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PRESBYTERIAN NURSES’ TRAINING COLLEGE
RESEARCH WORK ON THE TOPIC
“THE PERCEPTION ON THE USE OF TRADITIONAL
MEDICINE IN THE...
i
DECLARATION
We the undersigned students of Presbyterian Nurses’ Training College, Agogo, do hereby
declare that with the...
ii
Table of Contents
DECLARATION ............................................................................................
iii
CHAPTER FOUR.............................................................................................................
iv
LIST OF TABLES & FIGURES
Table 4.1: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO AGES OF RESPONDENTS. .......................................
v
Figure 4.9: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDINGTO RESPONDENTS’PERCEPTION ON THE CONDITION UNDER
WHICH TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IS PREPARE...
vi
ABSTRACT
Traditional medicine is one of the common drugs used in the treatment of ailments in most of the
developing co...
vii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We wish to express our sincere gratitude to the almighty God for his guidance and wisdom given
to us t...
viii
DEDICATION
We dedicate this work to our the our supervisor Mr. Michael Ofosuhene who has supported us
throughout the ...
1
CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Ailments have over the years been a scourge and threat to mankind. People from different
cultur...
2
Burundi and Ethiopia, to 80% in Burkina Faso, 70% in Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana and Mali
(WHO, 2000).
A study published...
3
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
Mainobjectives
To determine the perception on the use of traditional medicine in the treatment of...
4
CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
Since the beginning of human civilization, medicinal plants have been used by mankind for ...
5
widely observed (UNESCO, 1996). Modern pharmacopoeia still contains at least 25% drugs
derived from plants and many othe...
6
medicinal plants is also rapidly declining. Continuous erosion in the traditional knowledge of
many valuable plants for ...
7
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
The methodology in this study would be focusing on the research design, population and
samplin...
8
TOOLS AND METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
The research work would make use of questionnaires and interviews. The questionnaire...
9
addition the literates in the community are mostly teachers of all grades, nurses, doctors and
bankers.
In Agogo Gyidim ...
10
CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS
Simple random probability sample was use to select 30 respondent from the population. The da...
11
Table 4.2: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO GENDER OF CORRESPONDENT
GENDER FREQUENCY PERCENTAGES (%)
Male 12 40
Female 18 60
T...
12
Table4.4: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF
RESPONDENTSs
EDUCATIONAL STATUS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGES
Primary...
13
Figure 4.0 DISTRBUTION ACCORDING TO ETHNICITY OF RESPONDENTS
Source: FIELD WORK, 2013
From figure 4.0 above, 24 (80%) r...
14
Figure 4.1; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENTS
Source: FIELD WORK, 2013
From figure 4.1 above, majorit...
15
KNOWLEDGE OF THE RESPONDENTS ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
Figure 4.2 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING RESPONDENT’S AWARENESS ON
TRADIT...
16
Table 4.6; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO SOURCE INFORMATION ABOUT
TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
SOURCE OF INFORMATION FREQUENCY PERC...
17
Figure 4.4; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO KNOWLEDGE ON NEGATIVE
ASPECTS OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
Source; FIELD WORK, 2013
Fr...
18
Figure 4.5; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE ON
ACQUIRED TRAINING OF TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS
...
19
Table 4.7: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE ON
THE TYPE OF TRAINING ACQUIRED BY TRADITIONAL MEDICAL
PRA...
20
Figure 4.5; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS KNOWLEDGE
ABOUT EXPIRY DATE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
Source: FIELD WOR...
21
Figure 4.6; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE ON
SCIENTIFIC PREPARATION OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
Source: ...
22
PERCEPTION OF PEOPLE ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
Figure 4.7: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO THE RESPONDENTS’ PERCEPTION
ON HOW G...
23
Figure 4.8; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON
PEOPLE USE SEEK TRADITIONAL HEALTH CARE
Source: FIELD ...
24
Figure 4.9: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON
THE CONDITION UNDER WHICH TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IS PREP...
25
PATRONAGE
Figure 4.10: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS USAGE OF
TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
Source: FIELD WORK, 2013
Fro...
26
Figure 4.11: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ EXPERIENCE
AFTER USING TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
Source: FIELD WORK, 201...
27
Figure 4.12: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ REASONS FOR
USING TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
From figure 4.12 above 15 (5...
28
Figure 4.13: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO CHOICE OF PREFERED PLACE OF
HEALTH CARE OF RESPONDENTS
Source: FIELD WORK, 2013....
29
From the figure 4.14 below, 10(33.33%) of the respondents use traditional medicine when they
are sick, 8 representing 2...
30
EFFECTS
Figure 4.15: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO EFFECTS EXPERIENCE AFTER THE
USE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
Source: FIELD W...
31
Figure 4.16: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO ACTIONS TAKEN BY
RESPONDENTS AFTER EXPERIENCING TRADITIONAL MEDICINE REACTIONS
S...
32
CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION OF FINDING
The main objective of this study is to determine the perception on the use of tradit...
33
respondents had their education up to tertiary level of education and 3(10%) had up to SHS
education.
In terms of relig...
34
PATRONAGE
From the analysis, majority of the respondents 26(87%) said they have use traditional medicine
before and 4(1...
35
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The research was conducted at Agogo Gyidim. It was surveyed at the perception of people in the
u...
36
It can be concluded from the findings that majority of the respondents have use traditional
medicine before and suggest...
37
REFERENCES
 Addae-Mensah, I. (1992). Towards a national scientific basis for herbal medicine–a
phytochemists two decad...
38
QUESTIONNAIRES AND INTERVIEWS
Agogo Presbyterian Nurses Training College
P. O. Box 16
Agogo
Dear respondents,
We are se...
39
D. Widow/widower [ ]
E. Others (specify)……………………………………………………………………..
4) Educational background
A. Primary [ ]
B. JHS [ ...
40
SECTION B
KNOWLEDGE OF PEOPLE ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
8) Have you heard of traditional medicine?
A. Yes [ ]
B. No [ ]
9...
41
13) Do traditional medicines have labelled expiry dates?
A. Yes [ ]
B. No [ ]
14) Is traditional medicine scientificall...
42
D. Others (specify)……………………………………………………………………..
18) How do you see the preparation of the traditional medicine?
