• The first real endoscope that was developed was
made by Phillip Bozzini in 1805 to examine the
urethra, the bladder and vagina.
• Adolf Kussmaul in 1868 used a straight rigid metal
tube over a flexible obturator to perform the first
• Building on the work of others, Rudolph Schindler
constructed the first practical gastroscope in 1932.
• In 1957 Basil Hirschowitz developed his fiberscope.
• In 1975, D.W. Brewer developed ”Video-fibre-
• 2000: G. Iddan and P. Swain ”Wireless capsule
What is endoscope?
An instrument which can be introduced into the body
to give a view of its internal parts.
This is used to examine the interior of the hollow
organ or cavity of the body which is called
Physicians use endoscopy to diagnose, monitor, and
surgically treat various medical problems.
When is endoscopy used?
Endoscopes were first developed to look at parts of
the body that couldn’t be seen any other way.
1. To prevent and screen for cancer
2. To find cancer early
3. Looking for causes of symptoms
4. Looking at problems found on imaging tests
5. Destroying or removing cancer cell
Structure of Flexible Endoscope
Fig. Fibre optic endoscope system
external high-intensity source
one or more light-carrying bundles
light bundles run uninterruptedly
xenon arc (300 W) or halogen-filled tungsten
filament lamps (150 W)
Light is focused by a parabolic mirror
b) Instrument tip
Fig. Basic design—control head and bending section.
c) Instrument channels
An ‘operating’ channel allows the passage of fine
e.g. biopsy forceps, cytology
brushes, sclerotherapy needles
usually 2–4 mm in diameter
Fig. The tip of a forward viewing endoscope.
d) Tissue-sampling device
Fig. Biopsy cups open. Fig. Control handle for forceps.
Fig. Cytology brush with outer sleeve.
Fibre Optic Endoscope
Based optical viewing bundles.
Viewing bundle diameter 2-3 mm
Bundle consist of 20 000–40 000 fine glass fibres
with 10 µm in diameter.
Light focused onto the face of each fibre is
transmitted by repeated internal reflection.
transmission of an image depends upon spatial
orientation of each fibre.
In most modern instruments the distal lens which
focuses the image onto the bundle is fixed.
Fig. Total internal reflection of
light down a glass fibre.
Fig. Fibre bundle showing the ‘packing
fraction’ or dead space between fibres.
mechanically similar to fibre-endoscopes.
charged couple device (CCD) ‘chip’ and supporting
electronics mounted at the tip.
CCD chip is an array of 33 000–100 000 individual
Respond to the reflected photons.
Fig. Static red, green and blue filters in the ‘colour’ chip.
Advantage and Disadvantage
Fibre optic Endoscopes
No video processing
Small diameter capillary
Only endoscopist alone can see
Facilitates communication with patients & assistants.
Movement of shaft and tip easy
Video processing required
It is not portable
Available in limited size
Capsule endoscopy is a combination of the device
that physicist G. Iddan had developed and that
devised by Paul Swain.
Capsule endoscopy is indicated in various small
bowel diseases such as obscure gastrointestinal
bleeding, celiac disease and other types of
malabsorption syndrome, polyposis, Crohn disease
Fig. Components of capsule endoscopy system including schematic
representation of parts of capsule and sensor location guide.
Length: 26 mm
Weight: 3.4 gram
Battery type: Silver Oxide Cell
Battery life: 8 hours
Operation temperature: 20-40̊C
Light: 6 white LED
Frame rate per second: 2
Camera type: CCD or CMOS
Commonly available endoscopes and
Type Range of
1. Bronchoscope: An instrument to
examine the inside of the trachea,
bronchi (air pressure that lead to
the lungs), and lungs.
2. Cardioscope: An instrument that
permits direct visual inspection of
the interior of the heart
Heart cavities Valvular defects
and septal defects
3. Cystoscope: Endoscopy of the
urinary bladder via the urethra is
4. Gastroscope: A type of endoscope
for visually examining of stomach.
Stomach Gastritis, gastric
Type Range of
5. Laparoscopes: An instrument
called a laparoscope is inserted
through a small incision (cut)
which is made in the abdominal
wall to permit structures within the
abdomen and pelvis to be seen.
6. to see the vessels Intravascular To know state of
7. Otoscope: An instrument
consisting of a magnifying lens and
light; used for examining the
perforation of ear
condition in the
8. Proctoscope: An endoscope for
examining the rectum
9. Sigmoidoscope: An endoscope for
examining the sigmoid colon
distal part of
Bowel lesions side
pockets of the
Basic endoscopic equipment
Capsule Endoscopy by Ashish Kumar
Capsule Endoscopy by Uday C Ghoshal
. Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements -