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Plant Process & Instruments
Used
Ravi Roy
Dept-Instrumentation
What is cement?
The term cement is commonly used to refer to
powdered materials which develop strong
adhesive qualities wh...
Limestone Quarry and Crushing Plant
The major raw material for cement production is limestone.The
limestone most suitable ...
The quarried limestone is normally in the form of big boulders,
ranging from a few inches to meters in size.These varying ...
STACKER AND RECLAIMER
A stacker is a large machine used in bulk material handling. Its
function is to pile bulk material s...
A reclaimer can be used to recover the material.
Limestone Bunker
It is used for the storage of crushed limestone.The material is fed
into bunker from reclaimer followed b...
RAW MILL
The Ball Mill contains 3chambers:-Dry, coarse, fine. The material is
fed to the ball mill in the inlet side and the hot ga...
The Reverse Air Bag House is a modular type dust collector in which
each module act as a device which accepts the dust-lad...
At specific intervals, a cleaning cycle is initiated in which the
air flow through the module is stopped and air moving in...
CF Silo
It’s a large storage of Rawmeal which comes from Rawmeal. It is
made up of concrete and can store Rawmeal for long...
The material stored in silo is fed to the bin with the help of
airslide which containes butterfly valve, pneumatic gate an...
Coal Mill
PREHEATER
The purpose of preheater is to increase the temperature of
rawmill material through the incoming hot air from ki...
Rotary Kiln
Kiln is cylindrical rotary equipment rotating on supporting rollers.
Due to the inclination of the cylinder an...
Kiln Cooler
The Grate cooler operates with crosscurrent principle in
which the clinker is moved across the grate while cooling air
blo...
ESP(Electrostatic Precipitator)
Electrostatic precipitator is commonly used as the final dust removal device for
flue gases. It consists of chambers each ...
Cement Mill
The clinker, gypsum, flyash with the help of hopper
is fed on the feeding belt from where with the help
of conveyor belt i...
Packing Plant
The material from silo through bucket elevator is moved to
the vibrating screen from where it is moved to hopper
proceeded...
INSTRUMENTS USED
ZERO SPEED SWITCH(ZSS)
Zero speed switches (ZSS) are used to detect the stoppage or
unacceptably slow movement of a rotati...
BELT SWAY SWITCH(BSS)
The switch allows smooth running of the conveyor and
protects it from damages by over swaying which ...
Pull Cord Switch
Pull Cord Switch is an emergency switch to stop the belt
conveyor instantly when an accident happens. Sin...
LIMIT SWITCH
Rotary Lever Operating Head
Rotary lever operating heads are available in spring return and
maintained type. ...
Thermocouple
Thermocouples are the most commonly used
temperature sensors.
OPERATION
A thermocouple is created when two di...
Resistance Temperature Detector(RTD)
A resistance temperature detector (RTD) can also be
called a resistance thermometer a...
Pressure Switch
A pressure switch is used to detect the presence of fluid
pressure. Most pressure switch uses a diaphragm,...
RF LEVEL SWITCH
The probe comprises sense and shield electrodes
electrically isolated from the metallic tank by means of
s...
VIBRATION FORK LEVEL SWITCH
The tuning fork is piezoelectrically energized and vibrates
at its mechanical resonance freque...
BOOT LEVEL SWITCH(BLS)
Diaphragm Level Switch is used for detecting the
clogging of material on screw conveyor, boot level...
RADAR LEVEL SENSOR
In continuous non-contact level measurement with
radar, the sensor sends microwave signals towards
the ...
ELECTRONIC EAR
Electronic ear is used to know whether the ball mill is full
empty or rather the amount of material inside ...
LOAD CELL
A load cell is a transducer that is used to create
an electrical signal whose magnitude is directly
proportional...
FLOW SWITCH
Vane Operated Flow Switch is a reliable mechanical device that
uses the force of the fluid velocity exerted ag...
TEMPERATURE SWITCH
Temperature Switches have a vapour filled
thermostatic element, which consists of a sensing
bulb, capil...
DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE TRANSDUCER
The most common and useful industrial pressure
measuring instrument is the differential p...