A. Very...
43
A. Traditional healer [ ]
B. Hospital/health facility [ ]
C. Denominational healer [ ]
D. Others (specify)…………………………………...
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LITERATURE REVIEW ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

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LITERATURE REVIEW ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE

  1. 1. PRESBYTERIAN NURSES’ TRAINING COLLEGE RESEARCH WORK ON THE TOPIC “THE PERCEPTION ON THE USE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN THE TREATMENT OF AILMENTS IN AGOGO GYIDIM COMMUNITY.” BY MASTER APPIAH ELVIS MASTER ARHIN MICHEAL MASTER OPPONG PATRICK MISS OSEI-MENSAH DORCAS MISS OWUSUWAA EUNICE THIS RESEARCH IS PRESENTED TO THE NURSES AND MIDWIVES COUNCIL GHANA IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT IN THE AWARD OF REGISTERED GENERAL NURSING, DIPLOMA MAY, 2013.
  2. 2. i DECLARATION We the undersigned students of Presbyterian Nurses’ Training College, Agogo, do hereby declare that with the exception of other people’s work used as references which have been duly acknowledged, all other works were carried out by us under the supervision of Mr. Michael Ofosuhene. This work is a result of our own original work and has never been presented in whole or part for the award of diploma in this school or any other nursing training institution. We therefore accept responsibility of any error in this research work. STUDENT’S NAME INDEX NUMBER SIGNATURE APPIAH ELVIS RGN 026 ……………………. ARHIN MICHEAL RGN 027 ……………………. OPPONG PATRICK RGN 070 ……………………. OSEI-MENSAH DORCAS RGN 072 ……………………. OWUSUWAA EUNICE RGN 070 ……………………. NAME OF SUPERVISOR: MR. MICHEAL OFOSUHENE SIGNATURE…………………………………………… DATE…………………………………………………….
  3. 3. ii Table of Contents DECLARATION .................................................................................................................................... i ABSTRACT.........................................................................................................................................vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT.......................................................................................................................vii DEDICATION....................................................................................................................................viii CHAPTER ONE....................................................................................................................................1 INTRODUCTION ..............................................................................................................................1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ........................................................................................................1 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY .................................................................................................................2 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY...........................................................................................................2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY................................................................................................................3 Main objectives...........................................................................................................................3 Specific objectives.......................................................................................................................3 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................3 CHAPTER TWO ...................................................................................................................................4 LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................................4 CHAPTER THREE .................................................................................................................................7 METHODOLOGY..............................................................................................................................7 THE STUDY DESIGN .........................................................................................................................7 THE POPULATION AND SAMPLING SIZE............................................................................................7 THE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE.............................................................................................................7 TOOLS AND METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION ....................................................................................8 THE RESEARCH SETTING..................................................................................................................8 ETHICAL CONSIDERATION................................................................................................................9 PILOT STUDY...................................................................................................................................9
  4. 4. iii CHAPTER FOUR.................................................................................................................................10 DATA ANALYSIS.............................................................................................................................10 DEMOGRAPHIC DATA....................................................................................................................10 CHAPTER FIVE ..................................................................................................................................32 DISCUSSION OF FINDING...............................................................................................................32 DEMOGRAPHIC DATA....................................................................................................................32 KNOWLEDGE................................................................................................................................33 PATRONAGE.................................................................................................................................34 RECOMMENDATIONS....................................................................................................................34 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION.......................................................................................................35 NURSING IMPLICATION.................................................................................................................36 REFERENCES.................................................................................................................................37 QUESTIONNAIRES AND INTERVIEWS..............................................................................................38
  5. 5. iv LIST OF TABLES & FIGURES Table 4.1: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO AGES OF RESPONDENTS. .................................................10 Table 4.2: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO GENDER OF CORRESPONDENT.........................................11 Table 4.3: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO MARITAL STATUS OF RESPONDENTS ................................11 Table4.4: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF RESPONDENTS.........................12 Table 4.5: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RELIGION OF RESPONDENTS............................................12 Figure 4.0 DISTRBUTION ACCORDING TO ETHNICITY OF RESPONDENTS ...........................................13 Figure 4.1; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENTS.....................................14 Figure 4.2 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING RESPONDENT’S AWARENESS ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE......15 Table 4.6; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO SOURCE INFORMATION ABOUT TRADITIONAL MEDICINE ..16 Figure 4.4; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDINGTO KNOWLEDGE ON NEGATIVEASPECTSOFTRADITIONAL MEDICINE.....................................................................................................................................17 Figure 4.5; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDINGTO RESPONDENTS’KNOWLEDGEON ACQUIRED TRAININGOF TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS.........................................................................................18 Table 4.7: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDINGTO RESPONDENTS’KNOWLEDGEON THE TYPE OF TRAINING ACQUIRED BY TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS ...................................................................19 Figure 4.5; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDINGTO RESPONDENTSKNOWLEDGE ABOUT EXPIRYDATE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE................................................................................................................20 Figure 4.6; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDINGTO RESPONDENTS’KNOWLEDGEON SCIENTIFICPREPARATION OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE...........................................................................................................21 Figure 4.7: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDINGTO THE RESPONDENTS’PERCEPTION ON HOWGOOD TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IS. ...........................................................................................................22 Figure 4.8; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDINGTO RESPONDENTS’PERCEPTION ON PEOPLEUSE SEEK TRADITIONAL HEALTH CARE..........................................................................................................23
  6. 6. v Figure 4.9: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDINGTO RESPONDENTS’PERCEPTION ON THE CONDITION UNDER WHICH TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IS PREPARED................................................................................24 Figure 4.10: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS USAGE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE........25 Figure 4.11: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDINGTO RESPONDENTS’EXPERIENCEAFTERUSING TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.....................................................................................................................................26 Figure 4.12: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDINGTO RESPONDENTS’REASONSFORUSINGTRADITIONAL MEDICINE.....................................................................................................................................27 Figure 4.13: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO CHOICE OF PREFERED PLACE OF....................................28 Figure 4.14: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO REGULARITY USE OF TRADITIONAL................................29 Figure 4.15: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO EFFECTS EXPERIENCE AFTER THE USE ............................30 Figure 4.16: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO ACTIONS TAKEN BY RESPONDENTS ...............................31
  7. 7. vi ABSTRACT Traditional medicine is one of the common drugs used in the treatment of ailments in most of the developing countries. This study was carried out to determine the perception of the people in the use of traditional medicine. A random and accidental sampling was used. The research targeted 30 people from all ages of life in the Agogo Gyidim community. Questionnaires and interviews were the tools used for data collection. Out of the targeted 30 respondents, 13 were single representing (43.33%), 12 (40%) were married followed by 3(10%) representing the divorce people and 2 representing (6.67%) were widows and widowers. Most of the respondents were JHS leavers which were 17(56.67%), 6(20%) representing primary leavers, 4(13.33%) were tertiary leavers and 3(10%) were SHS leavers. 21 of the respondents representing (70%) said traditional medicine is good. It can be concluded from the findings that people use traditional medicine in the treatment of ailments more than the orthodox drugs. Furthermore, it was identified that the government should give his maximum support and attention to traditional medical practitioners.
