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Endoscopes - Biomedical Engineering


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presentation on types of endoscopes and its operation principle.

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Endoscopes - Biomedical Engineering

  1. 1. Endoscopes Flexible and Capsule Endoscopes Prepared by: Pritesh B.Gohil (1005) Guided By: Jagrut Gadit The M.S. University of Baroda Faculty of Technology and Engineering
  2. 2. History Rigid Semi- Flexible Fibre Optic Video Bozzini 1805 1853 1868 1932 1957 1975 2000
  3. 3. • The first real endoscope that was developed was made by Phillip Bozzini in 1805 to examine the urethra, the bladder and vagina. • Adolf Kussmaul in 1868 used a straight rigid metal tube over a flexible obturator to perform the first gastroscopy. • Building on the work of others, Rudolph Schindler constructed the first practical gastroscope in 1932. • In 1957 Basil Hirschowitz developed his fiberscope. • In 1975, D.W. Brewer developed ”Video-fibre- laryngoscopy” • 2000: G. Iddan and P. Swain ”Wireless capsule endoscopy”
  4. 4. Introduction What is endoscope? An instrument which can be introduced into the body to give a view of its internal parts. This is used to examine the interior of the hollow organ or cavity of the body which is called endoscopy. Physicians use endoscopy to diagnose, monitor, and surgically treat various medical problems.
  5. 5. When is endoscopy used?  Endoscopes were first developed to look at parts of the body that couldn’t be seen any other way. 1. To prevent and screen for cancer 2. To find cancer early 3. Looking for causes of symptoms 4. Looking at problems found on imaging tests 5. Destroying or removing cancer cell
  6. 6. Structure of Flexible Endoscope Fig. Fibre optic endoscope system
  7. 7. a) Illumination  external high-intensity source  one or more light-carrying bundles  light bundles run uninterruptedly  xenon arc (300 W) or halogen-filled tungsten filament lamps (150 W)  Light is focused by a parabolic mirror
  8. 8. b) Instrument tip Fig. Basic design—control head and bending section.
  9. 9. c) Instrument channels  An ‘operating’ channel allows the passage of fine flexible accessories.  e.g. biopsy forceps, cytology brushes, sclerotherapy needles  usually 2–4 mm in diameter Fig. The tip of a forward viewing endoscope.
  10. 10. d) Tissue-sampling device Fig. Biopsy cups open. Fig. Control handle for forceps. Fig. Cytology brush with outer sleeve.
  11. 11. Fibre Optic Endoscope Based optical viewing bundles. Viewing bundle diameter 2-3 mm Bundle consist of 20 000–40 000 fine glass fibres with 10 µm in diameter. Light focused onto the face of each fibre is transmitted by repeated internal reflection. transmission of an image depends upon spatial orientation of each fibre. In most modern instruments the distal lens which focuses the image onto the bundle is fixed.
  12. 12. Fig. Total internal reflection of light down a glass fibre. Fig. Fibre bundle showing the ‘packing fraction’ or dead space between fibres.
  13. 13. Video Endoscopes mechanically similar to fibre-endoscopes. charged couple device (CCD) ‘chip’ and supporting electronics mounted at the tip. CCD chip is an array of 33 000–100 000 individual photo cells. Respond to the reflected photons.
  14. 14. Fig. Static red, green and blue filters in the ‘colour’ chip.
  15. 15. Fig. Sequential colour illumination.
  16. 16. Advantage and Disadvantage  Fibre optic Endoscopes  Advantages Simplicity No video processing Small diameter capillary Portable instrument  Disadvantage  Only endoscopist alone can see
  17. 17.  Video Endoscopes  Advantages Brighter view Facilitates communication with patients & assistants. Movement of shaft and tip easy  Disadvantages Video processing required It is not portable Available in limited size
  18. 18. Capsule Endoscope Capsule endoscopy is a combination of the device that physicist G. Iddan had developed and that devised by Paul Swain. Capsule endoscopy is indicated in various small bowel diseases such as obscure gastrointestinal bleeding, celiac disease and other types of malabsorption syndrome, polyposis, Crohn disease etc.
  19. 19. Fig. Components of capsule endoscopy system including schematic representation of parts of capsule and sensor location guide.
  20. 20. Features Length: 26 mm Weight: 3.4 gram Battery type: Silver Oxide Cell Battery life: 8 hours Operation temperature: 20-40̊C Light: 6 white LED Frame rate per second: 2 Camera type: CCD or CMOS Antennas: 8
  21. 21. Commonly available endoscopes and its applications Sr. No. Type Range of Use Applications 1. Bronchoscope: An instrument to examine the inside of the trachea, bronchi (air pressure that lead to the lungs), and lungs. Trachea larger air ways Foreign bodies infections, aspiration of mucus. 2. Cardioscope: An instrument that permits direct visual inspection of the interior of the heart Heart cavities Valvular defects and septal defects 3. Cystoscope: Endoscopy of the urinary bladder via the urethra is called cystoscope. Urinary bladder Tumours, inflammations and stones. 4. Gastroscope: A type of endoscope for visually examining of stomach. Stomach Gastritis, gastric ulcer, tumours
  22. 22. Sr. No. Type Range of Use Applications 5. Laparoscopes: An instrument called a laparoscope is inserted through a small incision (cut) which is made in the abdominal wall to permit structures within the abdomen and pelvis to be seen. Abdominal cavity Tumours, family planning operations livers, gallbladder surgery 6. to see the vessels Intravascular To know state of vessels 7. Otoscope: An instrument consisting of a magnifying lens and light; used for examining the external ear Tympanic membrane Infections, perforation of ear drum, pressure condition in the middle ear 8. Proctoscope: An endoscope for examining the rectum Rectum Haemorrhoids (piles) 9. Sigmoidoscope: An endoscope for examining the sigmoid colon Rectum and distal part of colon Bowel lesions side pockets of the bowel
  23. 23. Refferences [1]. Basic endoscopic equipment [2]. Capsule Endoscopy by Ashish Kumar [3]. Capsule Endoscopy by Uday C Ghoshal [4]. Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements - R. Anandanatarajan
  24. 24. THANK YOU