Global Global Scenario of Plant Growth Regulators-Commercial Uses and Trade
Global Scenario of Plant Growth Regulators-
Commercial Uses and Trade
Name ofstudent - Pragati Randive
Department - Agril. Biotechnology
Reg No. - 0025
Course Title - Hormonal Regulation of Plant
Growth and Development
Course No. - PP-504
Submitted to - Dr.M.M.Burondkar
•The global plant growth regulator market is expected to grow on account of increased use
in modifying plant physiological processes such as stimulating or inhibiting enzyme
systems andregulating the plant metabolism.
•Growing demand for regulating cotton metabolism is expected to have positive impact on
•Improving textile industry in China, India, Bulgaria, Germany and Turkey are expected to
augment the cotton demand, which in turn is expected to drive plant growth regulators
•Europe was the largest regional plant growth regulators market and is expected to witness significant growth over
the next six years.
•Growing organic farming activities in Europe coupled with increased availability of land for organic practices in the
region is expectedto driveplant growth regulators demand.
•Growing demandfor herbal medicines coupled with increased organic farming activities in the U.S.is expected to
propel the plant growth regulators market in North America.
•Asia Pacific is expectedto witness growth onaccount of the increasing cotton production in China and India.
•These countries are some of the world largest cotton producers, and the use of plant growth regulators is expected
to significantly increase production. Favorable FDI policy by the Indian government has lead to a boom in textile
production and is expected to promote further marketgrowth overthe forecast period.
•Market participants are predominantly based out of Europe and North America, on account of growing use of plant
growth regulators in organic farming andherbal medicines in these regions.
•Bayer Crop Science, BASF, and DuPont are key companies in the market. Germany based Bayer markets products
under the brand name of Stance intended for cotton metabolism.
•The company has a long term presence in the global chemical industry and various SBUs located across the five
continents which cater to serve the textile industry located in Asia Pacific. BASF and DuPont also utilize their global
presence in serving plant growth regulators market.
•Some of the key players in the global plant growth regulators market involve Syngenta AG, BASF, Bayer CropScience,
Tata Chemicals Limited, DuPont, NuFarm Limited, Redox Industries Ltd, Sichuan Guoguang Agrochemical Co. Ltd, Crop
CareLimited and Valent BioSciences Corporation.
•Cytokinins were the largest product segment for plant growth regulators market, accounting for over
40% of volume share in 2013.
•Leading multinational pharmaceutical companies have increased their R&D expenditure on developing
plant derived medicines to cater surging demand for herbal medicines. This is expected to fuel the
cytokinins demand in herbal medicines over the next sixyears.
•Auxins were the second most used product, majorly in the metabolism of cotton on account of their
property of acting as a growth stimulator. Growing textile industry is expected to fuel auxins demand
over the forecast period.
•Other plant growth regulators market product segments include gibberellins and mepiquat chloride..
Dipping cutting into auxin solutions or powders has become a standard horticultural practice in
advanced countries.The most widely used of the synthetic auxins for this purpose is Indolebutyric
acid (IBA). It is used either alone or in combination with other auxins such as Naphthalene acetic
•Parthenocarpic or SeedlessFruits
Naphthalene acetic acid(NAA) and Naphthoxyacetic acid (NOXA) have been successfully used in
many plants to induce parthenocarpy.
•Flowering in Pineapple:
Cabezena variety of pineapple, which flowers poorly when left to itself, can be made to flower at any
time of the year by a single application of an auxin.
•Prevention of Premature Fall of Fruits:
Naphthaleneacetic acid has given satisfactory results in apples and pears where as in
case of citrus, 2, 4Dichlorophenoxyaceticacid is more successful.
•Prevention of Sprouting of Potatoes
Napthaleneacetic acid prevents the sprouting of potatoes in storage; thus the tubers
willkeep longer, even atwarm temperatures.
•Synthetic auxin is a selective herbicide and serves as one of the most important herbicides to control
weed growth in agriculture worldwide.
•Academic and industrial laboratories synthesized several synthetic auxins including 1‐NAA, 2,4‐D,
and MCPA as early as the 1940s.
•Synthetic auxin herbicides opened a new era of weed control in modern crop production due to their
selective action, andpreferential control of dicot weeds in cereal crops (Grossmann 2003).