  8. 8. vii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We wish to express our sincere gratitude to the almighty God for his guidance and wisdom given to us to carry out this work successfully. We are also grateful to the entire staff of the Nurses’ Training College Agogo especially the principal; Ms. Florence Gans-Lartey and our supervisor Mr. Michael Ofosuhene and not forgetting our cherished respondents of Agogo Gyidim. We say we are forever grateful for your contribution and cooperation towards the success of this work.
  9. 9. viii DEDICATION We dedicate this work to our the our supervisor Mr. Michael Ofosuhene who has supported us throughout the work
  10. 10. 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Ailments have over the years been a scourge and threat to mankind. People from different cultural backgrounds have used different herbal plants, plants extract, animal products and mineral substance (Addae-Mensah, 1992) as the means to care, cure and treat ill-health, with disease prevent, and with health promotion (Curtis and Taket, 1996) since pre-historic times. There has been intense debate on public health issues associated with TM in many parts of the world. The focus is to determine the most appropriate official policy towards TM. Some countries have policies that discourage TM, whereas others have supportive policies. Most countries do not have official policies and have simply left traditional medicine to individuals to decide. For indigenous people, the existence of traditional medicine policies is crucial. The ability to use and control their own, culturally defined, traditional health system is the most fundamental right of self-determination of “fourth world” people. Traditional medicine embraces the ways of protecting and restoring health that existed before the arrival of orthodox medicine (world Health Organization [WHO], 2001). WHO therefore defines TM as diverse health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plants, animals, and/or mineral based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises applied singularly or in combination to maintain well-being, as well as to treat, diagnose or prevent illness (WHO, 2002;2000). STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM WHO reported in 2001 that in Malaysia, about US$ 500 million is spent annually on TM compared to only about US$ 300 million on orthodox medicine. Sri Lanka steadily worked towards the goal of enhancing the effectiveness of TM, such that, now, even the highly literate consult to TM before visiting orthodox health institutions (Aluwihare, 1982; Buor, 1993; Peltzer, 1998, 2000a, 2003; Wilkinson and Wilkinson, 1998; Ndulo, 2001). For countries for which more detailed data are available, the percentage of the population that uses TM ranges from 90% in
  11. 11. 2 Burundi and Ethiopia, to 80% in Burkina Faso, 70% in Benin, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana and Mali (WHO, 2000). A study published by UNAIDS shows that about two-thirds of HIV/AIDS patients in developing countries use TM obtain symptomatic relief, manage opportunistic infections and boost their immune systems (UNAIDS, 2003; Osei-Edwards, 2003). In recent times, inhabitants of Agogo Gyidim patronize traditional method of health care delivery. According to the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital, statistics made showed that attendants reporting to the hospital from Agogo Gyidim come with their sickness in its deteriorating state. The subjective data collected from these patients indicated that patients resort to traditional medicine in the treatment of their sickness in the early stages and seek treatment in the hospital if their sicknesses are not healed. This has compelled us to research into the perception on the use of traditional medicine in the treatment of ailments in Agogo Gyidim community. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The main purpose of the study will be to determine the perception on the use of traditional medicine in the treatment of ailments. It will also help us to evaluate the health hazards and benefits associated with the use of traditional medicine. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The research will be intended to find out the perception on the use of traditional medicine in Agogo Gyidim and its impacts on the health of the users. If this research work is successfully completed it will help improve the knowledge of the people in the area on the use of traditional medicine in the treatment of ailments. It will also serve as a reference to the government of Ghana especially the Ministry of health to formulate new policies on traditional medicine and to help improve lifestyle of people.
