 HIGHEST DENSITY AT THE STATION: TOD typically occurs within 1/4 to 1/2 of a transit............ 10 (Source: TOD success stories/www.nhsrail.com) Figure 2 Reform Avenue in Mexico City, Mexico, has vibrant and well designed pedestrian spaces located near transit................................................................................................................................................. 14 (Source: TOD standards- ITDP, www.ITDP.nic.in) Figure 3 this cycling and pedestrian street in Newport Beach, California, USA, prioritizes connectivity for non-motorized travel. Crossings of vehicular streets are made highly visible and beautiful.................... 15 (Source: TOD standards- ITDP, www.ITDP.nic.in) Figure 4 Short blocks and streets in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark; provide direct and varied routes and an environment favourable to pedestrians and cyclists.......................................................... 16 (Source: TOD standards- ITDP, www.ITDP.nic.in) Figure 5 BRT Station in Guangzhou, China................................................................................................. 16 (Source: TOD standards- ITDP, www.ITDP.nic.in) Figure 6 Ground floor retail provides useful goods and services in a high-density development in Hong Kong, China................................................................................................................................................. 17 (Source: TOD standards- ITDP, www.ITDP.nic.in) Figure 7 Mixed uses and prioritized connectivity for pedestrians between housing units are demonstrated in the high-profile development of Jianwai Soho in Beijing, China.................................... 18 (Source: TOD standards- ITDP, www.ITDP.nic.in) Figure 8 the BRT corridor spurred further development along the compact urban area of Zhongshan road, Guangzhou, China. (Source: TOD standards- ITDP, www.ITDP.nic.in).............................................. 19 (Source: TOD standards- ITDP, www.ITDP.nic.in) Figure 9 the Round Towers of Marina City in Chicago, USA, are an example of what not to do. Cars occupy about one third of the structure and contribute to creating a hostile walking environment....... 20 (Source: TOD standards- ITDP, www.ITDP.nic.in) Figure 10 Site.............................................................................................................................................. 21 (Source: http://www.mass.gov/envir/smart_growth_toolkit/pages/CS-tod-concord.html) Figure 11 site view...................................................................................................................................... 21 (Source: http://www.mass.gov/envir/smart_growth_toolkit/pages/CS-tod-concord.html) Figure 12 Residences at Concord Commons.............................................................................................. 22 (Source: http://www.mass.gov/envir/smart_growth_toolkit/pages/CS-tod-concord.html) Figure 13 The railroad behind Concord Commons .................................................................................... 22 Figure 14 Apartments over offices at the Concord Commons development, adjacent to the commuter rail station................................................................................................................................................... 23 (Source: http://www.mass.gov/envir/smart_growth_toolkit/pages/CS-tod-concord.html) Figure 15 Restaurant and retail uses in the historic Concord Centre station building .............................. 23 (Source: http://www.mass.gov/envir/smart_growth_toolkit/pages/CS-tod-concord.html) Figure 16 Landscaped island in the parking lot at Concord Common........................................................ 23
  5. 5. 5 (Source: http://www.mass.gov/envir/smart_growth_toolkit/pages/CS-tod-concord.html) Figure 17 site.............................................................................................................................................. 24 (Source: Downtown Master plan handbook pdf) Figure 18 Market area (a)........................................................................................................................... 26 Figure 19 Market place (b) ......................................................................................................................... 26 Figure 20 Recommended redevelopment blocks ...................................................................................... 27 Figure 21 conceptual redevelopment sketch looking from corner of dunton avenue Bell Street looking southeast.................................................................................................................................................... 27 Figure 22 orange depicts buildings with height between 70-100 ft and blue depicts buildings with height less than or equal to 50 ft .......................................................................................................................... 28 (Source: Downtown Master plan handbook pdf) Figure 23 Street elements.......................................................................................................................... 29 (Source: Downtown Master plan handbook pdf) Figure 24 Downtown Gateway sign ........................................................................................................... 29 (Source: Downtown Master plan handbook pdf) Figure 25 Public parking in the area........................................................................................................... 30 (Source: Downtown Master plan handbook pdf) Figure 26 site plan ...................................................................................................................................... 31 (Source: Downtown Master plan handbook pdf) Figure 27 Ariel View ................................................................................................................................... 32 (Source: Downtown Master plan handbook pdf) Figure 28 bus service.................................................................................................................................. 32 (Source: Downtown Master plan handbook pdf) Figure 29 Proposed parking outside the apartments................................................................................. 33 (Source: http://www.ci.emeryville.ca.us/767/Project-Description) Figure 30 GTB nagar before TOD................................................................................................................ 36 (Source: http://www.ci.emeryville.ca.us/767/Project-Description) Figure 31 GTB nagar after TOD................................................................................................................... 36 (Source: http://www.ci.emeryville.ca.us/767/Project-Description) Figure 32 EXISTING SITE PLAN.................................................................................................................... 39 (Source: http://www.ci.emeryville.ca.us/767/Project-Description) Figure 33 EXISTING VIEW ........................................................................................................................... 39 (Source: 30 Ha Site at Kadkaduma Metro Station by Meenakshi) Figure 34 Proposed Land use pattern ........................................................................................................ 40 (Source: 30 Ha Site at Kadkaduma Metro Station) Figure 35 Proposed Site Plan...................................................................................................................... 41 (Source: 30 Ha Site at Kadkaduma Metro Station) Figure 36 Zoning - Commercial area according to DDA ............................................................................. 41 (Source: 30 Ha Site at Kadkaduma Metro Station)
  6. 6. 6 Figure 37 Zoning- Civic Amenities .............................................................................................................. 42 (Source: East Delhi Hub: Integrated development of 30 Ha land at Karkardooma based on TOD development norms- first TOD project”-DDA) Figure 38 Zoning- Residential areas ........................................................................................................... 42 (Source: East Delhi Hub: Integrated development of 30 Ha land at Karkardooma based on TOD development norms- first TOD project”-DDA) Figure 39 Proposed View-1 ........................................................................................................................ 43 (Source: East Delhi Hub: Integrated development of 30 Ha land at Karkardooma based on TOD development norms- first TOD project”-DDA) Figure 40 Proposed view-2......................................................................................................................... 43 (Source: East Delhi Hub: Integrated development of 30 Ha land at Karkardooma based on TOD development norms- first TOD project”-DDA) Figure 41..................................................................................................................................................... 45 (Source: East Delhi Hub: Integrated development of 30 Ha land at Karkardooma based on TOD development norms- first TOD project”-DDA) Figure 42..................................................................................................................................................... 45 (Source: http://www.urbanmobilityindia.in/Upload/Conference/28d4baef-7971-4712-ac21-3b95c26aa1ae.pdf) Figure 43..................................................................................................................................................... 45 (Source:http://www.urbanmobilityindia.in/Upload/Conference/28d4baef-7971-4712-ac21-3b95c26aa1ae.pdf) Figure 44..................................................................................................................................................... 46 (Source: http://www.urbanmobilityindia.in/Upload/Conference/28d4baef-7971-4712-ac21-3b95c26aa1ae.pdf) Figure 45..................................................................................................................................................... 