PRESSURE GAUGE
It is used to indicate the value of pressure with the help of
the scale on it.
BAG FILTER SEQUENTIALTIMER CARD
Bag Filter Controller (BFC) is Solid State SequentialTimer, without
Digital Display.This i...
CO AND O2 GAS ANALYSER
Carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen (O2)
concentrations allow the plant operator to optimize
the combus...
Weigh Feeder, BeltWeigher
The most typical application is for feeding / weighing
into a continuous process.The controller
...
Drop test calibration
Set the intecont controller in the keyboard mode.
Enter the password 07734.
Keep the mode gravimetri...
Tare calibration
Set the intecont controller in the keyboard mode.
Enter the password 07734.
Change the mode to volumetric...
Actuator
DCS (DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM)
MODEL ABB 5.1
AO(ANALOG OUTPUT)
AO or analog output is the type of DCS output which used to control
analog device. AO send command to de...
DI(DIGITAL INPUT)
DI or discrete/digital input is the type of DSC input which used to
read status of digital input
devices...
PROFIBUS (Process Field Bus) CONNECTOR
4 LEDs for bus/device status:
- Connector power supply (PWR).
-Transmission activit...
DISADVANTAGES OF PROFIBUS CABLE
Profibus communication is not suitable for more
distance
and will be get affected by emf.s...
Conclusion
Instrumentation will continue to become more
reliable and user-friendly for the cement industry.
Smart sensors,...
Cement Plant Process and Instruments Used
Cement Plant Process and Instruments Used
Cement Plant Process and Instruments Used
Cement Plant Process and Instruments Used
Cement Plant Process and Instruments Used
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Cement Plant Process and Instruments Used

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A brief presentation on Cement Plant Process and Instruments Used in Cement Plant.

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Cement Plant Process and Instruments Used

  1. 1. Plant Process & Instruments Used Ravi Roy Dept-Instrumentation
  2. 2. What is cement? The term cement is commonly used to refer to powdered materials which develop strong adhesive qualities when combined with water. Cement is a fine grayish powder which, when mixed with water, forms a thick paste. When this paste is mixed with sand and gravel and allowed to dry it is called concrete.
  3. 3. Limestone Quarry and Crushing Plant The major raw material for cement production is limestone.The limestone most suitable for cement production must have some ingredients in specified quantities i.e., calcium carbonates, silica, alumina, iron, etc.. Quarrying is done through drilling and subsequently, using heavy earth moving equipment such as bulldozers, payloaders and dumpers.
  4. 4. The quarried limestone is normally in the form of big boulders, ranging from a few inches to meters in size.These varying sizes of limestone need to be crushed to a size of about 10 mm in order to be prepared for finish-grinding. Crushing is done either in two stages or in a single stage. In the two stage crushing system, a impact type crusher is used in the first stage for raw crushing, followed by hammer crusher in the second stage.
  5. 5. STACKER AND RECLAIMER A stacker is a large machine used in bulk material handling. Its function is to pile bulk material such as limestone, ores and cereals on to a stockpile. Stackers normally travel on a rail between stockpiles in the stockyard. A stacker can usually move in at least two directions: horizontally along the rail and vertically by luffing (raising and lowering) its boom. Luffing of the boom minimises dust by reducing the distance that material such as coal needs to fall to the top of the stockpile.The boom is luffed upwards as the height of the stockpile increases.
  6. 6. A reclaimer can be used to recover the material.
  7. 7. Limestone Bunker It is used for the storage of crushed limestone.The material is fed into bunker from reclaimer followed by belt conveyor.
  8. 8. RAW MILL
  9. 9. The Ball Mill contains 3chambers:-Dry, coarse, fine. The material is fed to the ball mill in the inlet side and the hot gas from preheater outlet is also fed in the inlet of ball mill. The material is moved through all the 3chambers before giving it to silo. Once the material is moved through all the 3 chambers, the coarse material is fed to bucket elevator which is then moved to separator1 and then again back to inlet of ball mill through returning belt. The fine material is moved up by separator2, out of which still some coarse material is fed on the returning belt which again moves towards ball mill inlet, and the extra fine material is then fed to cyclones which is then released through air slide and the very fine material is moved to RABH.
