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- 1. Disease Disease frequency. frequency. Distribution Distribution. determinants. Determinants.
- 2. Mortality. Morbidity. Disability. Presence & absence or distribution of.. Medical needs. Utilization of health services. Demographic variables.
- 3. Rate Ratio Proportion
- 4. Measures the occurrence of an event or disease in a given population during a given period (one Year). (Birth rate, growth rate, accident rate) Usually expressed per 100 or per1000 population. It has a time dimension, whereas a PROPORTION does not.
- 5. A fraction is made up of 2 numbers. The top number is called the NUMERATOR and the bottom number is called the DENOMINATOR. In the fraction ¾ the 3 is the numerator and the 4 is the denominator.
- 6. No of death in one year Death rate= -------------------- X 1000 Total mid year population Numerator Denominator. Time specification Multiplier (Numerator is part of denominator )
- 7. The value obtained by dividing one quantity by another- X/Y. Male to female ratio. A ratio often compares two rates, death rates for women and men at a given age.
- 8. Ratio also expresses relation of size between the two quantities. Numerator is not part of Denominator. Expressed as X / Y. Doctor : Population ratio. Male : Female ratio. WBC : RBC ratio
- 9. A part/share or number considered in comparative relation to a whole. "the proportion of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is rising” Usually expressed as a percentage %
- 10. This is also relation /magnitude between two quantities, And numerator is always part of denominator. And expressed as percentage -Proportion of female students . -Proportion of anemic mothers (60% mothers are anemic)
- 11. Incidence Occurrence of new cases • Prevalence Existence of all new & old cases.
- 12. Prevalence:- how many people in a population currently have the disease (Photograph) Incidence:- how many people are diagnosed each year (Film)
- 13. Cure rate
- 14. New cases
- 15. • The rate at which acute disease is spreading -- used during epidemics & expressed in %. Attack rate • % of exposed persons developing disease after primary case exposure Secondary attack rate
- 16. •Prevalence at any given point of time. • 4% TB cases on 1st April Point prevalence •Prevalence at a given period of time. •Period will be 1year. Period prevalence
- 17. Longer duration of the disease. Prolongation of life, with treatment. If incidence increases. Immigration of new cases. Better reporting of cases. Emigration of healthy people.
- 18. Longer duration of disease Incidence increases. Prolongation of life without cure. 20
- 19. Shorter duration of diseases. Improved cure rate. Incidence decreases. Emigration of new cases. Under reporting of cases. Immigration of healthy people.
- 20. Improved cure rate. Short duration of disease. Incidence decreases
- 21. Crude Death Rate. Specific death rate. Case fatality rate. Proportional mortality rate. Survival rate. Standardized death rate.
- 22. Number of deaths from all causes, per 1000 estimated mid year population in one year in a given place. No deaths during one year CDR = _________________________ X 1000 Mid year population
- 23. Cause Specific death rate like disease death rate, Road accident… Age specific-IMR, Child Mortality rate Sex specific death rate – MMR/female Period specific death rate–Death in May
- 24. Percentage of particular cases dying during particular disease epidemic. Killing power of disease particularly acute diseases No of deaths due to cholera CFR= ----------------------- X 100 Total No of cholera cases
- 25. Proportion or % of deaths due to particular cause out of total deaths. It measures the disease burden. Under 5, No of deaths below 5 years proportional = -------------------- X 100 mortality rate Total No all of deaths
- 26. Percentage of the treated patients remaining alive at the end of 5 years treatment. Yard stick for assessing the standard of therapy in cancer. Survival pts alive at the end of 5 yrs Rate = ---------------------- X 100 Total No of pts treated
- 27. CDR can not be useful for comparison. Death rate need to be standardized for comparisons. Standardization can be done by- :adjusting death rate age wise, :also can be done sex/race wise

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