46 (Source: http://www.urbanmobilityindia.in/Upload/Conference/28d4baef-7971-4712-ac21-3b95c26aa1ae.pdf) Figure 46..................................................................................................................................................... 46 (Source: http://www.urbanmobilityindia.in/Upload/Conference/28d4baef-7971-4712-ac21-3b95c26aa1ae.pdf) Figure 47..................................................................................................................................................... 47 (Source:http://www.urbanmobilityindia.in/Upload/Conference/28d4baef-7971-4712-ac21-3b95c26aa1ae.pdf) Figure 48..................................................................................................................................................... 47 (Source:http://www.urbanmobilityindia.in/Upload/Conference/28d4baef-7971-4712-ac21-3b95c26aa1ae.pdf) Figure 49..................................................................................................................................................... 47 (Source:http://www.urbanmobilityindia.in/Upload/Conference/28d4baef-7971-4712-ac21-3b95c26aa1ae.pdf) Figure 50..................................................................................................................................................... 48 (Source:http://www.urbanmobilityindia.in/Upload/Conference/28d4baef-7971-4712-ac21-3b95c26aa1ae.pdf) Figure 51..................................................................................................................................................... 48 (Source:http://www.urbanmobilityindia.in/Upload/Conference/28d4baef-7971-4712-ac21-3b95c26aa1ae.pdf) Figure 52..................................................................................................................................................... 48 (Source:http://www.urbanmobilityindia.in/Upload/Conference/28d4baef-7971-4712-ac21-3b95c26aa1ae.pdf) Figure 53..................................................................................................................................................... 49 (Source:http://www.urbanmobilityindia.in/Upload/Conference/28d4baef-7971-4712-ac21-3b95c26aa1ae.pdf)
  7. 7. 7 Figure 54 Current condition Figure 55 Expected in future after TOD .................................................................................................................................................................... 49 (Source:http://www.urbanmobilityindia.in/Upload/Conference/28d4baef-7971-4712-ac21-3b95c26aa1ae.pdf) (Source: Author) Table 1 CONCLUSION FROM THE ABOVE CASE STUDIES ........................................................................... 50 Table 2 COMPARISION BETWEEN USA AND INDIA FOR TOD STRATEGIES................................................. 52
  8. 8. 8 CONTENT S.No. CHAPTERS PAGES 1. WHAT IS TOD? 8 1.1 INTRODUCTION 8 1.2 DEFINING TRANSIT 9 1.3 TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT 9 1.4 SCALE OF TOD 10 1.5 FACTORS DRIVING THE TREND TOWARDS TOD 10 2. DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND COMPONENTS 11 2.1 PRINCIPLES OF TOD 11 2.2 COMPONENTS OF TOD 18 2.3 MAIN ELEMENTS OF TOD 18 2.4 BENEFITS 18 3. CASE STUDIES 19 3.1 CONCORD COMMONS 19 3.2 DOWNTOWN ARLINGTON HEIGHTS 22 3.3 EMERY STATION PLAZA 29 4. TOD STATUS IN INDIA 32
  9. 9. 9 4.1 WHY IS IT NEEDED IN INDIA? 32 4.2 IDENTIFYING TOD ZONES 32  MUMBAI- GTB RAILWAY STATION 33  DELHI- KARKARDOOMA METRO STATION 35  NAYA RAIPUR- VEDANTA STATION AREA 42 5. TOD STRATEGIES AROUND THE WORLD 48 5.1 SUMMARY OF THE ABOVE CASE STUDIES 48 5.2 COMPARISION OF TOD STRATEGIES IN INDIA AND USA 49 6. CONCLUSION 51 7. REFERENCES 52
  10. 10. 10 CHAPTER-1-WHAT IS TOD? “A developed country is not a place where the poor have cars. It’s where the rich use public transport.”-Gustavo Petro, mayor of Bogota Figure 1 HIGHEST DENSITY AT THE STATION: TOD typically occurs within 1/4 to 1/2 of a transit. 1.1 INTRODUCTION After decades of underinvestment in public transport, many national and local governments today are re-focusing on improving public transport to combat the social, economic and health impacts of car traffic congestion on their cities. This is a positive trend, moving away from the urban development form that many cities adopted from the late 20th century and continues in many cities today, in which ever longer and wider roads, separating buildings and blocks from one another, make way for more and more cars. Where public transport investment is taking place, cities are striving to get the most use from of it by building homes, jobs and other services adjacent to this transit infrastructure. The Transit Oriented Development strategy, built on the rich experience of many organizations around the world including our own, addresses development that maximizes the benefits of public transit while firmly placing the emphasis back on the users — people. We call this form of design “transit-oriented development” (TOD), and it marks a key difference from transit- adjacent development, which is simply development located next to transit corridors and stations. TOD implies high quality, thoughtful planning and design of land use and built forms to support, facilitate and prioritize not only the use of transit, but the most basic modes of transport, walking and cycling.
  11. 11. 11 1.2 DEFINING TRANSIT Transit is a singular term used commonly to describe shared public transportation service. Available for general public, it is distinct from taxicabs and hired buses which cannot be shared by strangers without prior arrangement. The word transit refers mainly to public transport modes such as suburban rail, metro/subway rail, light rail/tram and bus rapid transit system (BRTS). Though the word transit is more commonly used in western countries, it is gaining prominence in Asia to describe mass transportation systems. In India, it is also known as public transport. Thus, for instance, suburban rail in Mumbai/Delhi could also be termed transit. 1.3 DEFINING TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT (TOD) Rapid economic growth and urbanization have led to problem of congestion, traffic jams, load on infrastructure, pollution, etc. Along with these, rapidly growing population has very large effect on the housing in the city. Increasing population has to be accommodated in the city, so the problems of slums, unauthorized construction and haphazard development of fringe areas are observed in most of the cities. A sustainable strategy is required to maintain the economic growth and alleviate the problems arising due to the growth. Transit-oriented development (TOD) which concentrates development near and around transit systems to promote transit ridership is one such sustainable development strategy. Transit Oriented Development is essentially any development, macro or micro that is focused around a transit node, and facilitates complete ease of access to the transit facility thereby inducing people to prefer to walk and use public transportation over personal modes of transport. It provides convenient and affordable accessibility to the greatest number of people for the lowest total costs. It creates a truly efficient and equitable community. Over time TOD has come to acquire the meaning of planned development around any type of transit and not necessarily a train station. TOD is not just any development near transit. It is a development that: o Increases “location efficiency” so people can walk, cycle and use public transport o Boosts public transport ridership and reduces use of private vehicles o Provides a rich mix of housing, jobs, shopping and recreational choices o Provides value for the public and private sectors, and for both new and existing residents o Affords an accessible and safe living environment for children, adults, and those of advanced age and limited mobility o Creates a sense of community and place THE PRIMARY GOALS OF TOD ARE: o Create vibrant, liveable, sustainable communities o Create compact, walk able, mixed-use communities centred around high quality train systems.
  12. 12. 12 o Major solution to the serious and growing problems of climate change and global energy security by creating dense walk able communities that greatly reduce the need for driving and energy consumption. o This type of living arrangement can reduce driving by up to 85%. o Reduce/ discourage private vehicle dependency and induce public transport use – through design, policy measures & enforcement. o Provide easy public transport access to the maximum number of people within walking distance –through densification and enhanced connectivity. o To achieve this paradigm shift, TODs offer attractive alternatives to the use of personal modes – pleasurable walking experiences, very easily accessible and comfortable mass transportation with easy, convenient and comfortable intermodal transfers for last mile connectivity and other low cost, comfortable, non- motorized transportation options. o In addition, highest possible population densities (as per local context), enhanced street connectivity, multimodal networks around transit stations and compact mixed-use development providing housing, employment, entertainment and civic functions within walking distance of the transit system offers: 1. an enhanced level of accessibility by non-motorised modes, 2. a reduced trip length to the average commuter, and 3. Economic viability of the public transportation system through substantial non-fare box revenues. 1.4 SCALE OF TOD TOD is the area within the first 400 to 800 metres (1/4 to 1/2 mile) of transit stations – it is not one project, but a compilation of projects. Individually, each project may serve one primary function but as a whole, they create a place. Not all TODs function the same and not all are of the same size. The size of the TOD is dependent on the general scale or intensity of development appropriate for that station based on the function of the station and the accessibility of the TOD from the adjacent neighbourhoods. 1.5 FACTORS DRIVING THE TREND TOWARD TOD: o Rapidly growing, mind-numbing traffic congestion nation-wide o Growing distaste for suburbia and fry-pit strip development o Growing desire for quality urban lifestyle o Growing desire for more walk able lifestyles away from traffic o Changes in family structures: more singles, empty-nesters, etc o Growing national support for Smart Growth.
