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Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines

Cultural Anthropology
under Josefino Tulabing Larena AB, CPS,CPE,MPA

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Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines

  1. 1. Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines Josefino T. Larena AB,CPS,CPE,MPA
  2. 2. • The Philippines consist of a large number of indigenous ethnic groups living in the country. They are the descendants of the original inhabitants of the Philippines. They were not absorbed by centuries of Spanish and United States colonization of the Philippines archipelago, and in the process have retained their customs and traditions
  3. 3. Father of Cultural Anthropology • Henry Otley Beyer was an American anthropologist, who spent most of his adult life in the Philippines teaching Philippine indigenous culture. He is known as the Father of Philippine Anthropology. Henry Otley Beyer
  4. 4. Ethnic groups Cultural Communities
  5. 5. Demographics • In the 1990s, there were more than 100 highland tribal groups constituting approximately 3% of the population. The upland tribal groups were a blend in ethnic origin like other lowland Filipinos, although they did not have contact with the outside world.
  6. 6. Culture and Arts • Culture and Arts • They displayed a variety of social organization, cultural expression and artistic skills. They showed a high degree of creativity, usually employed to embellish utilitarian objects, such as bowls, baskets, clothing, weapons and spoons. The tribal groups of the Philippines are known for their carved wooden figures, baskets, weaving, pottery and weapons.
  7. 7. Who are indigenous peoples? • According to the United Nations, there are approximately 400 million Indigenous people worldwide, making up more than 5,000 distinct tribes. Together we are one of the largest minority groups in the world, spanning over 90 countries. While Indigenous Peoples total only about 6% of the world’s population, we represent 90% of the cultural diversity.
  8. 8. RA 8371: The Indigenous Peoples Rights Act (IPRA) • Some ten million people or 15% of the Philippine population belong to distinct indigenous communities or cultures and retain a close link with their traditions. To honor their identities, the Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act (IPRA) was passed on October 29, 1997. This law recognized the ancestral land rights of the indigenous people. This law also creates the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) an office under the Office of the President and shall be the primary government agency responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies, plans and programs to recognize, protect and promote the rights of Indigenous Cultural Communities/Indigenous Peoples. • The Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act (IPRA) is modeled on the provisions of the UN Draft Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
  9. 9. • The National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) is a governmental agency of the Philippines that is responsible for addressing issues regarding and concerns of the country's indigenous peoples. The NCIP is composed of seven Commissioners, one of whom is the Chairperson. • The Republic Act 8371 or Indigenous Peoples' Rights Act of 1997 was enacted into law on October 29, 1997, creating the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP) merging the ONCC and OSCC as its organic offices
  10. 10. • The Austronesian-speaking peoples are various populations in Southeast Asia and Oceania that speak languages of the Austronesian family. They include Taiwanese aborigines; the majority ethnic groups of Malaysia, East Timor, the Philippines, Indonesia, Brunei, Madagascar, Micronesia, and Polynesia, as well as the Polynesian peoples of New Zealand and Hawaii, and the non-Papuan people of Melanesia
  11. 11. Luzon
  12. 12. Mountain Province Igorot • Igorot, or Cordillerans, is the collective name of several Austronesian ethnic groups in The Philippines, who inhabit the mountains of Luzon. These highland peoples inhabit the six provinces of the Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra, Apayao, Benguet, Kalinga, Ifugao, Nueva Vizcaya and Mountain Province, as well as Baguio City.
  13. 13. Mountain Province Botoc Tribe • Bontoc is home to the Bontoc Tribe, a feared war-like group of indigenous people who actively indulged in tribal wars with its neighbours up until the 1930s. Every Bontoc male had to undergo a rites of passage into manhood, which may include head hunting, where the male has to journey (Sometimes with companions) and hunt for a human head
  14. 14. Mountain Province Ifugao • The Ifugao call themselves as i-pugao or "inhabitants of the known earth"; other variations of the name are Ifugaw, Ipugao, and Yfugao. They live primarily in the province of Ifugao in Central Cordillera, in Northern Luzon
  15. 15. Mountain Province Kalinga:Head hunting • Esteemed as “the strong people of the Cordilleras”, Kalingans, simultaneously, profoundly cherish family and kinship. A Kalinga household consists of a nuclear family and sometimes, an aged grandparent; generally speaking, they show great respect towards elders and, are clannish. Thus, the household, extended household of the kinship circle, and territorial region are significant units of Kalinga society.
