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Les Adhésifs comme Méthode Alternative pour l'Assemblage des Matériaux Composites

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LCS Belgium

Présenté lors de "l'Usinage et assemblage des matériaux composites" - 26 septembre 2013 - Chambre des Métiers - Luxembourg

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Les Adhésifs comme Méthode Alternative pour l'Assemblage des Matériaux Composites

  1. 1. +Composites - LCS Adhesive Bonding bvba (B) Luxembourg - 26-09-2013 © LCS 1 ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1.1 Copyright LCS 1 « Les Adhésifs comme Méthode Alternative pour l’Assemblage des Matériaux Composites ». Luxembourg - 26 septembre 2013 ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 2 Oh, yes ! ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 3 Repair of Glove Box Lock VW Golf – Bondmaster E32 – 2K EP… Collage, Bricolage ! ??? ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 4 History • Genghis Khan: laminated bows • Romans: – Helmets – Animal glue - bones – Tar: waterproofing ships – Glue based on blood, eggs, milk, etc. … • 1644-1737 Stradivarius: violins • 1750 first patent • 1910 Bakelite: phenolic resins ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 5 NASA – Spaceshuttle - Heatshield Now ARES-1-X 28-10-2009 NASA - Constellation project – Orion-cabine & Altair-maanlander ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 6 Automotive Applications Sun Roof Tire Pressure Sensors Turbo Charger Windscreen Radiator Headlamps Loudspeakers Brake Linings Mirrors Seats Chassis Relais
  2. 2. +Composites - LCS Adhesive Bonding bvba (B) Luxembourg - 26-09-2013 © LCS 2 ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 7 Advantages of Adhesives • Easy & Fast: less rework • Also for dissimilar materials – e.g. metal-plastic & thick-thin • Higher Strength: uninterrupted joint – No or less weak points • Improved Stress-distribution & -reduction – Higher fatiguestrength • Sealing: corrosion prevention – Liquid- & gastight • Damped Vibrations – less Noise S&R • Light: weight reduction • Esthetic: invisible • Bonding also “Thin” & “Small” components • Less components ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 8 Pseudo-disadvantages of Bonding • It’s “Chemistry” ! It’s a mess !? • Environmental aspects – Water based adhesives – recycling of adhesive and cleaners • Cleanliness of substrates • Design flexibility: is manageable • Speed: adhesive type dependent • Dangers: exothermic reactions, H&S • Difficult Disassembly: recycling • Limited Strength & Temperature Resistance ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 9 Sticking as a Gecko www.wildeyereptiles.com ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 10 What’s “Bonding” ? Definition Joining of two substrates by means of a third medium = the adhesive Adhesion vs Cohesion ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 11 But what’s really on the ‘Surface’ ?! ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 12 Why Surface Treatment ? • Strength: adhesion - cohesion ( rupture ) • Wetting ( > 40 Dyne/cm) • ‘Contact Angle’ measurement • Watertest
  3. 3. +Composites - LCS Adhesive Bonding bvba (B) Luxembourg - 26-09-2013 © LCS 3 ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 13 Pretreatment of substrates • Degreasing: cloth, vapour, ultrasonic • Grinding: roughen = > surface • Blasting: grit-, ice- . NON-recirculating ! • Primers: silanes – thickness = µm • Chemical etch: bv Aluminium • Flame & Corona: foil & sheet • Plasma: vacuum & atmospheric – CA! • Laser: surface structure change ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 14 Failure Types • Cohesive failure: in the adhesive • Adhesive failure: on the surface of at least one of the substrates • Material Failure: one of both substrates • Mixed Failure: a combination of the above K07M01R32C.mov ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 15 Surface Treatment with Atmospheric Plasma • Benkiser Labels • Mint Cards • Rottaler Bottles • Hella BMW ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 16 Surface Treatment with Atmospheric Plasma Effects on Bonding Results KB 4552 KB 4552 KB 4571 KB 4571 KB 45952 KB 45952 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 cleaned plasma-treated compressionshearstrength[MPa] ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 17 Surface Testing • Test ink for Surface Tension Measurement: 38mN/m • Also available in bottles. Wait 30 seconds !!! • Containing Formamid ! Toxic ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 18 External Influences • Time: aging – degradation in function of time • Temperature: -change en thermoshock – under the hood: -55°C tot +125°C • Vibrations & Shock: noise - S&R • Chemical: salt + humidity = corrosion • Radiation: X-ray, α-, β-, γ-radiation – Radioactive – Light: UV degradation – color permanency • Medical: USP Class VI – ISO 10993 – sterilisation, biocompatibility, citotoxicity
  4. 4. +Composites - LCS Adhesive Bonding bvba (B) Luxembourg - 26-09-2013 © LCS 4 ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 19 Adhesive Types • Epoxy: highest performance, chemical resistant • Polyurethane: humidty sensitive, cheap • Silicone: flexible, price ↑, Mix-Ratio, Visc ≠ f(T) • Phenolics: high temperature applications • UV & light- curing: fast, price ↑, light sensitive • Acrylates: highest strength, smell, initiators • Cyanoacrylates: moisture cure • Anaerobics: thread lock – metal+ & air cut off • Hybrids : EP/Si, PU/EP, UV + moisture or T … • Exotics: polybutadiene, MS-polymer, PSA, … • Hotmelts: cheap, reactive types, performance • Tapes: single and double sided • Ceramic : HT - Waterglass ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 20 Adhesive Types ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 21 Windmill blades SIEMENS B75 Rotor blade - 75m length - 5-10 rpm - 25t - 6 MW ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 22 Composites 2K Epoxy ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 23 Composites Rivetless Nutplates ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 24 Adhesive Types - PHENOLICS • Phenolics applications • Braking pads for automotive