  13. 13. 13 CHAPTER -2 TOD PRINCIPLES AND COMPONENTS 2.1 PRINCIPLES OF TOD 1. WALK Walking is the most natural, affordable, healthy and clean mode of travel for short distances, and a necessary component of the vast majority of transit trips. As such, walking is a fundamental building block of sustainable transport. Walking is, or can be, the most enjoyable and productive way of getting around, provided that paths and streets are populated and desired services and resources conveniently located. Walking also requires physical effort, and it is highly sensitive to environmental conditions. The key factors to making walking appealing form the basis for the three performance objectives under this principle: safety, activity and comfort. Shortness and directness, other important aspects of walk ability, are discussed under Principle 3 | Connect. • Objective A: The pedestrian network is safe and complete The most basic requirement of urban walk ability is the existence of a safe walking network linking all buildings and destinations, accessible to all persons and protected from motor vehicles. This can be achieved using a variety of configurations of paths and streets. • Objective B: The pedestrian realm is active and vibrant Walking is attractive and safe, and can be highly productive when sidewalks are populated, animated and lined with useful ground-floor activities and services such as storefronts and restaurants. In turn, being closer to passing pedestrians and bicyclists increases the exposure and vitality of local retail. Visually Active Frontage measures the opportunities for visual connection between sidewalks and the interior ground floors of adjacent buildings. All types of premises are relevant, not only shops and restaurants but also workplaces and residences. Physically Permeable Frontage measures active physical connections through the block frontage via entrances and exits to and from storefronts, building lobbies, courtyard entrances, passageways, and so on. • Objective C: The pedestrian realm is temperate and comfortable The willingness to walk can be significantly enhanced with the provision of simple elements that enhance the walking environment such as street trees. Trees, the simplest and most effective way of providing shade in most climates. Trees also bring many environmental and psychological benefits. Various forms of shelter, such as arcades and awnings, can also improve walkability.
  14. 14. 14 Figure 2 Reform Avenue in Mexico City, Mexico, has vibrant and well designed pedestrian spaces located near transit. 2. CYCLE Cycling is an elegant, emission-free, healthy and affordable transport option that is highly efficient and consumes little space and few resources. It combines the convenience of door-to- door travel, the route and schedule flexibility of walking, and the range and speed of many local transit services. Bicycles and other means of people-powered transport, such as pedicabs, activate streets and greatly increase the area coverage of transit stations. Cyclists, however, are among the most vulnerable road users, and their bicycles are also vulnerable to theft and vandalism. The key factors encouraging cycling is the provision of safe street conditions, and secure cycle parking and storage. • Objective A: The cycling network is safe and complete A safe cycling network connecting all buildings and destinations through the shortest routes available is a basic TOD requirement. Cycle Network controls for this provision. Various types of cycle ways, including cycle paths, cycle lanes on roads and cycle-friendly streets can be part of the network. • Objective B: Cycle parking and storage is ample and secure Bicycles do not take up much space but still require secure parking and storage. Cycling can be an attractive travel option only to the extent that cycle racks is available at destinations, and that bicycles can be secured within private premises at night and for longer periods. This cycling
  15. 15. 15 Figure 3 this cycling and pedestrian street in Newport Beach, California, USA, prioritizes connectivity for non-motorized travel. Crossings of vehicular streets are made highly visible and beautiful. 3. CONNECT Short and direct pedestrian and cycling routes require highly connected network of paths and streets around small, permeable blocks. This is primarily important for walking and for transit station accessibility, which can be easily discouraged by detours. A tight network of paths and streets offering multiple routes to many destinations can also make walking and cycling trips varied and enjoyable. Frequent street corners and narrower right of ways, with slow vehicular speed and many pedestrians encourage street activity and local commerce. An urban fabric that is more permeable to pedestrians and cyclists than to cars also prioritizes non-motorized and transit modes. • Objective A: Walking and cycling routes are short, direct and varied The simplest proxy for the quality of path connectivity is the density of pedestrian intersections, which is dependent on small blocks. Small Blocks rewards a development with a small average block size. This combined with the provision of a complete pedestrian network would represent a dense mesh of pedestrian and cycling routes which would offer a wide choice in routes to take to one’s destination, and access to any number of possible activities along the way. • Objective B: Walking and cycling routes are shorter than motor vehicle routes Although high pedestrian and cycling connectivity is an important feature of TOD, road connectivity enhancing motor vehicle travel is not. Prioritized Connectivity compares the two categories and rewards higher ratios of non-motorized travel (NMT) path connectivity to car- accessible road connectivity. Short blocks
  16. 16. 16 Figure 4 Short blocks and streets in the centre of Copenhagen, Denmark; provide direct and varied routes and an environment favourable to pedestrians and cyclists. 4. TRANSIT Transit connects and integrates distant parts of the city for pedestrians. Access and proximity to High-capacity public transit service, defined as bus rapid transit (BRT) or rail transit is a prerequisite for TOD Standard recognition. High-capacity public transit plays a critical role, as it allows for highly efficient and equitable urban mobility, and supports dense and compact development patterns. Transit also comes in various forms to support the entire spectrum of urban transport needs, including low- and high-capacity vehicles, taxis and motorized rickshaws, bi-articulated buses and trains. • Objective A: High-quality transit is accessible by foot The maximum recommended distance to the nearest high-capacity transit station for a transit oriented development is defined as 1 kilometre, a 15- to 20- minute walk. Moreover, by building at higher densities closer to the transit station, a development can maximize the number of people and services that can easily be reached by a short walking distance. Figure 5 BRT Station in Guangzhou, China. 5. MIX
  17. 17. 17 When there is a balanced mix of complementary uses and activities within a local area (e.g., a mix of residences, workplaces and local retail commerce), many daily trips can remain short and walk able. Diverse uses peaking at different times keep local streets animated and safe, encouraging walking and cycling activity, and fostering a vibrant human environment where people want to live. Inbound and outbound commuting trips are also more likely to be balanced, resulting in more efficient operations in the transit system. A mix of housing prices allows some workers to live near their jobs and prevents lower-income residents, who are also the most dependent on lower cost public transit, from being displaced to outlying areas and potentially encouraging this group to become dependent on motor vehicles. Therefore, the two performance objectives for this principle are the provision of a balanced mix of land uses and a balanced mix of resident income levels. • Objective A: Trip lengths are reduced by the provision of diverse and complementary uses Developments that add to the mix of complementary uses allow for a wider range of daily trips to be walk able. Complementary Uses provides developments that are meant for mix residential and non-residential uses. Accessibility to Food provides the availability of fresh groceries as a “litmus test” indicating an area well served by locally oriented and regularly supplied goods and services. Food is also an essential part of daily life, and being able to walk to buy produce and meals contributes to a higher quality of life. • Objective B: Lower-income groups have short commutes Affordable Housing provides mixed-income developments that include dedicated affordable housing. Figure 6 Ground floor retail provides useful goods and services in a high-density development in Hong Kong, China. 6. DENSIFY To absorb urban growth in compact and dense forms, urban areas must grow vertically (Densification) instead of horizontally (sprawl). In turn, high urban densities oriented towards
  18. 18. 18 transit support a transit service of high-quality, frequency and connectivity, and help to generate resources for investment in system improvements and expansions. Transit-oriented density results in well-populated streets, ensuring that station areas are lively, active, vibrant and safe places where people want to live. Density delivers the customer base that supports a wide range of services and amenities and makes local commerce thrive. As many of the most famous and desirable neighbourhoods in the world, high-density living can be highly attractive. The only limits to densification should result from requirements for access to daylight and circulation of fresh air, access to parks and open space, preservation of natural systems, and protection of historic and cultural resources. The performance objective under this principle emphasizes residential and non-residential density to support high-quality transit and local services. • Objective A: Residential and job densities support high-quality transit and local services Land Use Density provides projects that achieve equal or higher densities when compared to comparable projects. The public and private sector must work together to increase allowable residential and non-residential densities, while remaining sensitive to the local context. Figure 7 Mixed uses and prioritized connectivity for pedestrians between housing units are demonstrated in the high-profile development of Jianwai Soho in Beijing, China. 7. COMPACT The basic organizational principle of dense urban development is compact development. In a Compact city, or a compact district, the various activities and uses are conveniently located close together, minimizing the time and energy required to reach them and maximizing the potential for interaction. With shorter distances, compact cities require less extensive and costly infrastructure (though higher standards of planning and design are required), and they preserve rural land from development by prioritizing densification and redevelopment of previously developed land. The principle Compact can be applied to a neighbourhood scale, resulting in spatial integration by good walking and cycling connectivity and orientation toward transit stations. At the scale of a city, being compact means being integrated spatially by public transit systems. The two performance objectives for this principle focus on the proximity of a development to existing urban activity, and short travel time to the major trip generators, in the central and regional destinations.
