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A
PRESENTATION
ON
WATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM
TAKEN
AT
PWD, GANGAPUR CITY (SWM)
SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:
Mr. Himanshu Singh S...
I. INTRODUCTION
• Provision of adequate drainage is an essential part of
pavement design.
– Protection of pavement structu...
I. INTRODUCTION
• Effects of water on the pavement
structure
• Presence of moisture causes:
o reduction in the stability o...
II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
• Can be divided into three phases:
i. Estimation of the quantity of water that can
i...
II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
1. Rainfall Intensity
• Runoff is obtained by considering expected sever
storm.
 Ret...
II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
Source: ERA Manual, 2002
II. DESIGN OF SURFACE
DRAINAGE
SYSTEMS
Source: ERA Manual, 2002
II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
2. Computation of Runoff
• Rain water expelled from the road surface
i. Infiltration
...
II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
• Infiltration contd.
• Rate of infiltration on bare soil is less than on a
turfed so...
II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
• Rational Formula- accurate way of estimating
runoff up to areas of 0.5 km2
Q  0.00...
II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
• tc=distance/velocity
of flow
• tc is then used to
determine the rainfall
intensity ...
II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
• This chart can also
be alternatively used
to determinec.
III.DESIGN OFSIDE DITCHESAND OPEN
CHANNELS
• THE MANNING’S FORMULA
• Once the quantity of runoff is known, the design of
d...
III.DESIGN OFSIDE DITCHESAND OPEN
CHANNELS
• The Manning’s Formula
III.DESIGN OFSIDE DITCHESAND OPEN
CHANNELS
• Capacity of a Trapezoidal Channel
III.DESIGN OFSIDE DITCHESAND OPEN
CHANNELS
• Examples:
1. The maximum quantity of water expected in one of the
open longit...
III.DESIGN OFSIDE DITCHESAND OPEN
CHANNELS
• Examples:
2. The surface water from road side is drained to the
longitudinal ...
IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
1. Lowering of Water Table
• Highest level of water table should be below the
subgrade.
• Practical...
IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
1. Lowering of Water Table
Fig. Symmetrical longitudinal drains used to lower the
groundwater table...
• Lowering of Water Table
IV. SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
Longitudinal
Drain
Transverse
Drains
Fig. Lowering of water table using
...
IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
2. Seepage Control
• If seepage zone is at a depth less than
0.6 to 0.9 m below subgrade level,
• U...
IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
2. Seepage Control
Fig. Longitudinal interceptor drain used to cut off
seepage and lower the ground...
IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
 2. Seepage Control
 Groundwater seeps through the slope where the
water table intersects the la...
IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
2. Seepage Control
Fig. (B) Illustration of interceptor drain on the drawdown of
the groundwater ta...
IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
2. Seepage Control
Fig. Longitudinal collector drain used to remove
water seeping into the pavement...
IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
3. Control of Capillary Rise
• Capillary rise can be controlled by
 Using a layer of granular mate...
IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
3. Control of Capillary Rise
• Bituminous layer or other geo-textiles can be used
as an impermeable...
IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
4. Design of Filter Material
• Proper filter material should be used for:
 Subsurface drainage sys...
IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE
1 0
4. Design of Filter Material
 DP=size of perforation in drain pipe
 D85 Filter = 2DP
0
8 0
2D...
• REFERENCES:
1. Highway Engineering, 7th Ed. Paul H. Wright and Karen
K. Dixon. Wiley (2004)
2. Highway Engineering, 8th ...
THANK YOU!