  10. 10. The Reverse Air Bag House is a modular type dust collector in which each module act as a device which accepts the dust-laden gases, filters it, collects the dust and discharges the clean air. The dirty air enters the side of the hopper so that, due to the low velocity, much of the entrained dust (particularly the large size of the dust particles) will drop directly into the hopper. Continuing upward, the air encounters the tube sheet where it passes the filter bags. The dust in the air does not penetrate the bags and remains as a deposit on their inside surfaces. The air itself, however, does pass through the bag material, then continues upward and out through the top of the compartment from there it is directed through an exhaust manifold.
  11. 11. At specific intervals, a cleaning cycle is initiated in which the air flow through the module is stopped and air moving in the opposite direction is introduced. This reversed flow and the partial collapse of the bag which it produces causes the accumulated dust to break loose and fall out of the bags. The dislodged dust drops in to the hopper and is removed by dust handling equipment. After the dust had a few moments to settle, the valves are reset to their position for filtering.
  12. 12. CF Silo It’s a large storage of Rawmeal which comes from Rawmeal. It is made up of concrete and can store Rawmeal for long time.
  13. 13. The material stored in silo is fed to the bin with the help of airslide which containes butterfly valve, pneumatic gate and dossive valve.Continuous air is blown to the bin through bottom of the bin so that material is not dried or get stuck to the walls of bin. It is then moved to the kilin feed1&2 and then moved to preheater1&2 with the help of bucket elevator.
  14. 14. Coal Mill
  15. 15. PREHEATER The purpose of preheater is to increase the temperature of rawmill material through the incoming hot air from kilin and transfer air duct.
  16. 16. Rotary Kiln Kiln is cylindrical rotary equipment rotating on supporting rollers. Due to the inclination of the cylinder and slow rotation of the material, the materials roll in hoop direction. On the other hand, the materials move from the high end to the low end, where they are decomposed, burnt, cooled in succession. Thus they become cement clinker, and are discharged from the low end of the cylinder finally, they enter the cooling device.The heating source is sprayed into kiln by the burner barrel in the nose area of the kiln the exhaust gas are discharged.
  17. 17. Kiln Cooler
  18. 18. The Grate cooler operates with crosscurrent principle in which the clinker is moved across the grate while cooling air blow in from below through the grate and clinker layer.The hot clinker falls from the kilin and forms clinker bed on the grate and transported through the cooler over fixed and reciprocating grates. At the inlet of first great clinker is quenched and spread across the cooler width by increasing the cooling air. During the clinker transport from the cooler a part of dust and small clinker fall from the gates and gets collected in the hopper below, which is then transported to clinker silo and clinker stock pile with the help of DBC.
  19. 19. ESP(Electrostatic Precipitator)
  20. 20. Electrostatic precipitator is commonly used as the final dust removal device for flue gases. It consists of chambers each of which contains a series of collection plates and an overhead framework of suspended rigid high-voltage electrodes. Particles in the gas stream are charged by a high-voltage, direct current field which is generated from the discharge electrodes, suspended between the collector plates. Current applied directly to the discharge electrodes manifests a highly active and visible glow in the electrode known as the "corona". In the strong electrical field region near the electrode-emitting surface, large numbers of both positive and negative ions are formed. As the discharge electrodes have a negative polarity, the positive ions are attracted to them. Both negative and positive ions are formed in equal amounts directly in the corona region near the discharge electrodes and over 99 percent of the gas space between the discharge electrodes and the collector plates contain only negative ions. As the particles entrained in the gas stream pass through the corona field, they are bombarded by negative ions and become charged in a fraction of a second. They are then attracted to the grounded collector plates where they are collected and then transported to clinker silo through DBC.Particulate matter on the collecting plates and high voltage electrodes is removed by the impact of "rapper" mechanisms. Dislodged particles from the high voltage electrodes and collector plates fall into a hopper directly below each precipitator chamber, which is then moved to clinker stock pile and clinker silo with the help of conveyor belt and DBC.
  21. 21. Cement Mill
  22. 22. The clinker, gypsum, flyash with the help of hopper is fed on the feeding belt from where with the help of conveyor belt is fed into the hoppers from where it is moved to the ball mill, flyash is fed if the cement is PPC and clay is fed if cement is OPC. The course material once moved from the outlet is moved to the bucket elevator through air slide., from where it is again proceeded to ball mill with the help of separator and returning belt. The fine material at the discharge of ball mill moves to the bag filter proceeded by bucket elevator through air slide to silo.
  23. 23. Packing Plant
  24. 24. The material from silo through bucket elevator is moved to the vibrating screen from where it is moved to hopper proceeded by bin with the help of dossive valve.The material then with the help of rotopacker is packed into the bag(50kg each) and then loaded into the trucks wih the help of belt conveyor.The fine cement while packing is absorbed by the bag filter and also the material fallen below the rotopacker with the help of screw conveyor is again sent to the bucket elevator to repeat the same process.
  25. 25. INSTRUMENTS USED
  26. 26. ZERO SPEED SWITCH(ZSS) Zero speed switches (ZSS) are used to detect the stoppage or unacceptably slow movement of a rotating shaft. In various machines, conveyors, power plants, and in industries involving the production of cement, sugar, textiles, paper, etc. Zero speed switches mainly use electromechanical, electronic, or magnetic proximity technologies.
  27. 27. BELT SWAY SWITCH(BSS) The switch allows smooth running of the conveyor and protects it from damages by over swaying which can occur due to uneven loading of material, worn out idler roller bearings etc. Belt sway switch is also known as Run Off Switch.
  28. 28. Pull Cord Switch Pull Cord Switch is an emergency switch to stop the belt conveyor instantly when an accident happens. Since the Pull Cord Switch is so designed that it should be installed at the side of belt conveyor and the pull cord should be mounted along conveyor, the switch can be actuated at any position.
  29. 29. LIMIT SWITCH Rotary Lever Operating Head Rotary lever operating heads are available in spring return and maintained type. The rotary shaft can be readily changed to operate clockwise, counter clockwise or both. The operating levers may be rotated and locked in any position through 3600. The operating head can be positioned in any of the four sides. The lever rollers are 19mm diameter and 8mm thickness. The levers are available fixed and adjustable lengths.
  30. 30. Thermocouple Thermocouples are the most commonly used temperature sensors. OPERATION A thermocouple is created when two dissimilar metals touch and the contact point produces a small open-circuit voltage as a function of temperature. This thermo-electric voltage is known as Seebeck voltage.
  31. 31. Resistance Temperature Detector(RTD) A resistance temperature detector (RTD) can also be called a resistance thermometer as the temperature measurement will be a measure of the output resistance. OPERATION RTDs work on a basic correlation between metals and temperature. As the temperature of a metal increases, the metal's resistance to the flow of electricity increases. Similarly, as the temperature of the RTD resistance element increases, the electrical resistance, measured in ohms (Ω), increases. RTD elements are commonly specified according to their resistance in ohms at zero degrees Celsius (0° C). The most common RTD specification is 100 Ω, which means that at 0° C the RTD element should demonstrate 100 Ω of resistance.
  32. 32. Pressure Switch A pressure switch is used to detect the presence of fluid pressure. Most pressure switch uses a diaphragm, piston or bellow as the sensing element. The movement of this sensing element is used to actuate one or more switch contacts to indicate one or more alarm or control actions.
  33. 33. RF LEVEL SWITCH The probe comprises sense and shield electrodes electrically isolated from the metallic tank by means of suitable insulators.The sense electrode of the switch and the vessel wall serve as the two electrodes of a capacitor with the service material as the dielectric. A change in material level causes a change in dielectric, which in turn causes a change in admittance of this tank capacitor. The processed signal is used to energize or de-energize a relay whose output contacts are available for annunciation or control.
