Summary :Plant Tissue Culture
Advancement in plant tissue culture brings a revolutionary stage in field of Agriculture /Plant
biotechnology. Plant tissue culture serve as back bone in such scientific revolution by
introducing genetically transformed (transgenic) products. Plant regeneration by such process is
quiet easy and feasible rather than cloning in animals.
To get success in culture of plant cells, tissues /organs we have to follow precise methods and
proper sterilized use of materials and nutritional medium such as growth regulators for the
specimen (explant) according to its requirement. Within favorable conditions the plant cells can
multiply and even can generate whole plant. Regeneration of plant is important factor for
quantitative and qualitative production of genetic desired characteristic. A (totipotent cell) a cell
having ability to regenerate is used for mass production and this phenomenon is termed as Clonal
Types of Tissue culture
According to the type of explant selection and growth medium, different methods are generated
and applicable to such technology which are as follows.
If we use a culture where we generate Calluses, such type of culture is known as callus culture.
Mass of undifferentiated cells is generate from cell/tissue mostly uses meristematic cells (Callus
formation). Organogenesis is enhance by taking a specific portion from callus by providing
Cell Suspension Culture.
It includes liquid medium where we grow single specific cell or small group of cells. In medium
cell growth is enhanced by continuous aeration and chemical exchange. In this method we can
generate specific desired traits via a process known as Somatic cell embryogenesis.
Protoplast Isolation and Culture
Plant cell without cell wall is termed as protoplast which is isolate by enzymatic action.
Protoplasts are used to form hybrids resulting genetically transformed embryos. Callus is
produced in such protoplasts and induces organogenesis or embryogenesis.
Pollen /Anther Culture.
During development of flowers the anther or pollen is use in culture. As it is haploid so during
culture chromosomal duplication is induced by chemicals e.g. colchicine. In such culture we can
produce recessive traits
Plant organ culture
Plant organs can easily grow in artificial sterile medium from a cell r tissue of respective organ
or totipotent cells.
Application of plant tissue culture
Some of the application of plant tissue culture are as follows,
͙ Plant tissue culture play important role in biotechnology for the service of mankind.
͙ Cell suspension culture is main factory for production of secondary metabolites
͙ Horticulture uses and propagation of plants is applicable for mass production.
͙ Soma clonal variation bring different diverse products (species) which favors
͙ Better, quality and more food production is now possible by this technology.
͙ Production of medicines, vaccine
͙ Biological hazards can controlled by using this technology via Phytoremediation.