  19. 19. 19 • Objective A: The development is in an existing urban area To promote densification and the efficient use of previously developed vacant lots such as Brown fields, Urban Site provides development on sites within or at the immediate edge of an urbanized area. • Objective B: Travelling through the city is convenient Transit Options encourages a site to provide multi-modal transport — including different high- capacity transit lines and Para-transit options. Having a number of different transport options means the diverse needs of passengers and travellers can be fulfilled, encouraging more people to use transit in a virtuous cycle. Figure 8 the BRT corridor spurred further development along the compact urban area of Zhongshan road, Guangzhou, China. 8. SHIFT When cities are shaped by the above seven principles, personal motor vehicles become largely Unnecessary in day-to-day life. Walking, cycling and the use of high-capacity transit are easy and convenient, and can be supplemented by a variety of intermediary transit modes and rented vehicles that are much less space-intensive. Scarce and valuable urban space resources can be reclaimed from unnecessary roads and parking, and can be reallocated to more socially and economically productive uses. The performance objective below focuses on these benefits. • Objective A: The land occupied by motor vehicles is minimized Low provision of off-street space for motor vehicles parking is provided. Driveway Density measures the frequency of driveways breaching the protected status of walkways, and provides the minimization of interference of the pedestrian network. Roadway Area provides the reduction of street space occupied by motor vehicles either in the form of road area of on- street parking.
  20. 20. 20 Figure 9 the Round Towers of Marina City in Chicago, USA, are an example of what not to do. Cars occupy about one third of the structure and contribute to creating a hostile walking environment. 2.2 COMPONENTS OF TOD The TOD components are the 3 Ds below: Density (For adequate population density for transit ridership) Diversity (Mixed Use, Mixed Income that use transit) Design (Safe, Comfortable, Active (24X7) Environment created by promoting walkability and access to transit. The 3 Ds define the density, mix of uses and connectivity required within walking distance of transit stations to encourage transit use and a 24 hour environment around the transit stations. 2.3 WHAT ARE THE MAIN ELEMENTS OF TOD? 1. Walk able design with pedestrian as the highest priority 2. Train station as prominent feature of town centre 3. Public square fronting train station 4. A regional node containing a mixture of uses in close proximity (office, residential, retail, civic) 5. High density, walk able district within 10-minute walk circle surrounding train station 6. Collector support transit systems including streetcar, light rail, and buses, etc 7. Designed to include the easy use of bicycles and scooters as daily support transport 8. Large ride-in bicycle parking areas within stations 9. Bike share rental system and bikeway network integrated into stations 10. Reduced and managed parking inside 10-minute walk circle around town centre / train station 11. Specialized retail at stations serving commuters and locals including cafes, grocery, dry cleaners. 2.4 BENEFITS 1. Encourages use of non‐motorized transportation 2. Provides a balanced approach to accommodating growth 3. Creates compact, sustainable urban form 4. Enhances local economic development 5. Promotes more sustainable Infrastructure 6. Increases land values Increases public safety 7. Increases mobility choices 8. Increases disposable household income and increase health benefits.
  21. 21. 21 CHAPTER-3 CASE STUDIES 3.1 CONCORD COMMONS Figure 10 Site Site details: Mixed use development Area: 2.33 acres Zoning: Residential housing development Funding: Private developers Goals: Revitalize the downtown area in Concord, Massachusetts Figure 11 site view BACKGROUND After the creation of the automobile, Concord experienced a large amount of sprawl away from their main train stations. The town wanted to refocus on their downtown and to centre development around the train stations. Concord Commons was constructed as a residential and office space development close to the Centre Village. The development is located adjacent to the train track and near an industrial park, Percy Ride out Playground, and Warner’s Pond. It was constructed in the early 2000s as Concord Commons. A factory called Atlantic Pre-Hung Door was previously located on the site. The developer, Nick Boynton, created housing and office space here with 56 residential units. Residents were engaged with this development through a public hearing process. The developer included 3 units of affordable housing (5%) and he gave the town money to extend walkways through an adjacent park. The site where Concord Commons now stands was zoned industrial, but there was a provision for a special permit process that would allow the combination of industrial, retail, and residential uses. KEY SITE STATISTICS TRANSIT SERVICE ► Commuter rail DEVELOPMENT ► 20 rental apartments ► mixed‐use retail and office ► 180 seat restaurant KEY FEATURES ► Reduced parking requirement with shared parking ► Storm water management system— reduced impervious surface ► new pedestrian pathway to link new mixed-use development to the station
  22. 22. 22 Figure 12 Residences at Concord Commons DEVELOPMENT PROCESS The Concord Common development comprises three mixed use buildings with retail space, office space, a 180 seat restaurant, and 20 rental apartments. The Concord Commons development is just one element of a vibrant mixed‐use neighbourhood surrounding the Concord Centre commuter rail station. The old station building represents a stunning example of historic train stations of the mid‐ 1800s. This meticulously preserved building houses an upscale general store and a restaurant. A mix of retail and office uses line both Thoreau and Sudbury Road within an easy walk to the station. The zoning required 146 parking spaces for the mix of uses proposed. However, the developer negotiated a 15% parking reduction by demonstrating successful shared parking strategies. 15 spaces are dedicated for commuter parking. The Planning Board negotiated a reduction in the impervious lot area from 2.33 acres to 1.93 acres, which allowed for a landscaped garden amenity for residents. A landscaped pathway was incorporated by the developer connecting Sudbury Road to the station platform, providing a more walk able connection to the town centre. Finally, because the Concord Common development directly abuts an established residential neighbourhood, the developer designed the building facing the residential street at a scale that blended well with the existing housing, and provided a vegetative green buffer between the parking lot and the neighbourhood. Figure 13 The railroad behind Concord Commons CONCORD GOALS Housing Choices In addition to providing affordable housing at Concord Commons offered residents the chance to live downtown and closer to a train station.
