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Plant layout by Rishabh gupta

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Plant layout by Rishabh gupta

  1. 1. By: Dr. ASHISH SAXENA
  2. 2. Learning Objectives Define layout planning and explain its importance Identify and describe different types of layouts Compare process layouts & product layouts Describe the steps involved in designing a process layout
  3. 3. What Is Layout Planning? Layout planning is deciding the best physical arrangement of all resources within a facility Facility resource arrangement can significantly affect productivity Two broad categories of operations: Intermittent processing systems – low volume of many different products Continuous processing systems – high volume of a few standardized products
  4. 4. Meaning A facility layout is an arrangement of everything needed for production of goods or delivery of services. A facility is an entity that facilitates the performance of any job. It may be a machine tool, a work centre, a manufacturing cell, a machine shop, a department, a warehouse, etc
  5. 5. Objectives of Plant Layout The main objective consists of organizing equipment and working areas in the most efficient way, and at the same time satisfactory and safe for the personnel doing the work. Sense of Unity  The feeling of being a unit pursuing the same objective. Minimum Movement of people, material and resources. Safety  In the movement of materials and personnel work flow. Flexibility  In designing the plant layout taking into account the changes over short and medium terms in the production process and manufacturing volumes.
  6. 6. Objectives of Plant Layout These main objectives are reached through the attainment of the following facts: Congestion reduction. Elimination of unnecessary occupied areas. Improvement on control and supervision. Better adjustment to changing conditions. Better utilization of the workforce, equipment and services. Reduction of material handling activities and stock in process. Reduction on health risks and increase on workers safety. Moral and workers satisfaction increase. Reduction on delays and manufacturing time, as well as increase in production capacity. All these factors will not be reached simultaneously, so the best solution will be a balance among them.
  7. 7. Factors affecting Plant Layout The final solution for a Plant Layout has to take into account a balance among the characteristics and considerations of all factors affecting plant layout, in order to get the maximum advantages. The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8 categories: Materials Machinery Labor Material Handling Waiting Time Auxiliary Services The building Future Changes
  8. 8. Factors affecting Plant Layout The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8 categories: Materials  The layout of the productive equipment will depend on the characteristics of the product to be managed at the facility, as well as the different parts and materials to work on.  Main factors to be considered: size, shape, volume, weight, and the physical-chemical characteristics, since they influence the manufacturing methods and storage and material handling processes.  The sequence and order of the operations will affect plant layout as well, taking into account the variety and quantity to produce.
  9. 9. Factors affecting Plant Layout The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8 categories: Machinery  Having information about the processes, machinery, tools and necessary equipment, as well as their use and requirements is essential to design a correct layout.  The methods and time studies to improve the processes are closely linked to the plant layout.  Regarding machinery, we have to consider the type, total available for each type, as well as type and quantity of tools and equipment.  It’s essential as well to know about space required, shape, height, weight, quantity and type of workers required, risks for the personnel, requirements of auxiliary services, etc.
  10. 10. Factors affecting Plant Layout The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8 categories: Labor  Labor has to be organized in the production process (direct labor, supervision and auxiliary services).  Environment considerations: employees’ safety, light conditions, ventilation, temperature, noise, etc.  Process considerations: personnel qualifications, flexibility, number of workers required at a given time as well as the type of work to be performed by them. Material Handling  Material handling does not add value to the product; it’s just waste.  Objective: Minimize material handling as well as combining with other operations when possible, eliminating unnecessary and costly movements.
  11. 11. Factors affecting Plant Layout The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8 categories: Waiting time - Stock  Objective: Continuous Material Flow through the facility, avoiding the cost of waiting time.  On the other hand, the material waiting to flow through the facility not always represents a cost to avoid. As stock sometimes provides safety to protect production, improving customer service, allowing more economic batches, etc.  It’s necessary then to consider space for the required stock at the facility when designing the layout.
  12. 12. Factors affecting Plant Layout The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8 categories: Auxiliary Services  Support the main production activities at the plant:  Related to labor: Accessibility paths, fire protection installations, supervision, safety, etc.  Related to material: quality control.  Related to machinery: maintenance and electrical and water lines.  The auxiliary services represent around 30% of the space at a facility.  The space dedicated to auxiliary services is usually considered as waste.  It’s important to have efficient services to insure that their indirect costs have been minimized.
