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Pet Animal Management and Behaviour (dogs)

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Pet Animal Management and Behaviour (dogs)

  1. 1. Pet animal Management andPet animal Management and BehaviourBehaviour ‫المنزلية‬ ‫الحيوانات‬ ‫ورعاية‬ ‫سلوكيات‬‫المنزلية‬ ‫الحيوانات‬ ‫ورعاية‬ ‫سلوكيات‬ ByBy ‫فايد‬ ‫حسن‬ ‫ربيع‬ /.‫ا.د‬‫فايد‬ ‫حسن‬ ‫ربيع‬ /.‫ا.د‬ ‫والدواجن‬ ‫الحيوان‬ ‫رعاية‬ ‫استاذ‬‫والدواجن‬ ‫الحيوان‬ ‫رعاية‬ ‫استاذ‬ ‫القاهرة‬ ‫جامعة‬ – ‫البيطرى‬ ‫الطب‬ ‫كلية‬‫القاهرة‬ ‫جامعة‬ – ‫البيطرى‬ ‫الطب‬ ‫كلية‬
  2. 2. Breeds of Dogs • Sporting Dogs • English Spaniels – English Setters • Working Dogs • Charles Spaniels- Dobermann- Great Danes • Hound Groups • Bloodhound- Greyhound- Afghan Hound – Fox Hound
  3. 3. English Spaniel (Sporting(
  4. 4. English Setters (Sporting(
  5. 5. Dobermann (Working(
  6. 6. Great Danes (Working(
  7. 7. Bloodhound (Hound(
  8. 8. Greyhound
  9. 9. Afghan Hound
  10. 10. Fox Hound
  11. 11. Breeds of Dogs • Terrier groups • Fox Terrier – Bull Terrier - • Toy Dogs • Sheep dogs – Toy poodles – Chihuahuas - Pugs • Non-Sporting dogs • Bull dog – Poodles - Boxers
  12. 12. Bull Terrier
  13. 13. Fox Terrier
  14. 14. Chihuahuas (Toy Group(
  15. 15. Pugs (Toy Group(
  16. 16. Toy poodles
  17. 17. Bull dog (Non-sporting(
  18. 18. German Shepherd (Non-sporting(
  19. 19. Boxers (Non-sporting(
  20. 20. Ageing of DogsAgeing of DogsAgeing of DogsAgeing of Dogs  Shape of Tooth is lotus ShapeShape of Tooth is lotus Shape  At 0 – 2 weeks No teethAt 0 – 2 weeks No teeth  3-6 weeks – all temporary teeth3-6 weeks – all temporary teeth  I C P MI C P M  3 1 3 03 1 3 0  ----------------------- X 2 = 28----------------------- X 2 = 28  3 1 3 03 1 3 0
  21. 21. Ageing of DogsAgeing of Dogs  At 3 – 6 months ------- all teethAt 3 – 6 months ------- all teeth become permanent except :become permanent except : • Lower 4Lower 4thth premolar ------ at 5 – 7 mpremolar ------ at 5 – 7 m • Lower 3Lower 3rdrd molar -------- at 6 – 9 mmolar -------- at 6 – 9 m  I C P MI C P M  3 1 4 23 1 4 2  ----------------------- X 2 = 42----------------------- X 2 = 42  3 1 4 33 1 4 3
  22. 22. Ageing of DogsAgeing of Dogs  Disappearance of Lotus Shape atDisappearance of Lotus Shape at • 2 years at lower central tooth2 years at lower central tooth • 3 years at “ lateral “3 years at “ lateral “ • 4 years at Upper central tooth4 years at Upper central tooth • 5 years at Upper lateral tooth5 years at Upper lateral tooth • At 11 – 12 years no teeth in the mouthAt 11 – 12 years no teeth in the mouth
  23. 23. Basic Care of Dogs 1. Feeding 2. Exercise 3. Grooming 4. Housing 5. Licensing and Identification 6. Health Management
  24. 24. Feeding of Dogs  Good quality dry food provides a well- balanced diet for adult dogs  Your dog may enjoy cheese, cooked egg, fruits and vegetables, but these should not more than 10% of daily food intake.  Please limit "people food," , because it can result in vitamin and mineral imbalances, bone and teeth problems and may cause obesity.  Clean, fresh water should be available at all times, and be sure to wash food and water dishes frequently.
  25. 25. Feeding of Dogs Feeding Regime - Puppies 8 to 12 weeks old need four meals a day. - Feed puppies 3 - 6 months old three meals a day. - Feed puppies six months to one year two meals . - When your dog reaches his first birthday, one meal a day is usually enough. - For some dogs, including larger canines or those prone to bloat, it's better to feed two smaller meals.
  26. 26. Exercise of Dogs  Dogs need exercise to burn calories, stimulate their minds, and keep healthy.  Exercise also tends to help dogs avoid boredom, which can lead to destructive behaviors  Individual exercise vary based on breed or breed mix, sex, age and level of health  but a couple of walks around the block every day and ten minutes in the backyard probably won’t cut it.  If your dog is a 6- to 18-month adolescent, or if she is an active breed or mixed-breed from the sporting, herding groups, her requirements will be relatively high.
  27. 27. Grooming of Dogs  You can help keep your dog clean and reduce shedding with frequent brushing.  Most dogs don't need to be bathed more than a few times a year  Before bathing, comb or cut out all mats from the coat.  Carefully rinse all soap out of the coat, or the dirt will stick to soap residue.
  28. 28. BATHING  - First, give your pet a good brushing to remove all dead hairs.  - Use a spray hose to thoroughly wet your pet, taking care not to spray directly in her ears, eyes or nose.  - Gently massage in shampoo, working from head to tail.Thoroughly rinse with a spray hose  - Check the ears for any foul odors or excessive debris; if you choose to use a cleansing solution on a cotton ball, take care not to insert it into the ear canal. - Dry your pet with a large towel or blow dryer.
  29. 29. NAIL CLIPPING  - Begin by spreading each of your dog’s feet to inspect for dirt and debris.  - Use sharpnail clippers to cut off the tip of each nail .  - Take care to avoid the quick, a vein that runs into the nail. This pink area can be seen through the nail. If your dog has black nails, however, the quick will not be as easily discernible, so be extra careful.
  30. 30. BRUSHING  Regular grooming with a brush or comb will help keep your pet’s hair in good condition by removing dirt, spreading natural oils t  Throughout her coat, preventing tangles and keeping her skin clean and irritant-free  If your dog has a smooth, short coat (like of boxer), you only need to brush once a week  If your dog has a long, luxurious coat, such as that of a Yorkshire terrier, she’ll need daily attention
  31. 31. SPECIAL BREEDS, SPECIAL NEEDS  Dogs with loose facial skin or wrinkles to prevent dirt and bacteria from causing irritation and infection, clean the folds with damp cotton. Always thoroughly dry the areas between the folds.  If your dog has long or droopy ears, you should check them weekly.  Remove wax and dirt from your pet’s ears with a cotton ball moistened with water or a little mineral oil.
  32. 32. Housing of Dogs  Your pet needs a warm, quiet place to rest, away from all drafts .  You may wish to buy a dog bed, or make one out of a wooden box.  Place a clean blanket or pillow inside the bed. Wash the dog's bedding often.  If your dog will be spending a lot of time outdoors, be sure she has access to shade and plenty of cool water in hot weather, and a warm, dry, covered shelter when it's cold.
  33. 33. Licensing and Identification  Follow your community’s licensing regulations. Be sure to attach the license to your dog’s collar.  This, along with an ID tag and tattoo, can help secure your dog’s return.
  34. 34. Health Management 1. Vaccinations 2. Dental Health 3. Bad Breath 4. Fleas and Ticks 5. Worms & Heartworm 6. Medicines and Poisons
  35. 35. Vaccinations 1. Puppies should be vaccinated with a combination vaccine (called a “5-in-1”) at 3 to 4 months of age, and then once annually. 2. This vaccine protects the puppy from distemper, hepatitis, leptospirosis, parvovirus, and parainfluenza. 3. Rottweilers, Doberman pinschers and American Staffordshire terriers/pit bulls should be vaccinated until five months of age. 4. If you have an unvaccinated dog older than four or five months, he will need a series of two vaccinations given two to three weeks apart, followed by a yearly vaccination.
  36. 36. Vaccinations  Do not walk your puppy or unvaccinated dog outside or let her walk or sit on the floor of an animal hospital until several days after her final vaccination.  on rabies vaccination , the law requires all pets older than three months of age to be vaccinated for rabies. The first rabies vaccine must be followed by a vaccination a year later, and then every three years.  Please note, if your pet gets sick because he is not properly vaccinated, the vaccination should be given after your companion animal recovers.
