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# Basic electrical measuring instruments

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Training on Basic Electrical measurements

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### Basic electrical measuring instruments

1. 1. Basic Electrical Measuring Instruments By Pramod A
2. 2. Classification of Measuring Instruments Electrical instruments may be divided into two categories, that are; 1. Absolute instruments, 2. Secondary instruments.
3. 3. Absolute instruments  Absolute instruments or Primary Instruments:- These instruments gives the magnitude of quantity under measurement in terms of physical constants of the instrument e.g. Tangent Galvanometer. These instruments do not require comparison with any other standard instrument  • These instruments give the value of the electrical quantity in terms of absolute quantities (or some constants) of the instruments and their deflections. • In this type of instruments no calibration or comparison with other instruments is necessary. • They are generally not used in laboratories and are seldom used in practice by electricians and engineers. They are mostly used as means of standard measurements and are maintained lay national laboratories and similar institutions.
4. 4. • Some of the examples of absolute instruments are: * Tangent galvanometer * Raleigh current balance * Absolute electrometer
5. 5. Secondary instruments  In Secondary instruments the deflection gives the magnitude of electrical quantity to be measured directly. These instruments are required to be calibrated by comparing with another standard instrument before putting into use.
6. 6. Basic Secondary instruments which we use  Multi meter  Clamp meter  Ammeter  Voltmeter
7. 7. Multi Meter
8. 8. Multi Meter  A multimeter or a multitester, also known as a VOM (Volt-Ohm meter or Volt-Ohm-milliammeter ), is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter would include basic features such as the ability to measure voltage, current, and resistance.  A multimeter can be a hand-held device useful for basic fault finding and field service work, or a bench instrument which can measure to a very high degree of accuracy. They can be used to troubleshoot electrical problems in a wide array of industrial and household devices such as electronic equipment, motor controls,domestic appliances, power supplies, and wiring systems.
9. 9. Parts of Multi Meter A multimeter is has three parts:  Display  Selection Knob  Ports  The display usually has four digits and the ability to display a negative sign. A few multimeters have illuminated displays for better viewing in low light situations.  The selection knob allows the user to set the multimeter to read different things such as milliamps (mA) of current, voltage (V) and resistance (Ω).  Two probes are plugged into two of the ports on the front of the unit. COM stands for common and is almost always connected to Ground or ‘-’ of a circuit. The COM probe is conventionally black but there is no difference between the red probe and black probe other than color. 10A is the special port used when measuring large currents (greater than 200mA). mAVΩ is the port that the red probe is conventionally plugged in to. This port allows the measurement of current (up to 200mA), voltage (V), and resistance (Ω).
10. 10. Measuring AC Voltage Use the V with a wavy line to measure AC Voltage
11. 11. How to measure AC Voltage  Plug the black probe into COM and the red probe into mAVΩ.  Select the knob in the desired voltage range  Stick both the probes in the two point whose potential difference (Voltage) is to be measured  If the selected range is small the meter will simply show 1, so increase the range.
12. 12. Measuring DC Voltage Use the V with a straight line to measure DC Voltage
13. 13. How to measure DC Voltage  Plug the black probe into COM and the red probe into mAVΩ.  Select the knob in the desired voltage range  Connect the black probe to the battery’s ground or ‘-’ and the red probe to power or ‘+’  If the selected range is small the meter will simply show 1, so increase the range.
14. 14. Measuring Resistance
15. 15.  Pick out a random resistor and set the multimeter to the 20kΩ setting. Then hold the probes against the resistor legs.  In this case, the meter reads 0.97, meaning this resistor has a value of 0.97kΩ, or about 1kΩ or 1000 Ω (remember you are in the 20kΩ or 20,000 Ohm mode so you need to move the decimal three places to the right or 9,900 Ohms).
16. 16. Measuring Resistance
17. 17.  If the multimeter reads 1 or displays OL, it’s overloaded. You will need to try a higher mode such as 200kΩmode or 2MΩ (mega ohm) mode. There is no harm if this happen, it simply means the range knob needs to be adjusted.  If the multimeter reads 0.00 or nearly zero, then you need to lower the mode to 2kΩ or 200Ω.
18. 18. Measuring Current Reading current is one of the trickiest and most insightful readings in the world of embedded electronics. It’s tricky because you have to measure current in series.
19. 19.  we’ll need to physically interrupt the circuit to measure the current.  Breaks the main power line and connect the line through the multi meter, so that it can measure the current as it “flows” through to the multimeter into the circuit.  Set the desired current Range. Note :- it is safer to connect the red wire into 10 Amp port as the current rating is much higher that the other port.
20. 20. Measuring Continuity Continuity testing is the act of testing the resistance between two points. If there is very low resistance (less than a few Ω’s), the two points are connected electrically, and a tone is emitted.
21. 21.  Set the multimeter to ‘Continuity’ mode.  Now touch the probes together. The multimeter should emit a tone  Touch the both probes to the both ends of wire which is to be tested.  If a sound emits the wire is good to use.  If no sound is emitting check the wire for any breakage.
22. 22. Clamp Meter
23. 23. Definition  Clamp meter (current clamp or current probe) is an electrical device having two jaws which open to allow clamping around an electrical conductor. This allows properties of the electric current in the conductor to be measured, without having to make physical contact with it, or to disconnect it for insertion through the probe.
24. 24. Using of Clampmeter
25. 25. Ammeter
26. 26. Working of Ammeter  An ideal ammeter is a two terminal device, also polarized. It is connected in series with circuit elements to measure the sign and magnitude of the current flowing through that component.
27. 27. Connection of Ammeter
28. 28. Voltmeter
29. 29. Working of Voltmeter  An ideal voltmeter has two terminals and senses the voltage between the terminals where they may be connected to a circuit. Ideally the voltmeter has infinite resistance.
30. 30. Connection of Voltmeter
31. 31. Thank you