  23. 23. 23 Figure 14 Apartments over offices at the Concord Commons development, adjacent to the commuter rail station Transportation Choices Concord Commons is located adjacent to train stations, allowing residents to be less dependent on Concord Commons is also located nearby West Concord Centre Village allowing residents to take advantage of the sidewalks across the street by walking instead of driving. Figure 15 Restaurant and retail uses in the historic Concord Centre station building Sustainable Growth Patterns Concord Commons in particular was built as a walk-able mixed use development in a currently developed area where people can live, eat, work, and play. Figure 16 Landscaped island in the parking lot at Concord Common
  24. 24. 24 3.2 Downtown Arlington Heights Arlington Heights, Illinois Site details: Mixed use development Area: 194 acres Zoning: Residential housing development Funding: Public and private funding Goals: Revitalize the downtown area in Arlington Heights Figure 17 site BACKGROUND There have been several attempts at revitalizing the downtown beginning in the 1960s. However, it was not until the early to mid 1980s that the Village began to realize its potential with the development of Dunton Tower and the Vail Avenue municipal public parking garage. The creation of the Village’s first Tax Increment Financing District in 1983 was the impetus for the public/private partnership which allowed the construction of the 800 space parking facility and Dunton Tower. This public/private partnership set the tone for future partnerships in an impressive, award winning downtown redevelopment effort which has spanned over twenty- three years. In April 1987, the Village took steps to adopt the TOD Plan for the downtown area, a guide for future improvements and development. The village of Arlington Heights, west of Chicago, on Metra’s Union Pacific Northwest Line, has seized upon TOD as an integral component of the city’s award‐winning strategy to revitalize its historic downtown. The village has created a virtually new town centre that includes a new Metra station, a performing arts centre, high‐density housing, commercial uses, and public parking decks. In 1980, 350 residents lived in the downtown in 150 units. By 2000, the numbers jumped to 2,200 residents and 1,500 units. Since 1997, public investment of $27 million has leveraged some $225 million in private investment. Critical to downtown redevelopment was the $4.7‐million construction and relocation of a Metra station in 2000. By moving the station one block west and the platforms two blocks west, rail transit is closer to the downtown core, and a large gap between the north and south sides of the tracks has been filled. The relocated site has substantially improved north/south access to the station, made all the more attractive by the addition of parks and public art next to the rail platform. The village‐owned station itself is abuzz with activity, with a McDonald’s KEY SITE STATISTICS TRANSIT SERVICE ► Commuter rail DEVELOPMENT ► 1,500 residential units ► 157,000 sq. ft. retail ► Performing arts facility KEY FEATURES ► CMAP distinction award for central business district train‐station design
  25. 25. 25 restaurant, a bakery cafe, and a Gateway Newsstand. Funds for the station refurbishment were provided by six agencies, including Metra, Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), and the village (which used Tax Increment Financing funds). This project received a distinction award from the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning (CMAP) for Central Business District (CBD) train‐station design. A downtown that is recognized as the business, cultural and entertainment heart of Arlington Heights – offering a thriving business climate, a sense of community and residential pride and is viewed as a desired destination for all residents of the Northwest suburbs. MAIN OBJECTIVE To provide future direction and build upon the successful implementation of the TOD Plan, ensuring continued viability through development and planned growth, while preserving and enhancing those elements that provide for a diverse, attractive downtown. GOALS 1. Promote diversity and concentration of use in the downtown core. 2. Create a quality pedestrian environment. 3. Strengthen downtown’s residential base by encouraging additional residential development. 4. Create a unique identity and positive image. 5. Promote quality development through design review. 6. Emphasize public/private partnership in implementation. 7. Emphasize early action and tangible results. 8. Facilitate growth and development of selected areas including guidelines for redevelopment. 9. Develop retail strategy to attract and retain quality commercial businesses. 10. Evaluate and recommend funding options for long term infrastructure needs, redevelopment, special events and marketing. 11. Develop a marketing plan and strategy, including a communication plan, for the downtown. RETAIL STRATEGY Figure 16- Aerial of Arlington town square looking north on Arlington Heights road, 2006. Figure 17- Aerial of Arlington town square block prior to redevelopment looking north on Arlington Heights road,1992.
  26. 26. 26 The public input solicited by the Village’s consultant, Calder LaTour, indicate that the downtown has become known as a successful place to live, dine and be entertained. One of the primary issues identified in the study is the lack of well-known national and regional stores to attract shoppers. In addition, the drawing power of the major retailers can benefit the smaller, locally owned existing retail businesses. Analysis of retail sales data downtown supports this. To create a stronger downtown retail component, the Task Force recommends: 1. using incentives to attract specific national retailers; 2. building on the retail success of Arlington Towne Square by encouraging additional redevelopment to the west of this property; 3. requiring retail or restaurant uses on first floor commercial space in certain areas of downtown to create a synergy of uses; 4. having the Village continue to take an active role in marketing the downtown; 5. Requiring adequate surface parking in future redevelopment plans. Figure 18 Market area (a) Figure 19 Market place (b) REDEVELOPMENT To build upon the successful revitalization of downtown, the TOD plan has identified several key redevelopment blocks in the downtown and has recommended development guidelines to facilitate continued, planned growth of the downtown. In addition, the Task Force identified Arlington Heights Road from Sigwalt Street to Grove Street and from Northwest Highway to Eastman Street, as gateways to the downtown area, as important redevelopment opportunities. The designated redevelopment areas are highlighted on map.
  27. 27. 27 Figure 20 Recommended redevelopment blocks Figure 21 conceptual redevelopment sketch looking from corner of dunton avenue Bell Street looking southeast. FUNDING OPTIONS o Downtown revitalization could not have occurred without significant public and private funding. o The public sector provided funding for parking garages, streets, sewers and other infrastructure improvements. Other public sector funding provided maintenance and marketing of the downtown. o Without this effective tool, the Village faces the difficult but imperative task of finding funding sources to continue the revitalization effort in downtown.
  28. 28. 28 ZONING / BUILDING HEIGHT 1. The location, shape, and height of buildings, as well as open space and street layout, defines the urban form. 2. In downtown Arlington Heights, the centre core of downtown is one to three stories (less than 40 feet), while the outer portion has developed with taller buildings from approximately 80 feet to 140 feet. 3. Factors influencing these recommendations include existing building heights, development guidelines for each of the redevelopment blocks, main street character and pedestrian scale of the core area, and incentives (height bonuses) to include good design principles to achieve taller heights. 4. The TOD is recommending the following to maintain the urban form: i) Reduce the allowable building height to 70 feet with a maximum of 100 feet with height bonuses, ii) Reduce building height in the downtown core to 50 feet, iii) Modify the height bonus provision of the zoning code to provide additional height above 70 feet if certain amenities are incorporated in the design such as plazas, upper floor setbacks, office space, larger retail spaces, balconies, bay windows, and underground parking. Figure 22 orange depicts buildings with height between 70-100 ft and blue depicts buildings with height less than or equal to 50 ft STREETSCAPE ENHANCEMENTS AND PEDESTRIAN ACCESS An important element of the downtown experience is the visual quality and the ease of getting around as a pedestrian. Since 1987 the Village has greatly enhanced the atmosphere downtown as a desirable, aesthetically pleasing place. Widened brick paver sidewalks, planters, trees, parks and open spaces, decorative benches, trash receptacles, and street lighting all have contributed to the enhancement of downtown. While the importance of these improvements is difficult to measure, the Calder LaTour surveys demonstrate that the patrons of downtown do appreciate these aesthetics. To build on these improvements, the TOD plan recommends enhancements to the downtown streetscape which address both aesthetics and pedestrian access. These include additional planters, new benches and trash receptacles, brick paver crosswalks, extended sidewalks at selected corners, a mid block pedestrian promenade extending from Vail Avenue to Evergreen Avenue south of Campbell Street, decorative street
  29. 29. 29 lights, new street signs, and special treatment of the north to south corridors across the railroad / Northwest Highway right of way. Figure 23 Street elements SIGNAGE The plan recommends the Village allow the downtown use of decorative blade signs that project out from the storefronts of businesses. Such use helps to identify the business enterprise as well as improves the aesthetic element of the streetscape program. The Village should also review and clarify parking garage signage so that motorists can more easily understand where to park. In addition, the Village should expand the directory signage which lists all the businesses in downtown. Figure 24 Downtown Gateway sign PARKING AND TRAFFIC Throughout the country, parking in downtown is one of the more discussed and analyzed topics facing communities. How to balance parking expectations in suburban downtowns with the urban form of a downtown can lead to certain perceptions about parking. In a typical suburban shopping centre or mall, there is often a large expanse of parking in front of or around the perimeter of the buildings. Customers can clearly see how much parking is available as most of the parking lot is visible upon entering the site. In a downtown environment, the available parking is not always immediately in view. Given the urban form of downtown with the grid pattern of the street layout, buildings built to the sidewalks, and the need to utilize land more efficiently, downtowns need to rely on parking garages to provide a significant amount of parking for its users, which include residents, commuters, employees and customers shopping or dining. Therefore it is imperative that the location of parking is communicated through effective signage to users, and that the parking provided, especially in garages, needs to be clean, well maintained, well lit, and user friendly. In addition, blocks which are redeveloped need to provide surface parking on site in order to attract national retailers and provide even more convenient parking downtown.