  34. 34. VIBRATION FORK LEVEL SWITCH The tuning fork is piezoelectrically energized and vibrates at its mechanical resonance frequency. (of approx. 1200 Hz.) The piezos are fixed mechanically and therefore are not subject to temperature shock limitations. The frequency changes when the tuning fork is covered by the medium. This change is detected by the integrated oscillator and converted into a switching command. Typical applications are overfill and dry run protection. They are used in silos and hoppers to know if its full or not to prevent overfill.
  35. 35. BOOT LEVEL SWITCH(BLS) Diaphragm Level Switch is used for detecting the clogging of material on screw conveyor, boot level detection of bucket elevator and to detect level of food grain in hopper. The pressure of the product on the membrane operates a limit switch inside the switch compartment. The contact of limit switch is used for control action
  36. 36. RADAR LEVEL SENSOR In continuous non-contact level measurement with radar, the sensor sends microwave signals towards the medium from above. The surface of the medium reflects the signals back in the direction of the sensor. Using the received microwave signals, the sensor determines the distance to the product surface and calculates the level from it.
  37. 37. ELECTRONIC EAR Electronic ear is used to know whether the ball mill is full empty or rather the amount of material inside the ball mill can be analyzed.
  38. 38. LOAD CELL A load cell is a transducer that is used to create an electrical signal whose magnitude is directly proportional to the force being measured. Strain gauge load cells work on the principle that the strain gauge(a planar resistor) deforms/stretches/contracts when the material of the load cells deforms appropriately.These values are extremely small and are relational to the stress and/or strain that the material load cell is undergoing at the time.The change in resistance of the strain gauge provides an electrical value change that is calibrated to the load placed on the load cell.
  39. 39. FLOW SWITCH Vane Operated Flow Switch is a reliable mechanical device that uses the force of the fluid velocity exerted against a vane (a paddle mounted on a vertical pivot point) inserted into the flow stream to activate/deactivate an electric switch at a predetermined flow rate.
  40. 40. TEMPERATURE SWITCH Temperature Switches have a vapour filled thermostatic element, which consists of a sensing bulb, capillary tube and a bellows element. The entire element contains a charge which reacts to temperature variations at the sensing bulb, so that pressure on the bellows increases on rising temperature. The bellows movement due to this increase in pressure is utilised to operate the switch. It is mostly used in bag house of coal mill.
  41. 41. DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE TRANSDUCER The most common and useful industrial pressure measuring instrument is the differential pressure transmitter. This equipment will sense the difference in pressure between two ports and produce an output signal with reference to a calibrated pressure range.
  42. 42. PRESSURE GAUGE It is used to indicate the value of pressure with the help of the scale on it.
  43. 43. BAG FILTER SEQUENTIALTIMER CARD Bag Filter Controller (BFC) is Solid State SequentialTimer, without Digital Display.This is designed to control the cleaning cycle of On-Line Bag Filters with adjustable ON, OFF & PauseTiming. It is available in various models to suit different output requirements viz.Triac Output and Relay Output. Custom BuiltTimer Panels are also available, which are designed as per customer specification. The card can be either phase looping or neutral looping. If it is phase looping then connect the negative of the solenoids in the different channels and all the phase short together in the phase channel and a loop from phase channel to the com on the card and vice versa for the neutral looping. The timer energizes a solenoid valve, thus triggering the momentary pulse of high pressure compressed air down into a row of filter bags. This pulse of air will expel the dust from the surface of the filter.The timer closes the valve after a specified time and the filter starts working in the ventilation mode.
  44. 44. CO AND O2 GAS ANALYSER Carbon monoxide (CO) and oxygen (O2) concentrations allow the plant operator to optimize the combustion in the rotary kiln with respect to clinker quality compliance, toxic emissions reduction, and fuel consumption minimization.
  45. 45. Weigh Feeder, BeltWeigher The most typical application is for feeding / weighing into a continuous process.The controller continuously compares the actual weight with the setpoint weight, and automatically adjusts the motor speed to either increase or decrease belt speed, in order to maintain a constant feedrate.Any variation in the density of the material is reflected as a change in belt loading, which is compensated for by adjusting the belt speed.