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Drainage system

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Drainage system

  1. 1. A PRESENTATION ON WATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM TAKEN AT PWD, GANGAPUR CITY (SWM) SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY: Mr. Himanshu Singh Sitaram Meena (HOD, Deptt OF CE ) (12EJJCE099)
  2. 2. I. INTRODUCTION • Provision of adequate drainage is an essential part of pavement design. – Protection of pavement structure – Improves road safety • Can be categorically studied in three parts: 1. Surface Drainage • Drainage on the adjoining land and roadway surface • Side Drainage and Cross Drainage 2. Sub-surface Drainage
  3. 3. I. INTRODUCTION • Effects of water on the pavement structure • Presence of moisture causes: o reduction in the stability of the soil mass. o considerable variation in volume of subgrade in clayey soils. o Waves and corrugations failure in flexible pavements. o Stripping failure in flexible pavements. o Mud pumping failure in rigid pavements.
  4. 4. II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS • Can be divided into three phases: i. Estimation of the quantity of water that can iii. reach any element of the system. ii. Hydraulic design of each element of the system. Comparison of alternative systems and materials • Criteria-Lowest annual cost alternative
  5. 5. II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 1. Rainfall Intensity • Runoff is obtained by considering expected sever storm.  Return period of 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, and 1 0 0 years • Quantity of runoff depends on intensity and duration. • Duration= Time of Concentration • The time required for water from the remotest place to reach a specific point on the drainage system. • =T1 +T2 • T1 = over land flow time • T2 = time of flow in the longitudinal drain
  6. 6. II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Source: ERA Manual, 2002
  7. 7. II. DESIGN OF SURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS Source: ERA Manual, 2002
  8. 8. II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 2. Computation of Runoff • Rain water expelled from the road surface i. Infiltration ii. Runoff iii. Evaporation- insignificant • Infiltration depends on: • Type and gradation of soil • Soil covers, moisture content of the soil • Presence of impervious layers near the surface.
  9. 9. II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS • Infiltration contd. • Rate of infiltration on bare soil is less than on a turfed soil. constant • Frozen soil is impervious • Rate of infiltration is assumed to be during any specific design storm. • Runoff depends on: • Nature of the ground, degree of saturation, and slope of the surface • Rate of runoff greater on smooth surfaces.
  10. 10. II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS • Rational Formula- accurate way of estimating runoff up to areas of 0.5 km2 Q  0.00278 CIA C 1 A1  C 2 A 2 C  A1 A 2 • If the water shade is made up of different surfaces • = runoff (m3/sec) • C=coefficient, representing ratio of runoff to rainfall • I = intensity of rainfall (mm/hr)for a duration equal to the time of concentration • A = catchment area tributary to the design location, ha
  11. 11. II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
  12. 12. II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS • tc=distance/velocity of flow • tc is then used to determine the rainfall intensity (I)
  13. 13. II.DESIGN OFSURFACE DRAINAGE SYSTEMS • This chart can also be alternatively used to determinec.
  14. 14. III.DESIGN OFSIDE DITCHESAND OPEN CHANNELS • THE MANNING’S FORMULA • Once the quantity of runoff is known, the design of ditches and similar structures is based on the principles of open channel flow. • Mannings’s formula assumes steady flow in a uniform channel. V  1 R 2 / 3 S1 / 2 n Q  V  A Where: • V = mean velocity (m/sec) • R = hydraulic radius (m)= Area/wetted perimeter • S=slope of the channel (m/m) • n=Manning’s roughness coefficient
  15. 15. III.DESIGN OFSIDE DITCHESAND OPEN CHANNELS • The Manning’s Formula
  16. 16. III.DESIGN OFSIDE DITCHESAND OPEN CHANNELS • Capacity of a Trapezoidal Channel
  17. 17. III.DESIGN OFSIDE DITCHESAND OPEN CHANNELS • Examples: 1. The maximum quantity of water expected in one of the open longitudinal drains on clayey soil is 0.9 m3/sec. Design the cross section and longitudinal slope of trapezoidal drain assuming the bottom width of the trapezoidal section to be 1.0 m and cross slopes to be 1V:1.5H. The allowable velocity of flow in the drain is 1.2 m/sec and Manning’s roughness coefficient is 0.02.