  30. 30. 30 Figure 25 Public parking in the area
  31. 31. 31 3.3 Emery Station Plaza Emeryville, California Site details: Mixed use development Area: 20 acres Zoning: Retail, commercial and office use Funding: Public and private funding Goals: Reuse of old buildings and new construction Figure 26 site plan BACKGROUND Emery Station is a new 20-acre mixed-use transit-oriented development anchored by an Amtrak station in the city of Emeryville in the East Bay. The site is located on a former contaminated ‘Brownfield’. Wareham Development and the City of Emeryville provided the leadership to implement the project that includes reuse of old industrial buildings and new construction. The project was initiated by the City, which was interested in having a train station in Emeryville. Amtrak’s interest in an Emeryville station, combined with the leadership of the Wareham Development Co., helped transform a contaminated site into a viable TOD. Amtrak offered to pay lease expenses for a new station, and the City negotiated the purchase of a three-acre site from Chevron and leased a quarter of it to Wareham to build a new rail station. The station opened in 1993, and in 1996 the City constructed a pedestrian bridge over the rail tracks to a nearby mixed-use retail centre. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS In 1998, construction began on ‘Emery Station Plaza’, a three building 550,000 square foot mixed-use complex on the north, east and south sides of the new Amtrak station. Between 10 KEY SITE STATISTICS TRANSIT SERVICE ► Capital corridor regional rail DEVELOPMENT ► Three building, 550,000 sq. ft. mixed‐use complex KEY FEATURES ►New construction and reconstruction of former industrial buildings ► Former Brownfield
  32. 32. 32 to 15 percent of this development is ground floor mixed-use space, allowing retail, commercial or office uses as the market demands. In the first phase of the project, a 247,000 square foot, five-story office building was built that includes about 27,000 sq. ft. of ground-floor retail space and two levels of parking underneath. Phase II - Emery Station North – added 170,000 sq. ft. in office space and was completed in 2001. Emery Station also includes 101 units of owner- occupied lofts and town homes. Wareham also plans to build an additional 60 units of housing north of the office buildings. At full build-out, the investment in Emery Station is estimated to total at least $200 million. Approximately two-thirds of Emery Station’s original tenants moved there from San Francisco; now the project draws tenants and buyers from throughout the Bay Area. Figure 27 Ariel View EMERY GO-ROUND A free shuttle service – the ‘Emery Go-Round’ - links Emeryville’s busiest business, retail and entertainment areas. It also provides access to the McArthur BART station two miles away. The buses operate from 5:45 am to 9:30 pm, with 10- minute headways during peak commute periods. Various employers and businesses in Emeryville pay for the service, and the City requires new development projects to contribute to the operation of the shuttle as a condition of approval. In addition, AC Transit also provides additional daily bus service to the Amtrak station. Figure 28 bus service PARKING
  33. 33. 33 Most of the buildings have three parking spaces per 1,000 square feet, reflecting the standards in the City’s code. Residential parking is provided at one space per bedroom. The developer has provided over 1,000 parking spaces in this TOD. Figure 29 Proposed parking outside the apartments
  34. 34. 34 CHAPTER-4-TOD STATUS IN INDIA 4.1 WHY IS NEEDED IN INDIA? Most Indian metropolitan cities have complex organic growth patterns encompassing many centuries of growth. These cities have old city centres and associated infrastructure that were built before the invention of automobiles and modern transportation systems. These city centres support major economic activities to this day. The Indian cities also typically have diverse neighbourhoods, densities and land uses. With the rapid growth in population in the last two decades and the economic boom added by automobile based sub-urbanization, Indian cities have grown in size leading to associated transportation issues of congestion, delays and pollution. Mass Rail Transport (Transit) Systems (MRTS) can solve many of the transportation issues raised in Indian cities (Sekar & Karuppannan, 2012). Metro rail systems are non-polluting, energy- efficient and superior to other modes because they provide higher carrying capacity, are faster, safer, and smoother and occupy less space (DMRC, Pune Metro DPR, 2008). However, MRTS in India is a relatively new phenomenon. The first rapid transit system in India was the Kolkata Metro, which started in 1984, followed by the Delhi Metro in 2002, the Bangalore Metro in 2011 and the Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System in 2014. (Sources: KMRC, DMRC, BMRCL, Chennai Metrorail). In 2009, it was decided to invest Rs. 2000 billion (US$30.6 billion) on metro rail projects in eight more cities in the following ten years (Times of India, 2009). There is a plan to have metro rail systems in all Indian cities having a population of more than two million .This is one of the major recommendations made by the working group on urban transport in the Planning Commission (Times of India, 2011). Most of the Indian cities were planned much earlier than the introduction of metro rail projects. Therefore, much of the anticipated developmental impact of the metro rail projects are not easily integrated into current Master Plans (Sekar & Karuppannan, 2012). The efficiency of a public transport system is heavily dependent on demand thresholds. The metro systems often attract lower than expected number of passengers, and tend to capture passengers from buses while the shift from cars to the metro remains limited (Hayashi, 2007). With the above issue of the Indian cities already including a large population and being planned before the introduction of metro rail projects and the issue of the metro systems often attracting lower than expected number of passengers, how will the above two million population plus cities that will have future metro systems promote transit ridership? Transit oriented development (TOD) is one of the recent techniques used to provide the desired development density and connectivity for transit. This report will analyze whether transit oriented development is applicable in the Indian context to achieve the desired development densities and transit ridership. 4.2 IDENTIFIED ZONES IN INDIA TOD is applicable to the zones where the population is 2 millions or above it. Examining the various zones in India, the study presents the TOD strategy government is planning in the following 3 zones:- 1. MUMBAI – GTB NAGAR 2. DELHI- KARKARDOOMA METRO STATION
  35. 35. 35 3. NAYA RAIPUR- VEDANTA STATION AREA 1)MUMBAI - GTB NAGAR BACKGROUND Guru Tegh Bahadur Nagar (also known as Koliwada – Village of Indigenous Tribes of Mumbai and largest fishing village) is in South Central Mumbai. Gura Tegh Bahadur Nagar railway station is on Harbour line of Mumbai Suburban Railway (Monorail). Guru Teg Bahadur (GTB) Nagar is dominated by residential area and has the 4th highest projected ridership. GTB Nagar has a large number of old dilapidated structures which becomes easier to work with when a redesign of any area needs to be done. Redevelopment trends are observed in GTB Nagar. A large percentage of the GTB Nagar Monorail station surrounding is occupied by slums. GTB Nagar is centrally located on monorail corridor and is in proximity to the Wadala Depot. IT is also nearer to Harbour line GTB Nagar railway station. The current condition of the area:  39% of the total area is occupied for residential purpose. It consists of buildings which are very old and are up for redevelopment. This old construction is mostly of 4 storeys and there are very few buildings which went up to maximum of seven storeys.  26% is occupied by the slums of one to two storeys  People mostly walk towards the station but these routes need attention  Transport infrastructure of the site included problems of road alignment, bottleneck formations, lack of pedestrian friendly streets, etc. Hence, while designing for the area it will be very important to give priority to pedestrians and to make the streets pedestrian friendly in order to promote footpaths and create safety for the users. It is also necessary to increase the employment opportunities in the immediate vicinity of the Monorail Station area. This would encourage more and more people to use the public transport system which would help increase in transit ridership and distribute the travel direction in the less developed regions of Mumbai. DEVELOPMENT PROCESS 1) Creating a grid pattern of movement for both Pedestrians as well as for the Vehicles would reduce the problems of road alignment, bottlenecks and other such issues that were faced by the residents of the area which resulted in congestion 2) The area in immediate vicinity of Monorail station needs to be designed for free public movement and hence should incorporate Plazas 3) The commercial activity should also be designed around the station so that it restricts unnecessary entry into the entire neighbourhood 4) The design should be such that a hierarchy in land and property cost is maintained in the neighbourhood around the station 5) The Slum Rehabilitation units are designed at the periphery of the site but are well connected by pedestrian ways to reach the monorail as well as the existing railway station 6) Green spaces form an integral part of our society and hence it becomes necessary to give proper attention to them while designing any neighbourhood. PROPOSED DEVELOPMENT PLAN 1) The development is proposed to be implemented in Phased manner by dividing the site into four parts according to the sections formed by existing road network.