  16. 16. Mountain Province Balangao ethnic group • The Balangao, also known as Boliwons were the early settlers of the Eastern Mountain Province in central Cordillera. Concentrations of this ethnolinguistic group are found in the towns of Barlig, Natonin, and Paracelis.
  17. 17. Mountain Province Ibaloi • The Ibaloi or Nabaloi is an indigenous ethnic group found in the northern Philippines. The Ibaloi are one of the indigenous peoples collectively known as Igorot, who live in the mountains of the Cordillera Central on the island of Luzon.
  18. 18. Mountain Province Sagada • led by the elders and followed by the younger men of Sagada.
  19. 19. Mountain Province Pugot, N. Apayao
  20. 20. Mountain Province Apayao Isnag
  21. 21. GA’DANG • The Gaddang are an indigenous people from the area of Solano, in the province of Nueva Vizcaya, in the region of Cagayan Valley also known as region II, in the Philippine Islands. The Gaddang tribe was first discovered by the Spaniards in the early 1600’s.
  22. 22. SEA & ASIAN Games • Jason Balabal made as scene in the opening ceremony wearing nothing but a piece of loincloth of his native Ifugao
  23. 23. Mountain Province Bahag-ketball Police in Baguio wearing a Bahag
  24. 24. Sierra Madre Ilongots • the Ilongots in the southern Sierra Madre and Caraballo Mountains on the east side of Luzon particularly Nueva Ecija and Nueva Vizcaya.
  25. 25. Sierra Madre The Remontados, identified as a Negrito ethnolinguistic group
  26. 26. Aeta of Zambales
  27. 27. Ata of Pampanga
  28. 28. Ivatan of Batanes
  29. 29. Tagbanwa Palawan
  30. 30. Batak people (Philippines) Northern Palawan • The Batak are one of about 70 indigenous peoples of the Philippines. They are located in the northeastern portions of Palawan, a relatively large island in the southwest of the archipelago. There are only about 500 Batak remaining. Also called Tinitianes, the Batak are considered by anthropologists to be closely related to the Ayta of Central Luzon, another Negrito tribe
  31. 31. Mangyan Tribe culture Mangyan cultural practices are in danger of vanishing because of the influence of modern lowland culture. The literature and traditions of the different Mangyan groups are short of documentation; thus, mainstream society lacks awareness of the beauty of Mangyan culture and its relevance to Filipino culture as a whole.
  32. 32. Visayan I.P.
  33. 33. Magahat Bukidnon of Negros
  34. 34. ATA Community Boracay • Boracay Island – The National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP), the primary government agency responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies, plans and programs to promote and protect the rights and well-being of Indigenous Cultural Communities/Indigenous Peoples (ICCs/IPs) and the recognition of their ancestral domains as well as their rights. In line with NCIPs mandate, officials and staff led by Chairperson Leonor O. Quintayo, recently conducted an affirmation of Ancestral Domain Sustainable Development Protection Plan (ADSDPP) and full delineation and demarcation of Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title (CADT) on the ground in favor of the Ati in Boracay Island covering approximately 2.1 hectares in Manoc-Manoc, Boracay, Malay, Aklan.
  35. 35. SULODNON Tribe of Panay • The Tumandok or Suludnon (also known as Panay- Bukidnon or Panayanon Sulud) is an indigenous Visayan group of people who reside in the Capiz- Lambunao mountainous area of Panay in the Visayan islands of the Philippines. They are the only culturally indigenous group of Visayan language-speakers in the Western Visayas the"tig-babai“ wedding dance
  36. 36. Eskaya people Bohol • The Eskaya, less commonly known as the Visayan-Eskaya, is the collective name for the members of a cultural minority found in Bohol, Philippines, which is distinguished by its cultural heritage, particularly its literature, language, dress and religious observances
  37. 37. Negritos of Negros Oriental • More than 100 tribal chieftains and leaders from the two major and recognized indigenous groups in Negros Oriental, namely the Ata Negritos Tribe. The total population of recognized IPs in Negros Oriental has yet to be determined by an ongoing census but with the Ata Negritos alone, there is a rough estimated population of about 260,000 in the province
  38. 38. Karay-a people Antique • The Karay-a, are part of the wider Visayan ethnolinguistic group, which constitute the largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group.