  12. 12. 3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Mainobjectives To determine the perception on the use of traditional medicine in the treatment of ailments in Agogo Gyidim. Specificobjectives  To determine the adverse effects that is impacted on the inhabitants of Agogo Gyidim with reference to traditional medicine.  To identify the setbacks relating to modern health care delivery.  To provide appropriate methods to facilitate the development of traditional medicine. OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS Ailments: Any minor disorder of the body TM: Traditional Medicine Indigenous: Existing since pre-history Orthodox: conforming with accepted standards Literate: A person who can read and write WHO: World Health Organization HIV: Human Immune Virus AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome UNAIDS: joint United Nation’s Programme on HIV/AIDS
  13. 13. 4 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Since the beginning of human civilization, medicinal plants have been used by mankind for its therapeutic value. Nature has been a source of medicinal agents for thousands of years and an impressive number of modern drugs have been isolated from natural sources. Many of these isolations were based on the uses of the agents in traditional medicine. The plant-based, traditional medicine systems continues to play an essential role in health care, with about 80% of the world’s inhabitants relying mainly on traditional medicines for their primary health care (Owolabi et al., 2007). India has several traditional medical systems, such as Ayurveda and Unani, which has survived through more than 3000 years, mainly using plant-based drugs. The materia medica of these systems contains a rich heritage of indigenous herbal practices that have helped to sustain the health of most rural people of India. The ancient texts like Rig Veda (4500-1600 BC) and Atharva Veda mentions the use of several plants as medicine. The books on ayurvedic medicine such as Charaka Samhita and Susruta Samhita refer to the use of more than 700 herbs (Jain, 1968). According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 1977) “a medicinal plant” is any plant, which in one or more of its organ contains substances that can be used for the therapeutic purposes or which, are precursors for the synthesis of useful drugs. This definition distinguishes those plants whose therapeutic properties and constituents have been established scientifically and plants that are regarded as medicinal but which have not yet been subjected to thorough investigation. The term “herbal drug” determines the part/parts of a plant (leaves, flowers, seeds, roots, barks, stems, etc.) used for preparing medicines (Anonymous, 2007a). Furthermore, WHO (2001) defines medicinal plant as herbal preparations produced by subjecting plant materials to extraction, fractionation, purification, concentration or other physical or biological processes which may be produced for immediate consumption or as a basis for herbal products. Medicinal plants are plants containing inherent active ingredients used to cure disease or relieve pain (Okigbo et al., 2008). The use of traditional medicines and medicinal plants in most developing countries as therapeutic agents for the maintenance of good health has been
  14. 14. 5 widely observed (UNESCO, 1996). Modern pharmacopoeia still contains at least 25% drugs derived from plants and many others, which are synthetic analogues, built on prototype compounds isolated from plants. Interest in medicinal plants as are-emerging health aid has been fuelled by the rising costs of prescription drugs in the maintenance of personal health and wellbeing and the bioprospecting of new plant-derived drugs (Lucy and Edgar, 1999). The ongoing growing recognition of medicinal plants is due to several reasons, including escalating faith in herbal medicine (Kala, 2005). Furthermore, an increasing reliance on the use of medicinal plants in the industrialized societies has been traced to the extraction and development of drugs and chemotherapeutics from these plants as well as from traditionally used herbal remedies (UNESCO, 1998). The medicinal properties of plants could be based on the antioxidant, antimicrobial antipyretic effects of the phytochemicals in them (Cowman, 1999; Adesokan et al., 2008). According to World Health Organization, medicinal plants would be the best source to obtain a variety of drugs. Therefore, such plants should be investigated to better understand their properties, safety and efficacy (Nascimento et al., 2000). Medicinal plants produce bioactive compounds used mainly for medicinal purposes. These compounds either act on different systems of animals including man, and/or act through interfering in the metabolism of microbes infecting them. The microbes may be pathogenic or symbiotic. In either way the bioactive compounds from medicinal plants play a determining role in regulating host-microbe interaction in favour of the host. So the identification of bioactive compound in plants, their isolation, purification and characterization of active ingredients in crude extracts by various analytical methods is important. The medicinal properties of plants could be based on the antioxidant, antimicrobial, antipyretic effects of the phytochemicals in them (Cowman, 1999; Adesokan et al., 2008) The instant rising demand of plant-based drugs is unfortunately creating heavy pressure on some selected high-value medicinal plant populations in the wild due to over- harvesting. Several of these medicinal plant species have slow growth rates, low population densities, and narrow geographic ranges (Nautiyal et al., 2002), therefore they are more prone to extinction (Jablonski, 2004). Conversely, because information on the use of plant species for therapeutic purpose has been passed from one generation to the next through oral tradition, this knowledge of therapeutic plants has started to decline and become obsolete through the lack of recognition by younger generations as a result of a shift in attitude and ongoing socioeconomic changes (Kala, 2000). Furthermore, the indigenous knowledge on the use of lesser-known
  15. 15. 6 medicinal plants is also rapidly declining. Continuous erosion in the traditional knowledge of many valuable plants for medicine in the past and the renewal interest currently, the need existed to review the valuable knowledge with the expectation of developing the medicinal plants sector (Kala et al., 2006). In India, the ayurvedic system has described a large number of such medicines based on plants or plant product and the determination of their morphological and pharmacological or pharmacognostical characters can provide a better understanding of their active principles and mode of action. However a large number of tropical plants have not been studied in detail for their chemical constituents, pharmacological properties of the extracts, and their pharmacognostical characterization including DNA sequencing etc. In the present review focused various aspects in two medicinal plants Pedalium murex and Martynia annua.
  16. 16. 7 CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY The methodology in this study would be focusing on the research design, population and sampling size, techniques adapted to study the population, the tools use to gather information, the research setting, ethical consideration, validity and reliability, and pilot study. THE STUDY DESIGN The research design that would be employed is quantitative and descriptive in nature. Descriptive design concerns with conditions that exist, practices that are held and processes that are developing. Descriptive would be use because it will generate room for a particular event. Quantitative research on the other hand is the one that uses statistics to explain and describe the phenomenon. The study design would help in the interpretation of the results. THE POPULATION AND SAMPLING SIZE The study would be targeting both men and women in the locality of the Asante Akim North District precisely Agogo Gyidim. The population would include both literates and illiterates. Participants of the study would be selected from members of the Gyidim community. THE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE In all, 30 respondents consisting of 15 men and 15 women will be selected from the area, that is Agogo Gyidim. A simple random probability sampling technique will be used to select 30 members from the community. Members in the community will be gathered and given the chance to pick one folded paper from 50 papers consisting of (20 N0) and (30 Yes) after explaining it well to them. By this method all the people will have equal chances of being selected to participate in the study. Also, data will be collected from people who are available and meet the criteria of the research.