  36. 36. 36 2) In the First phase, half the land under slum is acquired and infrastructure is developed. 3) Once that is done, the existing tenements from the second part are shifted to new houses which are developed in the First phase and the acquisition of the second part takes place as a Second phase. 4) In the Second phase itself, the remaining land under slum, which forms the third part of the site, is being acquired and developed in the similar pattern. 5) The forth part of the site is acquired and developed as a part of the Third phase of design. By the end of this phase, the complete site area is developed with improved infrastructure and developed plots. Figure 30 GTB nagar before TOD Figure 31 GTB nagar after TOD
  37. 37. 37 2) DELHI BACKGROUND In spite of Delhi’s recent investments in Public Transport Systems which include a world class Metro System and a planned BRT Network, Delhi has been unable to deliver efficient, comfortable and affordable mobility options to its citizens. The current lack of connectivity (in particular to Metro stations), abundant subsidized parking options as well as a lack of safety for walkers, cyclists and women in the city has resulted in public transportation being relegated to second or even last choice of travel. This has consequentially resulted in the ever increasing number of private vehicles plying in the city. The problem has reached a state where it is feared that it might have an irreversible damage on our city fabric, its environment (twenty-one people die of respiratory diseases in the Capital everyday and vehicular emissions contribute to 70% of the air pollution in Delhi), the social structure and much more. The city has a very long history of auto-centric planning which prioritised segregated land uses, low density sprawl and large unwalkable block sizes. The supply of extra wide roads with heavily encroached footpaths/ cycle tracks, discourage non- motorised travel modes and ensure that the citizen is auto-dependent. The result has been an exponential growth in private motor vehicle ownership, and a corresponding increase in pollution and congestion, with loss of man-hours and increase in urban poverty (ref: National Urban Transport Policy). Major arterials of the city are currently down to 10 km/hr average speed in peak hours, which essentially means that we have hit gridlock. This trend has been aggravated through the rampant construction of flyovers and grade separated interchanges within city limits. Congestion is still as it is, and such infrastructure has actually caused a reverse modal shift, by making travel more difficult for walkers and public transport users, consequently adding them to the private-vehicle using population and hence more congestion! In this alarming situation, it is imperative that a rapid paradigm shift is undertaken in order to move people away from private vehicles towards the use of public transportation. The objective of achieve this paradigm shift is to offer more attractive alternatives to the use of personal modes – low cost, comfortable, non- motorised transport, pleasurable walking experiences and very easily accessible and comfortable mass transportation with easy, convenient and comfortable intermodal transfers for last mile connectivity. The city needs to restructure and redefine how it works, lives and finds means of recreation. This is possible through Transit Oriented Development (TOD). TOD is not just about higher density. Good urban design can help Delhi transition from being a “rape-city” to a “safe-city” by creating a better public-private interface that makes for more eyes on the street. By eliminating setbacks along main building facades and mandating transparent fences where setbacks are allowed, the policy ensures that there is an active interface between activities inside the buildings and on the street. KARKARDOOMA METRO STATION DDA (Delhi Development Authority) have launched a pilot mission for redevelopment of the area around the karkardooma metro station. Before planning and implementation, consultations were conducted for prioritizing of civic amenities:-  RWAs and discussions with residents(formal and informal neighbourhoods)  Traders associations  NGOs and civil society institutions
  38. 38. 38  Schools-workshop with private school children/discussion with government teachers  Pradhans and local ward counsellors It was concluded that in planned colonies: 1. Mixed-use at main street level (banks, property dealers) 2. Re-densifying into G+4 developer flats (with stilts) 3. Gated Colonies with no thoroughfare 4. Rental: Ownership Rate = 30:70 5. Typologies: 100 sq.m. - 300 sq.m. 6. Costs of home: Rs 2.2 crore + 7. Rental costs: Rs 25,000+ 8. Staff: drivers, maids, gardener, guard, vegetable seller- live in informal settlements in both ownership and rent 9. RWA concerns: congestion 10. MCD Site engineer concerns: Maintenance and infrastructure repair issues It was concluded that in informal colonies: 1. Urban Villages: Karkardooma Village 2. Un-authorized Colonies 3. Slums: Anand Vihar JJ Slum - Mixed-use areas - Rental : Ownership rate = 70: 30 - Rental costs: Rs 500-700 per person - Typologies: 16 sq.m. - 40 sq.m. - Issues: water quality, under-employment, no open spaces for activity; underutilized areas. Discussion with the school children were carried out:- The current condition:- 1. Safety a key concern for young girls 2. Students (age 4-9) walk to school, crossing the KKD site 3. No space for activity outside school hours/summer holidays 4. Adequate hospitals, schools and dispensaries 5. Adequate public and private schools in the location What can be done for the area?  Provide higher –education opportunities  Greater entertainment options should be created  More green spaces and parks  Public transport is inconvenient & not hygienic so a check is needed  East Delhi needs character- a monument  Access to public libraries & cultural centres.
  39. 39. 39 Figure 32 •EXISTING SITE PLAN LEGEND COMMERCIAL OPEN SPACE RESIDENTIAL PUBLIC-SEMI PUBLIC Figure 33 EXISTING VIEW CURRENT LAND USE PATTERN SITE AREA: 30.72 Ha AREA UNDER SCHEME: 28.12 Ha USE WISE DISTRIBUTION OF PLOTS:  COMMERCIAL USE: 1.48Ha  RESIDENTIAL USE: 13.16Ha  PUBLIC-SEMI PUBLIC: 4.27 AREA UNDER CIRCULATION: 5.00Ha AREA UNDER OPEN SPACE: 4.25 Ha GROSS FAR: 1.09 TOTAL BUILT UP AREA: 3,06,700 sq.m. TOTAL BUILT UP AREA USES:  COMMERCIAL: 249000 sq.m.  RESIDENTIAL: 14800 sq.m.  PUBLIC-SEMI PUBLIC: 42700 sq.m.
  40. 40. 40 PROPOSED LAYOUT ACCORDING TO DDA Figure 34 Proposed Land use pattern
  41. 41. 41 Figure 35 Proposed Site Plan Figure 36 Zoning - Commercial area according to DDA
  42. 42. 42 Figure 37 Zoning- Civic Amenities Figure 38 Zoning- Residential areas
  43. 43. 43 Figure 39 Proposed View-1 Figure 40 Proposed view-2 3)NAYA RAIPUR BACKGROUND Naya Raipur is being developed in Greenfield area of 80.13 Sq. Km. for a projected population of 5.60 Lakhs, as a Capital City for the State of Chhattisgarh. It is located between National
  44. 44. 44 Highways NH-6 and NH-43, about 17 km south-east of the current capital Raipur; Swami Vivekananda Airport separates the old and new cities. It is serving as the administrative capital of the State and also caters to the infrastructural needs of industry and trade in the region. Naya Raipur is surrounded by the cities of Raipur, Arang, Mahasamund, Rajim and Abhanpur. It covers an area of about 8000 hectares. It includes 41 villages out of which 27 villages form the core of Naya Raipur. About half of the total acquired land is being used for afforestation, roads, parks, public conveniences, water facilities-canals, green belts etc.; twenty three percent (23%) of the land would be reserved for educational institutions, government offices and public auditoriums etc.; and thirty percent (30%) of the land will be used for residential and economical purposes. Naya Raipur would be India's fourth planned capital city. The city is expected to house about 4.5 lakh (450,000) people within a decade. Provisions have been made for its expansion and to upgrade infrastructure in the future. DEMONSTRATING STATION AREA BASED ON TOD - VEDANTA STATION AREA VEDANTA STATION AREA PLANNING BY GOVERNMENT a) Typical transit neighborhood sectors grid
  45. 45. 45 Figure 41 b) Phase 1 BRT alignment Figure 42 c) Station Area - 400m / 5 min walk & 800m / 10 min walk Figure 43 d) Existing Conditions Review
  46. 46. 46 Figure 44 e) Preserve Existing Natural Features Figure 45 f) Integrate Existing Village; Village Road & Connections to Sector 36 - Vedanta Hospital Figure 46 g) Proposed Green Spaces as per NRDA Plan 2031 Provide East-West Green Connections to link existing natural features
  47. 47. 47 Figure 47 h) Streets and blocks pattern Figure 48 i) Proposed land use according to NRDA Plan 2031 Figure 49 j) Highest Densities are proposed closest to BRT ROW & Station
  48. 48. 48 Figure 50 k) Medium Density along Principal Roads within Sector Figure 51 l) Public / Semi-Public Amenities as per Proposed Land Uses, NRDA Plan 2031 Figure 52 m) Medium / Low Density Residential Development as per densities outlined in NRDA Plan 2031