  39. 39. Suludnon People of Panay • The Tumandok or Suludnon (also known as Panay- Bukidnon or Panayanon Sulud) is an indigenous Visayan group of people who reside in the Capiz-Lambunao mountainous area of Panay in the Visayan islands of the Philippines. They are the only culturally indigenous group of Visayan language-speakers in the Western Visayas
  40. 40. Pre –Spanish in the Visayan
  41. 41. Mindanao
  42. 42. Yakan People Basilan Basilan is home to the Yakan Tribes, also known as one of the finest weavers in Philippines.
  43. 43. B’LAAN The B’laan are one of the indigenous peoples of Southern Mindanao in The Philippines. They are famous for their brassworks, beadwork and t’nalak weave.
  44. 44. BAGOBO • The Bagobo are proud people with proto Malayan features. They have ornate traditions in weaponry and other metal arts. They are noted for their skill in producing brass articles through the ancient lost- wax process.
  45. 45. MANDAYA • The Mandayas are a group of non-Christian tribe, non-Islamic people living in Eastern Mindanao, Philippines They hand down from generation to generation the art of weaving cloth from the fibers of abaca plant, colored with root and mud dyes with intricate figures and patterns depicting the folklore and religion of the tribe
  46. 46. PULANGIYEN • Living in the Pulangi River headwaters in the southern part of Bukidnon, the Pulangiyen is one of the many indigenous natives of the province.
  47. 47. MATIGSALUG • The Matigsalug are the Bukidnon groups who are found in the Tigwa-Salug Valley in San Fernando, Bukidnon. “Matigsalug ” is a term, which means “people along the River Salug”
  48. 48. Samal • The Samal are the poorest and least independent of the major Muslim groups. They serve as the “loyal commoners” in the hierarchy of Muslim minorities. Their lives are literally over the sea, where the villages stand on stilts above the coastal waters
  49. 49. Badjao • Widely known as the “Sea Gypsies” of the Sulu and Celebes Seas, the Badjao are scattered along the coastal areas of Tawi Tawi, Sulu, Basilan, and some coastal municipalities of Zamboanga del Sur in the ARMM. Amongst themselves, they're known as Sama Laus (Sea Sama) and are found living on houseboats where they make their livelihood solely on the sea as expert fishermen, deep sea divers, and navigators
  50. 50. Tausug • The Tausūg or Suluk people are an ethnic group of the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. The Tausūg are part of the wider political identity of Muslims of Mindanao, Sulu and Palawan known as the Moro ethnic group, who constitute the third largest ethnic group of Mindanao
  51. 51. Sarangani
  52. 52. Lumad People • The Lumad is a group of indigenous people of the southern Philippines. It is a Cebuano term meaning "native" or "indigenous". The term is short for Katawhang Lumad (literally "indigenous peoples"), the autonym officially adopted by the delegates of the Lumad Mindanao Peoples Federation (LMPF) founding assembly on 26 June 1986
  53. 53. Maranao • The life of the Maranaos is centered on Lake Lanao, the largest in Mindanao, and the second largest and deepest lake in the Philippines
  54. 54. Maranao Royal Family
  55. 55. T’BOLI • The T’boli Tribe is an indigenous tribe living in the highlands of Lake Sebu in South Cotabato in the Southern part of the Philippines. • The t’boli people believe in many Gods, their high regards with the spirits of nature is very much evident in their way of living.
  56. 56. Higaunon • The Higaunon is one of the mountain tribes in the Philippines. Most Higaunon still have a rather traditional way of living. Farming is the most important economic activity.
  57. 57. • The Bilaan were in Mindanao way before Islam came to the islands in the 14th Century. How about their right to self detrmination? They were there way before a single mosque was built in Mindanao. Why not their own "entity". • Or should they rise up in arms first? • *Bilaan Broup from the Otley Beyer Collection.
  58. 58. How to preserve our culture heritage
  59. 59. Photo Credited to • Penn Larena & Jojo Larena • St. Paul University Dumaguete • Janica Tan & Nica Belnas • Cultural Anthropology class of Josefino Larena Jr. CPS,MPA • National Commission on Indigenous Peoples • National Commission for Culture and the Arts • Michael Ocampo • YAHOO.COM & Google.com • Pinili Clan Association
  60. 60. Thank you so much God bless u
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Cultural Anthropology under Josefino Tulabing Larena AB, CPS,CPE,MPA

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