  17. 17. 8 TOOLS AND METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION The research work would make use of questionnaires and interviews. The questionnaires would consist of 40 items including both open ended and close ended questions. Both methods would be conducted to cover the specific objectives of the study. The open questions would aiming at making respondents express their views freely and give their reasons for a particular response. With the close ended questions, respondents are given the option to select an answer from a list of options or items without giving reasons. THE RESEARCH SETTING This research would be conducted in Agogo Township (specifically Gyidim community). Agogo Township is a typical traditional farming community in the Asante Akim North District of the Asante region of Ghana. Agogo is a branch road in Konongo from the Accra to Kumasi main road. It is about 12km from Konongo. It is a valley surrounded by caves and mountains. By this it is known as” naturally walled town”. It has a population of about 10,096. It is about 58km from Kumasi and about 232km from Accra. Agogo covers a geographical area of about 650 square km. The town is controlled by paramount chief with sub-chiefs and also has several villages and town around it. In terms of social amenities, Agogo Township can boast of ten basic and junior high school, two senior high schools, three tertiary institutions which include women’s training college of education, nurses training college and a university all under the Presbyterian church of Ghana as well as a hospital. It has other facilities like police station, post office, two radio stations, lorry station and two market centers. It also has a community center library, commercial and rural banks and an internet café. It also has a pipe born water. The ethnicity of the township is made of majority of Akans, few Ewes, Frafras and Mosi. The languages spoken include are Twi, Ewe, Hausa. Most of the inhabitants are Christians and Islam with few traditionalist as well as other denominational groups such as savior church known in the church as “Gyidim”. The main economic activities of the inhabitants are farming and trading. Crops mainly produce by farmers in the community include; plantain, maize, yam, cassava, pepper, garden eggs and others. In
  18. 18. 9 addition the literates in the community are mostly teachers of all grades, nurses, doctors and bankers. In Agogo Gyidim community, the total number of household in the area is estimated to be 2000. In is located on the North-Eastern part of Agogo. It shares borders with Hwidiem in the North, Presbyterian Primary School and the Hospital in the West, in East by farmlands and forest and the South by Obuasi. ETHICAL CONSIDERATION Permission would be sought from the chief and his elders in the community. The people who would be selected will be informed about the study and the reason for their involvement and would be reassured of no form of liber or slander. We make sure no subjects rights will be infringed whether physically or emotionally. They would also be made aware that they can withdraw at any time they want. Finally they will be assured that the information given will be treated confidentially and data collected would be used only for the research purpose. After that, questionnaires would then be administered PILOT STUDY Pilot study would be conducted to make clients get clear insight about the questions. The questionnaires would be first and foremost being given to mates and tutors to correct all the mistakes after which they will then be redrafted and sent to the various respondents
  19. 19. 10 CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS Simple random probability sample was use to select 30 respondent from the population. The data for the study was collected through the use of questionnaires and interviews. The results were collected and transferred on a sheet and also analyzed using tables, bar charts, pie charts and histograms. These are below DEMOGRAPHIC DATA Table 4.1: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO AGES OF RESPONDENTS. AGES (YEARS) FREQUENCY PERCENTAGES (%) Below 20 4 13.33 20-29 8 26.67 30-39 10 33.33 Above 40 8 26.67 TOTAL 30 100 Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From the Table 4.1 above, most of the correspondents fall between the ages of 30-39years making up 10 representing ( 33.33 %) of the total, with few of them found below the ages of 20 making 4 ( 13.33%). Furthermore the ages between 20-29 and above 40years were the second highest making up 8(26.67%) each.
  20. 20. 11 Table 4.2: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO GENDER OF CORRESPONDENT GENDER FREQUENCY PERCENTAGES (%) Male 12 40 Female 18 60 TOTAL 30 100 Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From Table 4.2 above, most of the correspondent were females representing 18 (60 %) and 12(40%) were males. Table 4.3: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO MARITAL STATUS OF RESPONDENTS MARITAL STATUS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGES (%) Single 13 43.33 Married 12 40 Divorced 3 10 Widow/widower 2 6.67 TOTAL 30 100 Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From the table 4.3 above, it can be deduce that out of 30 respondents 13(43.33 %) were single, followed by married partners which correspond to 12(40 %), divorced representing 3(10 %) and 2 representing 6.67% were widows and widowers.
  21. 21. 12 Table4.4: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF RESPONDENTSs EDUCATIONAL STATUS FREQUENCY PERCENTAGES Primary 6 20 JHS 17 56.67 SHS 3 10 Tertiary 4 13.33 TOTAL 30 100 Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From the above table 4.3, most of the respondents were JHS leavers which is 17(56.67%), followed by primary 6(20 %), being second, 4(13.33 %) of the respondents are tertiary leavers and 3(10 %) are SHS leavers. Table 4.5: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RELIGION OF RESPONDENTS RELIGION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGES (%) Christian 20 66.67 Muslim 6 20 Traditionalist 4 13.33 TOTAL 30 100 Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From the table 4.5 above, the community is a Christian dominated representing 20(66.67 %), and next being Muslim 6(20%) followed by traditionalist which is 4(13.33 %).
  22. 22. 13 Figure 4.0 DISTRBUTION ACCORDING TO ETHNICITY OF RESPONDENTS Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From figure 4.0 above, 24 (80%) represent Akan which is the most dominant inhabitants in the area, followed by 4 (14%) which represent Ewe, and both Frafra and others representing 1 (3%). 80% 14% 3% 3% DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO ETHNICITY AKAN EWE FRAFRA GA
  23. 23. 14 Figure 4.1; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO OCCUPATION OF RESPONDENTS Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From figure 4.1 above, majority of the respondents representing 15 (50%) are traders, followed by 5 (17%) are farmers, 4 (13%) representing teachers and others and 2 (7%) are unemployed. 17% 50% 13% 7% 13% DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO OCCUPATION FARMING TRADING TEACHING UNEMPLOYED OTHERS
  24. 24. 15 KNOWLEDGE OF THE RESPONDENTS ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Figure 4.2 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING RESPONDENT’S AWARENESS ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From figure 4.2 above, all the respondents have heard about traditional medicine. 100% 0%0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 YES NO DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING RESPONDENTS AWARENESSON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE YES NO
  25. 25. 16 Table 4.6; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO SOURCE INFORMATION ABOUT TRADITIONAL MEDICINE SOURCE OF INFORMATION FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%) Friends 9 30 Media 21 70 TOTAL 30 100 Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From table 4.6 above, 21 (70%) of the respondents heard about traditional medicine from the media and 9 (30%) heard about traditional medicine from friends.
  26. 26. 17 Figure 4.4; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO KNOWLEDGE ON NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Source; FIELD WORK, 2013 From figure 4.4 above, 11 (37%) of the respondents said traditional medicine spoils easily, 9 (30%) of the respondents said traditional medicine do not give specific cure, 6 (20%) of the respondents said traditional medicine do not have specific dosage and 4 (13%) representing the least said traditional medicine complicates certain conditions. 30% 20% 13% 37% DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO KNOWLEDGE ON NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE DON'T GIVE SPECIFIC CURE HAVE NO SPECIFIC DOSAGE COMPLICATES CERTAIN CONDITIONS SPOILS EASILY
  27. 27. 18 Figure 4.5; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE ON ACQUIRED TRAINING OF TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS Source: FIELD WORK From figure 4.5 above, 25 (83%) of the respondents said traditional medical practitioners undergo special training and 5 (17%) of the respondents said traditional medical practitioners do not undergo any special training. 83% 17% DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS KNOWLEDGE ON ACQUIRE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS YES NO
  28. 28. 19 Table 4.7: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE ON THE TYPE OF TRAINING ACQUIRED BY TRADITIONAL MEDICAL PRACTITIONERS TYPE OF TRAINING FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%) Learning by experience 19 76 Training at the university 3 12 Intuition on herbs 3 12 TOTAL 25 100 Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From table 4.7 above, majority of the respondents representing 19 (76%) said traditional medical practitioners acquire their training by experience, 3 (12%) said traditional medical practitioners acquire their training at the university and by intuition on herbs.