  37. 37. Dental Health  You can clean your canine’s teeth with a dog toothpaste or a baking-soda-and-water paste once or twice a week.  Use a child's soft toothbrush, a gauze pad or a piece of nylon stretched over your finger.  Some dogs are prone to a pocket of infection between the tooth and the gum. This painful condition can result in tooth loss and spread infection to the rest of the body.  Veterinarians can clean the teeth as a regular part of your dog's health program.
  38. 38. Bad Breath  Bad breath is most commonly an indication that your dog is in need of a dental check up. Dental plaque caused by bacteria results in a foul smell that requires treatment.  some odors may be indicative of serious, chronic problems. Liver or intestinal diseases may cause foul breath, whereas a sweet, fruity smell may be indicative of diabetes.  If your dog’s breath smells like ammonia or urine, kidney disease is a possibility.  Veterinarians can clean the teeth as a regular part of your dog's health program by brushing .
  39. 39. Fleas and Ticks  Daily inspections of your dog for fleas and ticks during the warm seasons are important.  Use a flea comb to find and remove fleas.  There are several methods of flea and tick control.
  40. 40. Worms & Heartworm  Dogs are commonly exposed to worms and possible infestation.  Microscopic eggs produced by intestinal worms are passed in an infected dog’s feces.  Most puppies, even from healthy mothers in good homes, carry roundworms or hookworms.  The key to treatment is correct diagnosis. A dewormer that eliminates roundworms, for example, will not kill tapeworms.
  41. 41. Heartworm  This parasite lives in the heart and is passed from dog to dog by mosquitoes.  Heartworm infections can be fatal. Your dog should have a blood test for heartworm every spring.  A once-a-month pill given during mosquito season will protect your dog.  In some warmer regions, veterinarians recommend preventive heartworm medication throughout the year.
  42. 42. Medicines and Poisons  Never give your dog medication that has not been prescribed by a veterinarian.  For example, one regular-strength ibuprofen tablet can cause stomach ulcers in a ten- pound dog?  Keep rat poison and other rodenticides away from your pet.  If you suspect that your animal has ingested a poisonous substance, call your veterinarian
  43. 43. Spaying and Neutering  Females should be spayed ( removal of the ovaries and uterus) and males neutered (removal of the testicles) by six months of age.  Spaying before maturity significantly reduces the risk of breast cancer, a common and frequently fatal disease of older female dogs.  Spaying also eliminates the risk of an infected uterus, a very serious problem in older females that requires surgery and intensive medical care.  Neutering males prevents testicular and prostate diseases, some hernias and certain types of aggression
  44. 44. Abnormal Behaviour of Dogs 1. Barking 2. Destructive Chewing 3. Feces Eating in Dogs 4. Jumping Up 5. Mouthing and Nipping 6. Problem Digging 7. Urine Marking
  45. 45. 1-Excessive Barking Causes: - Territorial or protective defense - Distress vocalizations due to fear or separation - Excitement or greeting - During play - - To gain attention or to make requests - - Frustration - Socially facilitated barking (hearing other dogs bark) - - Compulsive behavior
  46. 46. WHAT NOT TO DO?  - Do not encourage the dog to bark by saying, “Who’s there?,” for example, or getting up and looking out the window.  - Do not punish the dog for barking at certain sounds (car doors , kids playing in the street) while encouraging him to bark at other sounds (people at the door). You must be consistent!  - Never use punishment procedures for a dog who is barking from fear or anxiety  - Never use a muzzle to keep a dog quiet for long periods of time or while a dog is unsupervised. As the dog cannot eat, drink, or cool himself while wearing a muzzle, this would be extremely cruel.  - Never tie a dog’s muzzle closed with rope, cord, or rubber bands. This is dangerous, painful, and inhumane.
  47. 47. What to do  - Prevent the dog from being exposed to the things that trigger him to bark. You should block access to windows, and cover them so he can’t see out.  - If the dog is engaging in territorial barking primarily in the yard, keep the dog in the house during the day and supervise him when he is in the yard.  Teach the dog to sit and stay when meeting people at the door so he has something to do aside from barking.  your dog likes toys, keep a favorite toy near the front door and encourage your dog to pick up the toy before he greets you or guests  The most effective means of discouraging excitement/frustration barking is to teach the dog to control his impulses through obedience training.  Anti-bark collars are punishment devices and are not recommended as a first choice for dealing with a barking problem
  48. 48. 2-Destructive Chewing  Dogs also steal things off the counters and tabletops, and they raid the trash. Most dogs prefer human food to dog food  Understand that your dog needs to learn not to chew your things or steal your food  Understand that your dog needs to learn not to chew your things or steal your food  Give the dog a “single serving” chew bone once or twice a day  Identify the times of the day when your dog is likely to chew, and give him a stuffed Kong, Goodie Ship, or Buster Cube at this time  Discourage chewing inappropriate items with chewing deterrents, such as Bitter Apple  Always supervise your dog. If you see him licking or chewing an item t, remove the item from his mouth and insert something that he can chew. 
