Presentation given at Open Education Conference in Richmond Virginia describing how organizations use Creative Commons as an integral part of their business to generate economic and social value while successfully operating and sustaining their business.
by Paul Stacey, Creative Commons
The 13th Annual Open Education Conference
November 3, 2016
Except where otherwise noted these materials are licensed Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 (CC BY)
A Book About
Open Business Models
1,687 backers. Thank you backers!
Interview 24 businesses, creators, and organizations across sectors and from
around the world who have made CC core to their operations.
Tell their stories in a way that conveys their origins, goals, what they do, and how
they do it. Describe their sustainability strategy including revenue generation.
Analyse the stories and identify common practices, themes, and strategies.
Combine case study analysis with a review of related literature.
Generate a a big picture framework for contextualizing, thinking about, and
analyzing Made With Creative Commons initiatives.
Provide Made With CC recommendations and guidance.
Produce and distribute Made With CC as ebook and physical print book.
Part 1 = The Forest
Big Picture Framework - 10,000 Foot View
Forest by Mickey O’Neil Unsplash https://unsplash.com/@mickeyoneil licensed CC0
●The Commons and Commoning
●The Commons, The Market, The State
●Parts of a Resource
○ Norms and Rules-in-Use
●The History of the Commons
●Creative Commons Role in the Commons
●Open Business Models
●Benefits of the Commons
Part 2 = Paths Taken
Ground Level View
Forest by Jens Lelie Unsplash https://unsplash.com/@leliejens licensed CC0
●What it means to be Made With CC
○ Made With CC = sharing creative work + set of values
●More than a copyright license
●Making Made With CC sustainable
○ Sustainability = $ + reciprocity
○ Types of value
■ Commercial value
■ Symbolic value
■ Public value
■ Reuser value
■ Commons value
○ Reciprocity feeds financial sustainability
○ Be human
○ Build trust
○ Have trust
○ Treat humans as humans
○ How to collaborate
○ Creative collaboration
○ Other types of collaboration
●How to make enough money
○ Costs to create
○ Costs to distribute
○ Charging for service
○ Charging for a different version of your content
○ Charging for access to an audience
○ Charging for access to a brand
●The role of CC licensing in market-based
○ Copying to increase eyeballs and name recognition
○ Copying as a marketing tool
○ Memberships and individual donations
○ Pay what you want models
○ Subsidizing content creation up front
○ Physical copies
●Blending market and reciprocity revenue
●Choosing a license
○ The more restrictive license options
○ Enabling hands-on engagement with your work
Part 3 = Each Individual Tree - 24 Case Study Stories
Tree by Milada Vigerova Unsplash https://unsplash.com/@mili_vigerova licensed CC0
Made With Creative Commons Case Studies
1. Opendesk (UK, open 3D design / furniture manufacturing)
2. Lumen Learning (US, higher education/OER)
3. OpenStax (US, education/open textbooks/publisher)
4. Wikimedia Foundation (US, encyclopedia +)
5. Rijksmuseum (Netherlands, Museum/GLAM)
6. Noun Project (US, icons/symbols platform)
7. Open Data Institute (UK, open data advocacy and services)
8. Tribe of Noise (Netherlands, music platform)
9. Figshare (UK, research data/education/publishing)
10.Cards Against Humanity (US, game)
11.Amanda Palmer (US, musician, author, artist)
12.Cory Doctorow (Canadian but living in LA, writer, activist)
13.Arduino (Italy, open hardware & software)
14.The Conversation (Australia/US/France/Africa, journalism)
15.Jonathan Mann (US, music)
16.Shareable Magazine (US, niche publishing)
17.Knowledge Unlatched (UK, open monograph publishing)
18.Sparkfun (US, hardware)
19.PLOS (US, research journal)
20.Blender (Netherlands, film, 3D modeling)
21.Artica (Uruguay, cultural management)
22.TeachAids (US, software & education)
23.Siyavula (Africa, textbooks and intelligent practice)
24.Figure.nz (New Zealand, open data publishing)
Case Studies Summary Table:
●Business / Organization Name
●What they do
Physical or Digital
Scarce or Abundant
Who can access & use?
Who says, how determined?
Direct or Indirect
Informal (norms) or Formal (laws)
Additive or Extractive
Goals of use
Use Outcome Measures
Each functions differently
• diﬀerent norms & rules
• diﬀerent social
• diﬀerent use
State Takeover of Commons
Indirect / Representational
• elected oﬃcials
• quality of life
Indirect / Representational
• value based on $
• make digital scarce
• shareholder return
• replication = 0 cost
• replication cost
Direct Participation (major difference)
• creators purpose/intent
• users who have an interest in resource use
• resource collaboration
• those impacted by use of resources
• no derivatives
• Access: Right to enter deﬁned area and enjoy its beneﬁts without removing any resources.
• Withdrawal: Right to obtain speciﬁed products from a resource system and remove that product from the area for prescribed uses
• Management: Right to participate in decisions regulating resources or making improvements to infrastructure.
• Exclusion: Right to participate in the determination of who has, and who does not have, access to and use of resources.
• Alienation: Right to sell, lease, bequeath, or otherwise transfer any or all of the preceding component rights.
• resources & views
• uploads & downloads
• # people, size of community
• attributions, gratitude
• participation (creation & use)
• distributional equity
• economic eﬃciency
• costs & beneﬁts - individual & community
• impact on system and Commons itself
• 3D printing
• laser cutting
Mixing of rules, means & aims.
Each can do things the other can’t.
Proportional balance between all three.
Re-establish, grow Commons.
Help State enable Commons.
Help Market use & contribute to Commons.
Made With Creative Commons
Be more than licenses
Add Social features/tools to complement licenses
Add Use outcome measures - benefits/value
Exercise convening power - convening
of the commons for common good
Why should the Market
engage with the Commons?
What can the Commons do
that the Market cannot?
Who gets value and
how is value created in the Commons?
WHY SHOULD MARKET ENGAGE WITH COMMONS?
(Benefit of Commons over Market)
• accessible to all
• levels playing ﬁeld
• eliminates haves, have nots
• free ﬂow
• rapid dissemination
• reduces sales & marketing
• no DRM (no managing access control)
• distributed rather than centralized
• economies to scale
• continuous improvements
• create, use, and contribute
• network eﬀect
Reach & Impact
• global distribution
• local making & use Innovation
• not mass produced
• attribution & reputation
• social engagement
• for creators, investors, users, ...
• public good
HOW SHOULD MARKET ENGAGE WITH COMMONS?
• add value
• give more than you take
• transparency - about what using, what adding,
• give attribution & gratitude
• develop trust - don’t exploit
• defend the Commons
• declarations - CapeTown, + others
• commodity exchange
• maximizing proﬁt
• inclusion - universal access
• shared use and reuse
• value creation beyond $
• economic eﬃciency
• sustainability - impact on system