  29. 29. 20 Figure 4.5; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS KNOWLEDGE ABOUT EXPIRY DATE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From figure 4.5 above, 19 (63.3%) of the respondents said traditional medicine do not have labeled expiry date while 11 (36.7%) said traditional medicine have labeled expiry dates. 36.7% 63.3% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 YES NO DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS' KNOWLEDGE ON EXPIRY DATE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE YES NO
  30. 30. 21 Figure 4.6; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ KNOWLEDGE ON SCIENTIFIC PREPARATION OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From figure 4.6 above, 22 (73%) of the respondents said traditional medicine is not scientifically made while 8 representing 27% of the respondents said traditional medicine is scientifically prepared. 27% 73% DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENT'S KNOWLEDGE ON SCIENTIFIC PREPARATION OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE YES NO
  31. 31. 22 PERCEPTION OF PEOPLE ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Figure 4.7: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO THE RESPONDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON HOW GOOD TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IS. Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From figure 4.7 above, 21 (70%) of the respondents said traditional medicine is good, 6 (20%) of the respondents said traditional medicine is bad and 3 representing 10% of the respondents said traditional medicine is very good. 10% 70% 20% 0 5 10 15 20 25 VERY GOOD GOOD BAD DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS' PERCEPTION ON HOW GOOD TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IS VERY GOOD GOOD BAD
  32. 32. 23 Figure 4.8; DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON PEOPLE USE SEEK TRADITIONAL HEALTH CARE Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From figure 4.8 above, 19 (63.33%) of the respondents said people who seek traditional health care are like any other person, 9 (30%) of the respondents said people who seek traditional health care are threat to the society while 2 representing 6.67% of the respondents said people who seek traditional healthcare are social deviants. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 SOCIAL DEVIANT THREAT TO SOCIETY LIKE ANY OTHER PERSON 6.67% 30% 63.33% DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS' PERCEPTION ON PEOPLE WHO SEEK TRADITIONAL HEALTH CARE SOCIAL DEVIANT THREAT TO SOCIETY LIKE ANY OTHER PERSON
  33. 33. 24 Figure 4.9: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON THE CONDITION UNDER WHICH TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IS PREPARED. Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From the figure 4.9 above, 22 representing 69% of the respondents said traditional medicine is prepared under non-hygienic condition, 8 (25%) of the respondents said traditional medicine is prepared under hygienic condition and 2 (6%) of the respondents said traditional medicine is prepared under very hygienic condition. 6% 25% 69% DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING RESPONDENTS PERCEPTION ON THE CONDITION UNDER WHICH TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IS PREPARED VERY HYGIENIC HYGIENIC NON-HYGIENIC
  34. 34. 25 PATRONAGE Figure 4.10: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS USAGE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From figure 4.10 above, 26 (87%) of the respondents said they have used traditional medicine before and 4 (13%) of the respondents said they have not used traditional medicine before. 87% 13% DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS' USAGE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE YES NO
  35. 35. 26 Figure 4.11: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ EXPERIENCE AFTER USING TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From figure 4.11 above 18 (60%) of the respondents said they were cured after using traditional medicine, 10 (33.33%) of the respondents said there was no improvement in their condition after the usage of traditional medicine and 2 (6.67%) said their condition worsened after the use of traditional medicine. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 CURED NO IMPROVEMENT WORSEN OF CONDITION 60% 33.33% 6.67% DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TOR RESPONDENTS' EXPERIENCE AFTER USING TRADITIONAL MEDICINE CURED NO IMPROVEMENT WORSEN OF CONDITION
  36. 36. 27 Figure 4.12: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS’ REASONS FOR USING TRADITIONAL MEDICINE From figure 4.12 above 15 (50%) of the respondents said traditional health care provide better cure, 11 (36.67%) of the respondents said traditional healthcare is cheaper, 3 (10%) said because of attitude of health workers and 1 (3.33%) said because of long queue at hospital. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 IT IS CHEAPER THEY PROVIDE BETTER CURE LONG QUEUE AT HOSPITAL ATTITUDE OF HEALTH WORKERS 36.67% 50% 3.33% 10% DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RESPONDENTS' REASONS FOR USING TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IT IS CHEAPER THEY PROVIDE BETTER CURE LONG QUEUE AT HOSPITAL ATTITUDE OF HEALTH WORKERS
  37. 37. 28 Figure 4.13: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO CHOICE OF PREFERED PLACE OF HEALTH CARE OF RESPONDENTS Source: FIELD WORK, 2013. From the figure 4.13 above, 80% representing 24 respondents preferred seeking health care from the hospital, 5(16.67%) preferred seeking health care from traditional healers and 1(3.33%) representing the least preferred seeking health care from denominational healers. 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% TRADITIONAL HEALER HOSPITAL DENOMINATIONAL HEALER 16.67% 80% 3.33% DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PREFERED CHOICE OF HEALTH CARE OF RESPONDENTS TRADITIONAL HEALER HOSPITAL DENOMINATIONAL HEALER
  38. 38. 29 From the figure 4.14 below, 10(33.33%) of the respondents use traditional medicine when they are sick, 8 representing 26.67% of the respondents uses traditional medicine occasionally, others specified 7(23.33%) said that they had never use traditional medicine before and 5(16.67%) representing the least said they frequently use traditional medicine. Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 Figure 4.14: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO REGULARITY USE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE BY RESPONDENTS 27% 17% 33% 23% DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO REGULARITY USE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE BY RESPONDENTS OCCASIONALLY FREQUENTLY WHENEVER I'M SICK OTHERS
  39. 39. 30 EFFECTS Figure 4.15: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO EFFECTS EXPERIENCE AFTER THE USE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From the figure 4.15 above, 24(88%) of the respondents said they experience after the use of traditional medicine and 5(12%) said did not experience any reaction after the use of traditional medicine. 88% 12% 12% DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO EFFECTS AFTER THE USE OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINE YES NO