  46. 46. Drop test calibration Set the intecont controller in the keyboard mode. Enter the password 07734. Keep the mode gravimetric mode. Go to Z1 counter by clicking on the DAT(green button) and reset it by pressing ∑=0. Set certain value of z1 and start by pressing I. After the z value is achieved, checked how much material has passed over the belt. Check the difference between actual and shown value. Divide them to get a specific value and multiply it with correction factor which was earlier set. After changing d02 value in the parameter in the calibration option under programming in the intecont plus, test one more time to get accurate value of actual and value shown in intecont plus.
  47. 47. Tare calibration Set the intecont controller in the keyboard mode. Enter the password 07734. Change the mode to volumetric mode from gravimetric mode. Start the belt Go to the tare option in the calibration and press on tare option. After tarring once note down the abw value. See how much percentage error has achieved. If not satisfied then once again tare it and again and see the abw value and error percentage. If satisfied then press enter otherwise continue with the same process until you get minimum error. Still some changes or more accuracy can be achieved by changing tare weight value. Subtlewieh Feeders Check weight Calibration Check if the belt is empty, and the rollers, load cell are properly aligned. Do dynamic tare once. Put 10k/20K weight on the belt exactly at the center on the roller. Check linear weight value. Compare the original value and the weight showing on panel. Calculate the difference, and according change the C.F to get the correct value.
  48. 48. Actuator
  49. 49. DCS (DISTRIBUTED CONTROL SYSTEM) MODEL ABB 5.1
  50. 50. AO(ANALOG OUTPUT) AO or analog output is the type of DCS output which used to control analog device. AO send command to device in form of electrical current (4 - 20 mA) or electrical voltage. DAC (Digital to Analog Converter) inside DCS will convert digital value to current or voltage and send it to controlled device through AO channel. Example ofAO device is control valve, DCS could control opening percentage of control valve BY sending 4 - 20 mA current which represent 0 - 100% open command. AI(ANALOG INPUT) AI or analog input is the type of DCS input which used to read value from sensor.AI will receive value from sensor in form of electrical current (4-20 ma) or electrical voltage (1-24V). Example of sensor is temperature transmitter/sensor.Temperature sensor will measure temperature and send measurement value to AI channel in form of current or voltage.
  51. 51. DI(DIGITAL INPUT) DI or discrete/digital input is the type of DSC input which used to read status of digital input devices. Digital input device only have 2 status,ON or OFF. ON state mean DCS DI point received status in form of electrical power (can be 24VDC, 220VAC, etc.) and OFF state mean DCS DI point received no power from devices.The 230VAC volt coming from the field is converted to 24VDC and given to DI module. DO(DIGITAL OUTPUT) DO or discrete/digital output is the type of DCS output which used to control digital output devices. Digital output devices only have 2 status, ON or OFF. ON command mean DCS DO point send command in form of electrical power and OFF command mean DCS DO send no power to devices.The DCS command is sent as 24VDC from the module and is converted to 220VAC with the help of relay and given to the electrical feeders.
  52. 52. PROFIBUS (Process Field Bus) CONNECTOR 4 LEDs for bus/device status: - Connector power supply (PWR). -Transmission activity (TxD). -Termination status (Term). - Wrong termination resistance or false surge impedance (ERR). Product features General • PG socket • Fast Connect • Switchable terminating resistor • 12 Mbps • Cable diameter: 8 mm • Metal case (die-cast zinc) • IP 20 • Status monitoring via LEDs Ambient conditions • Operating temperature: -20..+75 °C Dimensions • Dimensions (WxHxD) : +31 x 65 x 15.8 mm
  53. 53. DISADVANTAGES OF PROFIBUS CABLE Profibus communication is not suitable for more distance and will be get affected by emf.signal strength. So its better to use OFC (Optical fiber cable) cable as a redundancy atleast.
  54. 54. Conclusion Instrumentation will continue to become more reliable and user-friendly for the cement industry. Smart sensors, as well as advances in communication capabilities, will allow users to obtain much more information from field devices in addition to the process measurement. Programming options using process device managers will enable plant personnel to better maintain field instrumentation. Measurements in the cement process will always tend to be rather difficult because of the aggressive environment. Solutions will improve as field device suppliers focus on the specific needs of the cement industry.

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