  13. 13. Factors affecting Plant Layout The factors affecting plant layout can be grouped into 8 categories: The building  If it has been already selected, its characteristics will be a constraint at the moment of designing the layout, which is different if the building has to be built. Future changes  One of the main objectives of plant layout is flexibility.  It’s important to forecast the future changes to avoid having an inefficient plant layout in a short term.  Possible future extensions of the facility must be taken into account, as well as the feasibility of production during re- layout.
  14. 14. Types of Layouts Four basic layout types consisting of: Process layouts - Group similar resources together Product layouts - Designed to produce a specific product efficiently Hybrid layouts - Combine aspects of both process and product layouts Fixed-Position layouts - Product is two large to move; e.g. a building
  15. 15. Types of Plant Layout The production process normally determines the type of plant layout to be applied to the facility: Fixed position plant layout  Product stays and resources move to it. Product oriented plant layout  Machinery and Materials are placed following the product path. Process oriented plant layout (Functional Layout).  Machinery is placed according to what they do and materials go to them. Cell Layout  Hybrid Layout that tries to take advantage of different layouts types.
  16. 16. Camiones Camiones Espuela de Ferrocarril
  17. 17. Types of Plant LayoutProduct oriented plant layout This type of plant layout is useful when the production process is organized in a continuous or repetitive way.  Continuous flow: The correct operations flow is reached through the layout design and the equipment and machinery specifications.  Repetitive flow (assembly line): The correct operations flow will be based in a line balancing exercise, in order to avoid problems generated by bottle necks. The plant layout will be based in allocating a machine as close as possible to the next one in line, in the correct sequence to manufacture the product.
  18. 18. Types of Plant LayoutProduct oriented plant layout Advantages:  Reduced material handling activities.  Work In Process almost eliminated.  Minimum manufacturing time.  Simplification of the production planning and control systems.  Tasks simplification. Disadvantages:  No flexibility in the production process.  Low flexibility in the manufacturing times.  High capital investment.  Every workstation is critical to the process.- The lack of personnel or shut down of a machine stops the whole process.  Monotonous work.
  19. 19. a) Flujo en línea recta b) Flujo en “U” c) Flujo en serpentín d) Flujo en “L” d) Flujo circular ó en “O” e) Flujo en “S”
  20. 20. Espuela de Ferrocarril Camiones Camiones Recepción Fresadoras Almacén Materia Prima Planeación Maquinaria Automática Tornos Esmeriladoras Inspección Ensamble Almacén Producto Acabado Embarque
  21. 21. Types of Plant Layout Process oriented plant layout (Functional Layout) This type of plant layout is useful when the production process is organized in batches. Personnel and equipment to perform the same function are allocated in the same area. The different items have to move from one area to another one, according to the sequence of operations previously established. The variety of products to produce will lead to a diversity of flows through the facility. The variations in the production volumes from one period to the next one (short periods of time) may lead to modifications in the manufactured quantities as well as the types of products to be produced.
  22. 22. Product Flow P-Q Analysis Diagram activity relationships Chart relationship (flow, functional) Establish space requirements Space Availability Diagram space relationships Practical Limitations Maintenance QC Mat. Handling Space Availability Project Project Project A B C Evaluate alternative arrangements Detail selected layout, install INSTALACION Definition Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Selection Implementation Adjustment SLP Method Muther (1973)
  23. 23. Cellular Layout Process (Functional) LayoutProcess (Functional) Layout Group (Cellular) LayoutGroup (Cellular) Layout Similar resources placed together Resources to produce similar products placed together T T T M M M T M SG CG CG SG D D D D T T T CG CG T T T SG SG M M D D D M M D D D A cluster or cell
  24. 24. Types of Plant Layout Work cells Definition:  Group of equipment and workers that perform a sequence of operations over multiple units of an item or family of items. Looks for the advantages of product and process layouts:  Product oriented layout: Efficiency  Process oriented layout: Flexibility Group Technology  Grouping outputs with the same characteristics to families, and assigning groups of machines and workers for the production of each family.
  25. 25. Hybrid Layouts Combine elements of both product & process layouts Maintain some of the efficiencies of product layouts Maintain some of the flexibility of process layouts Examples: Group technology & manufacturing cells Grocery stores
  26. 26. Fixed-Position Layout Used when product is large Product is difficult or impossible to move, i.e. very large or fixed All resources must be brought to the site Scheduling of crews and resources is a challenge
  27. 27. Warehouse Layouts Warehouse Layout Considerations:  Primary decision is where to locate each department relative to the dock  Departments can be organized to minimize “ld” totals  Departments of unequal size require modification of the typical ld calculations to include a calculation of the “ratio of trips to area needed”  The usage of “Crossdocking” modifies the traditional warehouse layouts; more docks, less storage space, and less order picking
  28. 28. Office Layouts Office Layout Considerations:  Almost half of US workforce works in an office environment  Human interaction and communication are the primary factors in designing office layouts  Layouts need to account for physical environment and psychological needs of the organization  One key layout trade-off is between proximity and privacy  Open concept offices promote understanding & trust  Flexible layouts incorporating “office landscaping” help to solve the privacy issue in open office environments

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