  40. 40. 31 Figure 4.16: DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO ACTIONS TAKEN BY RESPONDENTS AFTER EXPERIENCING TRADITIONAL MEDICINE REACTIONS Source: FIELD WORK, 2013 From the above figure 4.16, 50% representing 15 respondents visit the hospital after experiencing traditional medicine reactions, 10(33%) buy their own drug orthodox and 5(17%) representing the least uses another traditional medicine after experiencing reactions. 50% 33% 17% DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO ACTIONS TAKEN BY RESPONDENTS AFTER EXPERIENCING TRADITIONAL MEDICINE REACTIONS VISITED THE HOSPITAL BOUGHT ORTHODOX DRUG USED ANOTHER TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
  41. 41. 32 CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION OF FINDING The main objective of this study is to determine the perception on the use of traditional medicine in the treatment of ailments in Agogo Gyidim. Also to determine the adverse effects that is impacted on the inhabitants of Agogo Gyidim with reference to traditional medicine. Furthermore, I it is to identify the setbacks relating to modern health care delivery and to provide appropriate methods to facilitate the development of traditional medicine. In this chapter, the findings from the data analysis will be discussed and compared with the literature review, conclusions will be drawn from the points raised and recommendations will be offered to serve as a guide for Nursing administration, education and research. For easy reading and understanding, the findings have been ground under the following: demographic data, knowledge, perception, uses and effects. DEMOGRAPHIC DATA From the analysis, majority of the respondents 10(33.33%) of the population fell between the ages of 30 to 39 followed by 20 to 29 and those above 40 who had the same number 8 (26.67%). Some respondents fell below 20 which represent 4 (13.33%). With respect to gender, majority of the respondents were females representing 18(60%) and 12(40%) were males. Also 13(43.33%) of the respondents were single followed by 12(40%) were married. 3(10%) were divorced and 2(6.67%) of the respondents were widows and widowers. Considering the educational background, majority of the respondents had their education up to JHS representing 17(56.67%), 6(20%) had up to primary education, 4 (13.33%) of the
  42. 42. 33 respondents had their education up to tertiary level of education and 3(10%) had up to SHS education. In terms of religion, the study captured the most dominant religion within the community, Christianity 20(66.67%), 6(20%) were Muslim and 4(3.3%) were traditionalists. Also with respect to ethnicity, majority of the respondents were Akans representing 24 (80%) followed by Ewe 4(14%) and Frafra 1(3%). Considering the occupational status, 15 representing 50% of the respondents were traders, followed by farmers 5(17%), 4(13%) were teachers and 2(7%) were unemployed. KNOWLEDGE Based on the analysis, it can be said that all our respondents representing 30(100%) heard about traditional medicine. With respect to the source of information about traditional medicine, majority of the respondents 21(70%) heard from the media and 9(30%) heard from friends. Again from the study, majority of the respondents 11(37%) said traditional medicine spoils easily, 9(30%) of the respondents said traditional medicine do not give specific cure, 6(20%) said traditional medicine do not have specific dosage and 4(13%) said they complicate certain conditions. Considering the knowledge on the type of training acquired by traditional medical practitioners, 19(76%) of respondent said traditional medical practitioners acquire their knowledge through learning by experience, 3(12%) said training from the university and 3(12%) also said intuition on herbs. This is in conformity with (Kala, 2000) who said, because of information on the use of plant species for therapeutic purpose has been placed from one generation to the next through oral tradition.
  43. 43. 34 PATRONAGE From the analysis, majority of the respondents 26(87%) said they have use traditional medicine before and 4(13%) said they have not used traditional medicine before. This is in conformity with (Owolabi et al, 2007) who said “with about 80% of the world’s inhabitants rely mainly on traditional medicines for their primary health care. Considering the reasons for the usage of traditional medicine 15(50%) of the respondents said traditional healthcare provides better cure, 11(36.67%) said traditional medicine is cheaper, 3(10%) said because of attitude of health workers and 1(3.33%) said because of long queue at hospital. This contradicts with (Lucy and Edger, 1999) who stated that “interest in medicinal plants as a re-emerging health aid has been fuelled by the rising costs of prescription drugs in the maintenance of personal health and wellbeing and the bio prospecting of new plant-derived drugs. RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the research findings, the following recommendations are therefore suggested and we believe that they would be of great importance to the Ministry of Health and the Ghana Health Service as a whole 1. In order to improve the effectiveness of traditional medicine, the government through the MOH should subsidy in the preparation of the traditional medicine. 2. There should be an intensive training for all the traditional medical practitioners. 3. The prepared traditional medicine should be scientifically tested and approved before it is distributed. 4. All herbal drugs that have being scientifically tested should be introduced into the various hospitals to be used for the treatment of diseases. 5. There should be an annually celebration for the importance of traditional medicine.
  44. 44. 35 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The research was conducted at Agogo Gyidim. It was surveyed at the perception of people in the use of traditional medicine in the treatment of ailments. At the end of the research, the following were emerged: 1. Age of the respondents: Most of them were between the ages of 30 and 39 (33.33%) 2. Majority of the respondents were females 3. Most of the respondents in the study area were single (43.33%), judging from the survey conducted. 4. Majority of the respondents were JHS leavers (56.67%) 5. In terms of religion, Christian dominated. 6. Majority (80%) were from Akan tribe. 7. In terms of occupation, most of the respondents (50%) were farmers. 8. All the respondents have heard about traditional medicine. 9. (70%) of the respondent heard traditional medicine from the media. 10. Most of the respondents (37%) said traditional medicine spoils easily. 11. From the survey, majority of the respondents said traditional medical practitioners acquire knowledge through learning by experience. 12. In terms of scientifically preparation, majority said traditional medicine is not scientifically made. 13. Most of the respondents (70%) said traditional medicine is good. 14. Majority of the respondents said traditional medicine is non-hygienically prepared. 15. More than (80%) of the respondents have used traditional medicine before. 16. (60%) of the respondents were cured after using traditional medicine. 17. Majority of the respondents said traditional medicine provide better cure (50%) 18. In terms of regular use of traditional medicine, majority use traditional medicine when they are sick.