  49. 49. 49 Figure 53 The government has planned the above for the Vedanta station area. The Concept of Transit Oriented Development is being adopted for Naya Raipur for making it a sustainable city. The objectives of TOD are o To reduce travels by means of mixed-use developments o To encourage use of public transport by way of allowing more density along the public transport corridors, which makes the public transport financially sustainable and on the other hand it reduces usage of personal vehicles o To construct bus shelters within a walkable range from the sectors o To connect the sectors and BRT shelters with cycle tracks & walkways o To design the shelters with facilities of bicycle parking o Thereby reducing the emission of GHGs, congestion on roads and reducing accidents Figure 54 Current condition Figure 55 Expected in future after TOD The vision for the Naya Raipur TOD Study is to develop a transit supportive framework that supports a series of seamless self-sufficient neighbourhoods in Naya Raipur each with a distinct character- linked with sustainable mobility options. “Now, I am able to combine and comprehend the meaning of "Bus do kadam", "75 m" and "400-600m“which collectively signifies that the Bus should be available within do kadam i.e. within a walking distance.”-Mr. L.K. Panigrahi, Chief Engineer (Projects) Naya Raipur
  50. 50. 50 CHAPTER-5-TOD STRATEGIES AROUND WORLD 5.1SUMMARY OF ABOVE CASE STUDIES Table 1 CONCLUSION FROM THE ABOVE CASE STUDIES S.NO. PLACE AREA(ACRE) TRANSIT SERVICE DEVELOPMENT TYPE 1. Concord Commons 2.33 Commuter rail Mixed use retail, office areas with 20 rental apartments 2. Downtown Arlington heights Less than or equal to 194 Commuter rail 1500 residential units with retail and performing art facility. 3. Emery Station plaza 20 Regional rail Three buildings with 550,000 sqft. Complex. 4. Karkardooma station 2.47 KKD metro Mixed use development 5. GTB railway station Less than or equal to 194 Monorail Residential and commercial development with slum area redevelopment. 6. Vedanta station area Less than or equal to 194 BRT Mixed use development from low to high density
  51. 51. 51 All of the above transit systems were developed in response to population growth, demand for rapid transportation and reduction of traffic congestion. All of the above strategies recommend policies for promoting development along transit routes on an ongoing basis. The above Transit Oriented Strategies include all or some of the following key components: o Maximizing opportunities for channelling new development to transit rich areas o Locating new development and housing within a 10-minute walk from transit stations or stops o Comprehensive, consensus-based land use changes for neighbourhood and commercial districts for strategic growth, sustainable development and transit oriented development o Creating transit corridors bases on development potential, operational feasibility, transit connectivity and public involvement o Making the Transit Oriented Plan a part of the Comprehensive Land Use Plan o The definition of Transportation Infrastructure to include roads, bicycle paths, public transport, rail transport, air transport and waterways transport o Creating a range of sustainable transportation modes which are safe, secure, sustainable and efficient for business and leisure trips o Public Transport oriented approach by integrating land use and transport planning for compact and efficient urban development o Planning and investing in infrastructure ahead of time to create high quality urban spaces and accommodate future population growth o Planning for a 30-minute or less commute time with mixed use, dense and compact urban environment 5.2 COMPARISION OF TOD IN INDIA AND USA USA INDIA Walkability and access to transit is safe, convenient and comfortable due to a walkable street network in the vicinity of the stations and multimodal connectivity Although there are existing street networks, walkability and access to transit is not safe, convenient and comfortable and multimodal connectivity is lacking or needs improvement 24X7 environment created by place making components like parks, seating areas and a pleasurable walking experience 24X7 environment created by existing diverse uses but place making components like parks, seating areas and a pleasurable walking experience is lacking Land use density varies but is adequate to generate transit ridership Land use density varies and may be adequate to generate transit ridership Transit ridership is adequate and continues to be enhanced with greater connectivity Lack of accessibility to transit and multimodal connectivity may be detrimental to the potential of generating ridership Even though some of the stations have predominantly residential uses, the transit network provides connectivity to commercial and employment areas and ensures ridership Most of the stations have mixed uses and the transit network provides connectivity to commercial and employment areas Although all the transit station areas do not have mixed income uses, they are accessible to mixed income groups Most of the stations have mixed income groups and are accessible to mixed income groups
  52. 52. 52 Most of the transit systems were introduced as a solution to the road congestion problem caused by growth of population and automobiles and limited land availability Most of the transit systems were introduced as a solution to the road congestion problem caused by growth of population and automobiles in the recent years and limited road capacity Transit Oriented policies have been developed and enhanced for a number of years to constantly improve transit ridership Transit oriented policies are fairly new and were developed after the introduction of the metro or transit oriented strategies and/or are just being introduced Maximizing opportunities for channelling new development to transit rich areas has been a major strategy Intensification of development along transit corridors and the introduction of an overall TOD Influence Zone for dense development along transit corridors are just being introduced Public Transport oriented approach by integrating land use and transport planning for compact and efficient urban development has been a major strategy Adequate accessibility and connectivity for safe and sustainable transportation systems and strategies for appropriate land uses and land use densification are just being introduced Planning and investing in infrastructure ahead of time for future population growth has been a major strategy Investment in critical transportation infrastructure projects and high density, mixed-use and compact development concepts are just being introduced Planning for a maximum commute time is a major strategy Policies for compact development and multimodal connectivity to reduce commute times are just being introduced Policies for enhancing the existing safe, convenient and comfortable accessibility to transit stations has been a major strategy Traffic and pedestrian safety management and parking management strategies are just being introduced Table 2 COMPARISION BETWEEN USA AND INDIA FOR TOD STRATEGIES (Source: TOD analysis around the world)
  53. 53. 53 CONCLUSION Rapid economic growth and urbanization have led to problem of congestion, traffic jams, load on infrastructure, pollution, etc. The type and size of building blocks and the type and width of streets vary in different parts of the cities. The limited road capacity and the increase in automobiles and population have resulted in congestion, delays and pollution. A sustainable strategy is required to maintain the economic growth and alleviate the problems arising due to the growth. The above study concluded that at least some or all of the TOD components, Design, Density and Diversity exists in the areas around the transit stations. A mix of uses, mix of income and a 24-hour environment are created by the mix of uses, a network of streets and population density in the areas around some or all of the transit stations. Therefore, the density and diversity components of TOD are already existing because the transit systems are being introduced in cities with a fairly high population (2 million +) with fairly high population densities. Each area of the city has diverse land uses and a diverse population mix. The TOD analysis for the Indian context concluded that although the population densities around the newly introduced transit systems may be adequate for transit ridership, accessibility to transit and multimodal connectivity is lacking. The proposed transit oriented strategies in India do address new high density development around the transit stations, investing in critical transportation infrastructure and better traffic and transportation management and parking management. Pedestrian safety and convenience are also addressed. The strategies do not address immediate and short term solutions for generating transit ridership and moving people away from private vehicles towards the use of public transportation. Therefore, the proposed strategies may not reduce congestion on an immediate and short term basis. The issue of increasing transit ridership on an ongoing basis is also not addressed. From the case studies we can conclude that TOD not only encourages use of non-motorized transportation by integrating land use but also provides a balanced approach to accommodating growth. It creates compact, sustainable urban form and enhances local economic development, promoting more sustainable infrastructure. Locations with access to transit can enjoy increases in land values in comparison to locations away from transit stops. By creating active places that are busy through the day and evening and providing “eyes on the street,” TOD helps in increasing safety for pedestrians, transit users, and many others. The transit oriented development in USA has focused on catalyzing development along transit oriented corridors. The strategies have been implemented on an ongoing basis and specific targets have been introduced for enhancing development along transit corridors and enhancing transit accessibility and ridership. Since rapid transit is a new phenomenon in Indian cities, strategies for densification of development along transit corridors, encouraging compact development and enhancing transit accessibility and ridership are just being introduced.
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