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Image of the city

Kevyn introduced a concept of planning that was the base for understanding and visualising The Planning Aspects; important for the budding planners.
The presentation initiates the same understanding and invokes a means for better understanding of 'Planning'.

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Image of the city

  1. 1. Done By: Rutuja Lele – 111214022 Neha Ladkat – 111214021 Jayashree Paradeshi - 111214034
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Image of the city is a book written by Kevin Andrew Lynch a well known city planner and designer, graduated from MIT ( Massachusetts Institute of Technology), and a professor there after. Lynch describes a five year study in his famous book „Image of the City‟, that reveals about, what elements in a built structure of a city are important in the perception of the city.
  3. 3. ABOUT KEVIN A. LYNCH (1918-1984)  Born in the 20th century.  Educated at the Yale university, Rensseleaer Polytechnic Institute and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  Gained professorship in MIT in the year 1963.  Eventually earned professor emeritus status from same.  Consulted to the state of Rhode island, new England medical Centre, Boston redevelopment authority, Puerto Rico industrial development corp., MIT planning office, and other organizations.
  4. 4. BOOKS 1. What time is this place? 2. City sense and city design : wittings and projects 3. Good city form 4. Managing the sense of a region 5. Site planning 6. Wasting away 7. Image of the city
  5. 5. What Time is this Place ? Time place is a continuum of the mind, as fundamental as the space time that may be the ultimate reality of the material world. Kevin Lynch's book deals with this human sense of time, a biological rhythm that may follow a different beat from that dictated by external, "official," "objective" timepieces. The center of his interest is on how this innate sense affects the ways we view and change or conserve, or destroy our physical environment, especially in the cities.
  6. 6. City Sense and City Design • Completes the record of one of the foremost environmental design theorists of our time and leads to a deeper understanding of his distinctively humanistic philosophy. • City Sense and City Design brings together Lynch's remaining work, including professional design and planning projects that show how he translated many of his ideas and theories into practice.
  7. 7. Good City Form Lynch looks at connections between human values and the physical forms of cities, sets requirements for a normative theory of city form, reviews earlier physical images of what utopian communities might be, sees what is to be learned from hellish images, and helps us place city forms into one or another of three theoretic constructs; cosmic or ceremonial centers, the machine city, and the city as an organism.
  8. 8. Managing the Sense of a Region Couched in the deceptively modest format of an essay (with several appendixes), proposes a far-ranging program of activity for the planning and design profession. Modes of diagnosis, policy-making, regulation, and design are followed by an outline proposing how a regional agency might undertake a program to improve the sensory quality of a region. The essay concludes with discussions of the thornier issues of environmental management, the question of selecting priorities, and the relations of sensory quality to conservation, ecology, politics, and behavioral science.
  9. 9. Site Planning Site Planning has remained the only comprehensive source of information on all the principal - activities and concerns of arranging the outdoor physical environment. This is followed by a case study of a typical professional project and ten chapters which provide new materials on user analysis, programming, site planning for built places, housing tenures and their planning implications, cost estimating, mapping, the reading of air photographs, site design for housing in developing countries, design strategies, environmental impact analyses, and many others - all illustrated within-text photographs and line drawings and with Lynch's characteristic marginal sketches.
  10. 10. Wasting Away A comprehensive overview of waste processes in the natural world and in human cultures of many eras and lands, discussing military waste, vandalism and wrecking, arson, scavenging, ab andonment and dereliction, and reuse.
  11. 11. Image of the City What does the city's form actually mean to the people who live there? What can the city planner do to make the city's image more vivid and memorable to the city dweller? To answer these questions, Mr. Lynch, supported by studies of Los Angeles, Boston, and Jersey City, formulates a new criterion-imageability--and shows its potential value as a guide for the building and rebuilding of cities. The wide scope of this study leads to an original and vital method for the evaluation of city form. The architect, the planner, and certainly the city dweller will all want to read this book.