  45. 45. 36 It can be concluded from the findings that majority of the respondents have use traditional medicine before and suggested that there should be improvement in the field of traditional medical practices and preparations. NURSING IMPLICATION The findings from the research work have some major implications for nursing administration, research and education. The findings indicated that majority of the respondents were aware of the benefits and disadvantages of traditional medicine. 1. There must be education on the effects on the use of non-scientifically tested medicine. 2. The use of scientifically approved traditional medicine should be involved in the treatment of diseases in the hospital. 3. Colleges should be established to train individuals on the preparation of traditional medicine. 4. All traditional medicines must be scientifically tested and accredited before being brought to market. 5. The ministry of health should establish a plantation of medicinal plants that are used in the treatment of ailments.
  46. 46. 37 REFERENCES  Addae-Mensah, I. (1992). Towards a national scientific basis for herbal medicine–a phytochemists two decade contribution. Accra Ghana, University Press.  Twumasi, P. A. (1988). Social foundation of the interplay between traditional and modern systems. Accra: Ghana Universities Press (Inaugural Lecture).  UNAIDS/WHO. (2008). AIDS Epidemic Update, December 2008.  WHO. (2008). HIV/AIDS Strategy in the African Region: A Frame Work for Implementation. Fiftieth Session, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, 28th August-2nd September, 2008.  WHO. (2005). National policy on Traditional Medicine and regulation of Herbal Medicines. Report of the WHO global survey. World Health Organization, Geneva. May, 2005.  Wilkinson, D. & Wilkinson, N. (1998). HIV infection among patients with sexually transmitted diseases in rural South Africa. International Journal of STD AIDS.  Xue, C. C., Zhang, A. L., Lin, V., & Da Costa, C. (2010). Contemporary and Alternative Medicine Use in Australia: A National Population-Based Survey. World Health Organisation Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine, School of Health Sciences. Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
  47. 47. 38 QUESTIONNAIRES AND INTERVIEWS Agogo Presbyterian Nurses Training College P. O. Box 16 Agogo Dear respondents, We are second year students of Agogo Presbyterian Nurses Training College conducting a research on the topic “The perception on the use of traditional medicine in the treatment of ailments in Agogo Gyidim community”. This research is purposely for academic work. Confidentiality and anonymity is assured, feel free to express your cardinal opinions. SECTION A DEMOGRAPHIC DATA 1) Age A. Below 20 [ ] B. 20-29 [ ] C. 30-39 [ ] D. Above 40 [ ] 2) Sex A. Male [ ] B. Female [ ] 3) Marital status A. Single [ ] B. Married [ ] C. Divorced [ ]
  48. 48. 39 D. Widow/widower [ ] E. Others (specify)…………………………………………………………………….. 4) Educational background A. Primary [ ] B. JHS [ ] C. SHS [ ] D. Tertiary [ ] E. Others (specify)…………………………………………………………………….. 5) Religion A. Christian [ ] B. Muslim [ ] C. Traditionalist [ ] D. Others (specify)…………………………………………………………………….. 6) Ethnicity A. Akan [ ] B. Ewe [ ] C. Frafra [ ] D. Others (specify}…………………………………………………………………..... 7) Occupation A. Farming [ ] B. Trading [ ] C. Teaching [ ] D. Unemployed [ ] E. Others (specify)……………………………………………………………………..
  49. 49. 40 SECTION B KNOWLEDGE OF PEOPLE ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE 8) Have you heard of traditional medicine? A. Yes [ ] B. No [ ] 9) If yes, from where? A. Friends [ ] B. Media [ ] C. Others (specify)…………………………………………………………………...... 10) What are some of the negative aspects of traditional medicine? A. They do not give the specific cure [ ] B. They do not have specific dosage [ ] C. They complicate certain conditions [ ] D. They spoil easily [ ] E. Others (specify)…………………………………………………………………...... 11) Do traditional medical practitioners undergo special training? A. Yes [ ] B. No [ ] 12) If yes, what kind of training do you know? A. Learning by experience on the job [ ] B. Training at the university [ ] C. Intuition on herbs [ ] D. Others (specify)…………………………………………………………………….
  50. 50. 41 13) Do traditional medicines have labelled expiry dates? A. Yes [ ] B. No [ ] 14) Is traditional medicine scientifically made? A. Yes [ ] B. No [ ] SECTION C PERCEPTION OF PEOPLE ON TRADITIONAL MEDICINE 15) How do you see traditional medicine? A. Good [ ] B. Very good [ ] C. Some [ ] D. Bad [ ] E. Others (specify)…………………………………………………………………….. 16) Is it necessary to seek traditional medicine? A. Not necessary [ ] B. Necessary [ ] C. Very necessary [ ] 17) What is the perception about people who seek traditional health care? A. Social deviants [ ] B. Threat to society [ ] C. Like any other person [ ]
  51. 51. 42 D. Others (specify)…………………………………………………………………….. 18) How do you see the preparation of the traditional medicine? A. Very hygienic [ ] B. Hygienic [ ] C. Non hygienic [ ] D. Others (specify)…………………………………………………………………….. SECTION D PATRONAGE 19) Have you ever used traditional medicine? A. Yes [ ] B. No [ ] 20) If yes, what was the effect you experienced? A. I was cured [ ] B. No improvement was seen [ ] C. My condition became worse [ ] D. Others (specify)…………………………………………………………………….. 21) Why do people use traditional medicine? A. It is cheaper [ ] B. They provide better cure [ ] C. Long queue at hospital [ ] D. Attitude of health workers [ ] E. Others (specify)…………………………………………………………………….. 22) In advent of ailments where will you seek for treatment first?
  52. 52. 43 A. Traditional healer [ ] B. Hospital/health facility [ ] C. Denominational healer [ ] D. Others (specify)…………………………………………………………………….. 23) How often do you use traditional medicine? A. Occasionally [ ] B. Frequently [ ] C. Whenever I’m sick [ ] D. Other (specify)……………………………………………………………………… SECTION D EFFECTS 24) Did you experience any reactions with the use of traditional medicine? A. Yes [ ] B. No [ ] 25) If yes, what did you do? A. Visited the hospital [ ] B. Used orthodox medicine [ ] C. Used another traditional medicine [ ] D. Others (specify)…………………………………………………………………….. 26) What do you think can be done to improve traditional medicine? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………

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