  49. 49. 3-Feces Eating in Dogs Definition  Coprophagia, the ingestion of feces by an animal, is quite common in dogs. Some eat their own stool (autocoprophagia), some eat the stool of other dogs (intraspecific coprophagia), and some, like Roscoe, eat the stool of other animals (inter- specific coprophagia).
  50. 50. Feces Eating in Dogs Causes  That investigative behavior draws more owner attention than usual  Normal investigative puppy behavior includes running nearly everything in the environment through one's mouth  When coupled with diarrhea or poor weight gain, coprophagia may be the result of a medical malady such as pancreatic insufficiency, intestinal infections, or malabsorption troubles  Displacement activity  Food deficiency
  51. 51. 4-Jumping Up Behaviour Concept  Puppies and dogs naturally jump up on people when they say hello because we are taller than they are!  Dogs greet each other by going nose- to-nose and they like to do the same with us  so it’s perfectly natural for them to jump up on us to try to reach our faces.
  52. 52. Jumping Up Treatment  Generalize the training by teaching the dog not to jump on all people.  Keep a toy by the door and direct your dog’s attention to the toy when you enter.  Do not become really excited when you greet your dog. Stay calm.  Do not shout at your dog. This can get him more excited and cause him to jump up even more.
  53. 53. 5-Urine Marking Causes  Typically, it is related to some perceived threat, such as an unfamiliar person or dog in the home, or the introduction of something new  Conflict between pets within the home can also lead to urine marking  Some dogs never mark in their own home, but will mark when they visit others’ homes.  Males are more likely than females to urine mark, and reproductively intact males are more likely to mark than neutered males    However, intact females may mark prior to coming into and during estrous to advertise their availability
  54. 54. WHAT TO DO 1. - Your first line of defense: Neuter your male dogs and spay female dogs. Neutering male dogs successfully eliminates or greatly reduces household urine marking in about 50 percent of cases. 2. - Restrict your dog’s access to things that are likely to be marked 3. - Get a “jock strap” or bellyband for your dog, so he can still mark but won’t soil the home.
  55. 55. WHAT TO DO - If your dog repeatedly marks specific objects (bags, suitcases, shoes, etc.), place treats under and around the objects. The objects will then become a source of food, rather than a “trigger” for marking. - To discourage your dog from returning to already-marked areas, you’ll need to make them unpleasant. that the dog may simply select another place.
  56. 56. 6-Mouthing and Nipping Definition  For puppies, using their mouths and needle- sharp teeth to chew and investigate objects. These activities are normal, harmless nless you’re the object being chewed and investigated!  They chew on people fingers and toes, and they investigate people’s bodies with their mouths and teeth.  These behaviors may be considered harmful when the puppy is four or five months old. 
  57. 57. Solving the problem  Substitute a toy or chew bone when the puppy tries to chew on fingers or toes.  Encourage non-contact forms of play, rather than wrestling and rough play.  Give a high-pitched cry, when the puppy bites too hard. This cause him to stop.  Provide plenty of opportunity for your dog to play with other puppies and with friendly adult dogs  Be patient and understanding. Playful mouthing is normal behavior for a puppy or young dog.
  58. 58. 7-Problem Digging Digger Dogs  why your dog digs  Many reasons for digging are often breed dependent  Heavy-coated dogs, such as sled dogs and chow chows, dig cooling pits during hot weather to make themselves more comfortable.  Earth dogs (Terrier) such as short-legged terriers and dachshunds—are simply dig up the yard to find gophers, moles, or other "vermin.“  Scent hounds (beagles, bassets, and coonhounds) often dig along fence lines because the lures of small game, food, or females  the most common digger is the bored dog. Without anything to sustain his attention  adolescent diggers (dogs ages six to 18 months) do so because they're loaded with youthful exuberance and have nothing to do
  59. 59. Solving the Problem  Choose a small patch in the yard where it's okay for your dog to dig. Circle the area with stones or other visual markers. Loosen up the soil and mix in a little sand. Hide a few toys, chewies, or biscuits in the soil to increase the rewards, then encourage the dog to dig in the pit