  18. 18. III.DESIGN OFSIDE DITCHESAND OPEN CHANNELS • Examples: 2. The surface water from road side is drained to the longitudinal side drain from across one half a bituminous pavement surface of total width 7.0 m, shoulder and adjoining land of width 8.0 m one side of the drain. On the other side of the longitudinal drain, water flows across from reserved land with grass and 2% cross slope towards the side drain, the width of this strip of land being 2 5 m. The run off coefficients of the pavement, shoulder and reserve land with grass surface are 0.8, 0.25, and 0 3 5 respectively. The length of the stretch of land parallel to the road from where water is expected to flow to the side drain is about 4 0 0 m. Estimate the quantity of run-off flowing in the drain assuming 2 5 years period of frequency.
  19. 19. IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE 1. Lowering of Water Table • Highest level of water table should be below the subgrade. • Practically 1.0 to 1.2 m below subgrade • Relatively permeable soil- • Longitudinal drains are mainly used • Impermeable soils- • Transverse drains may be necessary inaddition to longitudinal drains
  20. 20. IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE 1. Lowering of Water Table Fig. Symmetrical longitudinal drains used to lower the groundwater table and to collect water infiltrating the pavement.
  21. 21. • Lowering of Water Table IV. SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE Longitudinal Drain Transverse Drains Fig. Lowering of water table using Transverse Drains (Plan View)
  22. 22. IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE 2. Seepage Control • If seepage zone is at a depth less than 0.6 to 0.9 m below subgrade level, • Use longitudinal pipe drain in trench with filter material to intercept the seepage flow. • This phenomenon can be explained using figures.
  23. 23. IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE 2. Seepage Control Fig. Longitudinal interceptor drain used to cut off seepage and lower the groundwater table.
  24. 24. IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE  2. Seepage Control  Groundwater seeps through the slope where the water table intersects the land slope, and  Groundwater flows beneath the pavement while also entering the pavement foundation materials. Fig. (A) Illustration of ground water flow along a sloping impervious layer toward a roadway.
  25. 25. IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE 2. Seepage Control Fig. (B) Illustration of interceptor drain on the drawdown of the groundwater table.
  26. 26. IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE 2. Seepage Control Fig. Longitudinal collector drain used to remove water seeping into the pavement structural section.
  27. 27. IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE 3. Control of Capillary Rise • Capillary rise can be controlled by  Using a layer of granular material of suitable thickness.  Using a layer of impermeable capillary cutoff.  Capillary water should not rise above the thickness of the granular layer Granular material Capillary rise Highest water Fig. Gtraabnleularcapillary cutoff
  28. 28. IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE 3. Control of Capillary Rise • Bituminous layer or other geo-textiles can be used as an impermeable layer. Impermeable layer Capillary rise Highest water table Fig. Impermeable layer capillary cutoff
  29. 29. IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE 4. Design of Filter Material • Proper filter material should be used for:  Subsurface drainage system and backfilling the drainage trenches and  Criteria:  Permeability and Piping  5 Permeability criteria D15 offilter D15 of foundation  5 D15 of filter of foundationD85 Piping criteria
  30. 30. IV.SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE 1 0 4. Design of Filter Material  DP=size of perforation in drain pipe  D85 Filter = 2DP 0 8 0 2DP○ 6 0 4 0 Foundation soil Filter Material The area between the two red curves represents the filler material. Percent passing 1.0 0. 0 2 0 0.0 5 ○ ○5D1 85D 5 0. Particle siz1e (mm), l1og scale 0 .00 1 1. 0 Fig. Design of Filter Material
  31. 31. • REFERENCES: 1. Highway Engineering, 7th Ed. Paul H. Wright and Karen K. Dixon. Wiley (2004) 2. Highway Engineering, 8th Ed. S.K. Khanna and C.E.G. Justo. (2001)
  32. 32. THANK YOU!

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