  12. 12. IMAGE OF THE CITY KEVIN LYNCH SAYS THAT:  A city is constructed in space, but of a vast scale.  A city is described with it‟s surroundings and elements.  Explains that people‟s perception of the city is important.  Going through a city from the viewers mind is “image of the city”.  Elements like nodes, paths, districts, edges, landmarks make a city.  To make a visual plan (map).  Analyzing the forms and public areas.  Understand problems, opportunities and use them in designing a city.
  13. 13. CONCEPT OF LEGIBILITY  It is said to be the ease with which people understand the layout of a place.  To understand the layout of the city, people make a mental map, which contains mental images of the city constrains. ( varies from every individual)
  14. 14. ELEMENTS OF THE CITY DEFINED BY LYNCH : Along with actual city, mental representations contain many unique elements.  PATHS : Channels by which people move along. Eg: roads, sidewalks, rails, etc.  EDGES : Dividing lines between 2 phases. Eg: seashores, railway lines, etc.  DISTRICTS : Are medium to large sections of the city, characterized by a wealthy neighborhood. Eg: suburbs, college campuses, etc.
  15. 15.  LANDMARKS : Point of reference. it makes one orient oneself. E.g: signs, buildings, stores, etc.  NODES : Area of strategic spots where extra focus is given. E.g: busy intersection, popular city center, etc.
  16. 16. CONCEPT OF IMAGEABILITY  Another term introduced by Lynch, is the quality of physical object, which gives a observer a strong vivid image.  High imageable city would be well formed, would contain distinct paths.  They should be instantly recognizable.  Well formed city is highly dependent upon the elements because, that would make the viewers their city imageable.  Remembering your city on images is meaningful.  E.g: Well designed paths include special lighting, clarity of direction, etc.  Similarly with nodes, landmarks, districts, edges.  These elements placed in good form, increase human ability to see and remember patterns and it is these patterns which make easier to learn.
  17. 17. Circles represent the major elements of the city through Which the image of the city has been derived from the people.
  18. 18. CREATING A MENTAL MAP A person's perception of the world is known as a mental map. • A mental map is an individual's own map of their known world. • Mental maps of individuals can be investigated . • By asking for directions to a landmark or other location. • By asking someone to draw a sketch map of an area or describe that area • By asking a person to name as many places as possible in a short period of time.
  19. 19. MENTAL MAPS CAN BE EVALUATED BY: • This can be evaluated in terms of identity, what makes this particular image unique among cities, structure. • How the image is spatially formed and meaning. • What values are attached to the image through which one can locate himself.
  20. 20. Every person has a different mental map according to his/her understanding of the city.
  21. 21. PUBLIC IMAGE • Each individual holds a unique image of his or her city, a visual representation that guides through daily life and maps out meaning. • Researching a sample of these images can help planners describe a “public image” of their city. HOW TO MAKE PUBLIC IMAGE? The public image of cities was created in two ways: 1. By interviewing several citizens of cities • Verbal Interview • Making a quick sketch map 2. By Field study on foot by trained observer
  22. 22. Images gained from the public imageability are used to create a “public image” of the city i.e. the people‟s view of city. • These depend upon the elements of the city • Interviewed images • Field survey
  23. 23. CASE STUDY: PUNE Concept of Legibility: It is the ease with which people understand the city. • When any location in the city is given in context with a well known road or any well known restaurant in that area, people tend to understand/ remember the location/ route much better. • Eg: FC Road to University Circle.  One way road.  Famous Vaishali restaurant.  Fly over at the end of the road.  University circle because it is huge union of Nodes. ( circles )
  24. 24. Fc Road, Vaishali Restaurant University flyover, FC Road
  25. 25. Concept of Imageability: City/ locality is memorized by images and that is an easier and meaningful way.. Koregaon Park Prabhat Road Dagdusheth Ganpati CoE, Pune Deccan Gymkhana Garware College
  26. 26. Elements of Pune city: JM Road Paths – i.e. Roads. F.C Road, Karve Road, Prabhat Road, J.M Road, University Road, etc. Mula Mutha Aundh Edges – Mula – Mutha River, etc Districts - S. P College, Aundh, etc Landmarks – Wadia College, Shoppers‟ Stop Wakdewadi, Goodluck Chowk, Deccan (KFC),etc Shoppers‟ stop Nodes – Appa Balvant Chowk, Modern College chowk, Breman Chowk, etc. A.B.C
  27. 27. For Districts
  28. 28. Eg. For Nodes, Path s, Landmarks, Edges Thank You…

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