•Auxinic herbicides have been widely used to control dicot weeds in domestic lawns, commercial golf
Auxin as Selective Herbicide
•Theauxinic herbicide family contains four major chemical groups (Figure), including
-quinoline carboxylic acids (quinmerac and quinclorac),
-pyridine carboxylic acids (fluroxypr, triclopyr, clopyralid, and picloram),
-a benzoic acid (dicamba), and
•In contrast to the main role of natural auxin, which is to promote plant growth, auxinic herbicides,
like 2,4‐D, killplants.
•2,4‐D is structurally and functionally analogous to the natural auxin IAA. That is, 2,4‐D is not only
structurally similar to IAA , but is alsobiologically active asan auxinin plants.
•2,4‐D was one of the first synthetic auxin herbicides to be widely and commonly used to control
annualand perennial weeds (Peterson 1967).
•The low cost of 2,4‐D has led to continued usage today and it remains one of the most commonly
used herbicides in the world. There are over 600 2,4‐D products currently on the market.
•In tissue culture, 2,4‐D can replace IAA asa hormone supplement for normal cell
development in plant‐cell culture mediums.
•Besides these main functions 2,4‐D can be used as a potent rice defense elicitor. In a field
experiment, 2,4‐D sprayed on rice attracted the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens and its
main egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae (Xin et al.2012).
Commercial Uses of Gibberellins
•Commercial Use# 1. Malting of Barley:
Gibberellins are sometimes used to increase the amount of a amylase in germinating barley (Hordeum vulgare)
which is used in production of malt for brewing industry.
•Commercial Use# 2. IncreasingSugarcaneYield:
In sugarcane, the cane sugar (sucrose) is stored in parenchyma cells of internodes. Gibberellins stimulate elongation
of internodes. Spraying the sugarcanecropwith gibberellins markedly increases sugarcanegrowth andsugar yields.
•Commercial Use# 3. FruitProduction:
Seedless and large sized grapes are produced on commercial scale by gibberellin treatment. Gibberellins cause stalks
of grapes to increaseconsiderably, so that there is morespacefor grapes to enlarge in the grapebunches.
A mixture of the cytokinin benzyl adenine and GA4 + GA7 (the preparation being called as promalin) is very effective
in stimulating apple fruits to increase in sizeespecially in redDelicious type apples.
Gibberellins have also been sprayed on some citrus fruit trees (such as naval orange) at a time when the
fruits have lost most of their green colour, to prevent many postharvest rind (fruit coat) disorders which
appear during storage.
Hence, gibberellins delay senescence and maintain firmer rinds of the fruits.
•Commercial Use# 4. Seed Production:
A mixture of GA and GA is used to enhance seed production in conifers. In some biennial vegetables such
as beet and cabbage, gibberellin treatment stimulates bolting and thus time for seed production can be
•Ethephon (Ethrel)is the most widely used ethylene releasing compound.
•Because of its high diffusion rate, ethylene is very difficult to apply in the field as a gas, but this
limitation can be overcome if an ethylene releasing compound is used.
•The most widely used such compound is Ethephon, or 2chloroethylphosphonic acid, which was
discovered in the 1960s andis known by various trade names, such as Ethrel.
•Ethephon is sprayed in aqueous solutionand is readily absorbed andtransported within the plant.
It releases ethylene slowly by a chemicalreaction, allowing the hormone to exert its effects.
•hastening fruit ripening of apple, tomato, anddegreening of citrus;
•synchronized flowering and fruit set in pineapple, and accelerated abscission of
•inducing fruit thinning or fruit drop in cotton, cherry, andwalnut;
•promoting female sex expression in cucumber, to prevent self pollination and
•inhibition of terminal growth of some plants in order to promote lateral growth
andcompact flowering stems.
Uses of Ethylene
Application of minute quantity of abscisic acid to leaves shall reduce transpiration to a great extent through
partial closure of stomata. It conserves water and reduces the requirement of irrigation. Photosynthesis is
Uses of Abscisic Acid
•First Commercial Abscisic Acid Product, ProTone SL™, Launched by Valent Corporation
GrowthRegulator for enhancing color developmentin red table grapes.
•This represents the first registration of abscisic acid has numerous potential crop quality
andstress management applications.
•Through their extensive global research efforts, they have been able to demonstrate that
ProTone can enhance color and important red table grape varieties such as Crimson
Seedless, Flame Seedless and Red Globe under a variety of growing PGR Business Manager
for Valent BioSciences.
Pvt Ltd.Nashik, India.
Plant GrowthRegulators Suppliers in India