  5. 5. +Composites - LCS Adhesive Bonding bvba (B) Luxembourg - 26-09-2013 © LCS 5 ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 25 Adhesive Types - ACRYLATES • Toughened Acrylics applications – Hinges for mirrors – shower doors – Bank terminals - security – Car sunroof – Bus panels ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 26 Turtle Surgery - Nanocomposites ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 27 Dental Surgery - Nanocomposites Amalgam Restoration Cavity Composite Restoration ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 28 Adhesive Types - Casein Cork for (wine)bottles & knife handles ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 29 Adhesive Types - Tapes • Tapes: single and double sided 8609 Wind Tapes Blade Protection ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 30 Podotactile Domes – Dual Bonding System
  6. 6. +Composites - LCS Adhesive Bonding bvba (B) Luxembourg - 26-09-2013 © LCS 6 ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 31 Safety Campuskrant KULeuven ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 32 Health & Safety – H&S – NEW ! It kills = T & T+ New It pollutes R&S phrases: Risk & Safety New New since september 2008 – Obligatory by 2017 ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 33 That’s why there are Safety Measures … Specific for Adhesive Bonding Operations ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 34 Stress Resistance Tensile vs Compression ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 35 Stress Resistance Shear Best for Bonding ! ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 36 Stress Resistance Cleavage
  7. 7. +Composites - LCS Adhesive Bonding bvba (B) Luxembourg - 26-09-2013 © LCS 7 ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 37 Stress Resistance Peel ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 38 Bewegende Belastingen • Tensile - Trekbelasting • Shear – Afschuiving L&R • Cleavage - Splijtbelasting • Peel - Afpelbelasting • K07M03R21C.mov Cfr Video ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 39 Belasting van lijmnaden ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 40 Anti-Peel solutions ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 41 Bonding Composite Profiles • Pultrusion profiles: – FibreForce = Exel Composites ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 42 Design with Tube Joints • Suggestion: adhesive injection H
  8. 8. +Composites - LCS Adhesive Bonding bvba (B) Luxembourg - 26-09-2013 © LCS 8 ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 43 Lid of Washing Machine • Plastic-frame + Composite decorative worktop + Fixations • Fast 2K PU - Flex ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 44 Lid of Washing Machine ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 45 FEA – Finite Element Analysis – Mathematical method to solve partial differential & intergral equations ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 46 FEA – Finite Element Analysis – Example: Crash Simulation ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 47 Formulation of Adhesives • Resin: epoxy, polyol, … • Hardener: amine, anhydride, DDA, isocyanates • Fillers: Quarts, Al2O3, TiO2, talc, mica … • hardness and shape determine abrasiviness • quantity & type determine material properties • Colorants & pigments: • titaniumdioxide white • ironoxide red • soot / carbon black black • Additives: = ‘pepper & salt’ for an adhesive ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 48 Formulation of Adhesives - Additives • Thixotropic agents: Aerosil • Adhesion promotors: Silanen • Flow modifiers: eg heat exchanger story • Antifoam agents: deairing • Diluents: reactive vs. non-reactive • Fungicides • Drying agents: molecular sieve • Spacers: bondline thickness • Cure accelerators – retarders • Flame retarders: e.g. UL94 V0 • Indicators: UV for QC & Radio-opaque markers • Stabilisators: eg UV resistance
  9. 9. +Composites - LCS Adhesive Bonding bvba (B) Luxembourg - 26-09-2013 © LCS 9 ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 49 Curing of Adhesives • Methods – RT cure – Heat cure • Ovencure • Inductive • Microwave • Laser – Light/UV curing – Moisture cure – Dual systems ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 50 Curing of Adhesives • Timing Afbindtijd Perstijd Opbrengtijd Open tijd ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 51 Loudspeakers To 12 bonding area’s – Ep, Acrylate, CA, UV Vibration, resonance, HT, plastics, … ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 52 A few Trends • More machine- & environment friendly (Green) products: REACH & RoHS en Recyclability - Cradle-to-cradle • Multiple functionalities: Vibration dampening - S&R • More user friendly products – Fluo & RI-ACT – – Low T°hotmelts: safe, easy cleaning, cost reduction • More composites and ‘all-in’ adhesives • Increasing Price pressure ↑ : Lopez effect - raw materials & energy price increases • Nanotechnology in adhesives • It all happens on the surface, less in the adhesive • Selfhealing Adhesives • More automation with adhesives • More ‘Bonding’ for your new Application ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 53 Conclusion The only chance realising bonding projects successfully, is that the “Triumvirate” of – the customer with his project – the glue manufacturer with the adhesive – the machine manufacturers with their equipment is working intensively and expertly together, from the design phase on and on all aspects of the application. Success Guaranteed ! ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 54 Thanks for your attention, and we welcome you in ’The Adhesive’s World’
  10. 10. +Composites - LCS Adhesive Bonding bvba (B) Luxembourg - 26-09-2013 © LCS 10 ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 55 Any Questions ? ? Q&A ®LCS - 2012-2013- V 1.6.1 Copyright LCS 56 LCS – Your partner in Adhesive Bonding LCS Belgium bvba Consultancy in Adhesive Bonding Technology Bergenstraat 84 B-3053 Haasrode – Leuven +32-(0)16-38 90 45 +32-475-45 48 98 jan.lambrechts@consultant.com www.lcs-adhesivebonding.com

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